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BE it remembered, that on the twenty-fifth day of 
fifty-third year of the Independence of the Unite 
Little, & Wilkins, of the said district, have de 
book, the right whereof they claim as proprietoi 
*' Quinti Horatii Flacci Opera. Accedunt Clavis M 
accommodatae, Cura B. A Gould." In conform. 
the United States, entitled " An act for the encour; 
the copies of maps, charts, and books to the aui 
copies during the times therein mentioned ; " and a 
supplementary to an act, entitled ' An act for the e 
securing the copies of maps, charts, and books to ti 
8ueh copies during the times thereiu mentioned ; ' ano. 
of to the arts of designing, engraving, and etchin? histo 


t ClerWs 
O. 1828, ai 
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Page 20, Odes, 
« 22, " 
4. 23, " 

I. XX. 

" xxiii. 34, 

" xxiv. 14. 

III. viii. 8. 


13. for 

156, Satires, II» II. 
273, Notes, line 33, 
294, " " 8, 


Quod read 

" piaculal luna " 
" Panceti " 

after aures put a period 
for carmina read carmine 
" Parthians " Scythiam 
" point " points 


illiard, Metcalf, & Company, 
Printers to the UniverMty. 

yhc f 


Quintus Horatius Flaccus was born at Venusium in 
Apulia, -sixty-four years before Christ. His father was a freed- 
man, and collector of the revenue ; and gave his son a liberal 
education at Rome and Athens. Horace, when a young man, 
attached himself to Brutus, and was in the battle of Philippi, 
with the rank of military tribune. He fled in the rout of that 
day, and was taken prisouer ; but obtained a pardon, and after- 
wards was distinguished by the favour and friendship of Msece- 
nas. He filled the office of a clerk to the treasury ; and assisted 
the emperor as his private amanuensis. This appears from the 
fragment of a letter frorn Augustus to his minister. " I used to 
be equal to the writing of my own letters ; but I am now so 
pressed with a multiplicity of business, and so infirm, that I 
wish you to bring me our friend Horace. Let him come, then, 
and leave that parasitical table for my palace, and assist me in 
writing my letters." Another fragment of a letter from Au- 
gustus to Horace, is expressed in terms of the most easy and 
playful familiarity. " Dionysius has conveyed your little volume 
to me ; which, not to quarrel with its brevity, I take in good 
part. But you seem to me fearful, lest your works should be 
bigger than yourself. However, what you want in height, is 
made up to you by that little round body of yours. You should, 
therefore, write such a roll, as may go, not round a stick, but a 
quart measure ; and then the circumference of your volume 
may be squab and svvollen, like the rotundity of your little bel- 
ly." This is a pleasing personal trait. Horace has, himself, 
given us some interesting hints of his person and manners. 
He was gray before his time ; fond of basking in the sun ; and 
of taking a siesta on the bank of a river. He speaks of break- 
ing stones and turning up the ground, when in the country ; 
and when in town, of sauntering in the market, or riding out on 
a dock-tailed mule, which he sat awkwardly. He dined on 
a pancake and vegetables ; and divided the rest of the day be- 
tween reading and writing, the bath and the tennis-court. 
He was subject to a defluction in the eyes ; as was Virgil to a 
complaint of asthma ; and Augustus used to rally the two poets, 


by saying, " that he sat between sighs and tears." He had a 
farra in the country of the Sabines, and a house at Tibur, now 
Tivoli, the ruins of which are still shown to strangers. He 
died in his fifty-ninth year ; so suddenly that he left no will, 
and his property therefore reverted to the emperor. He was 
buried in the cemetery on the Esquiline Hill, near the tomb of 

The writings of Horace have an air of frankness and open- 
ness about them ; a manly simplicity, and a contempt of af- 
fectation, or the little pride of a vain and mean concealment, 
which, at once, take hold on our confidence. We can believe 
the account which he gives of his own character, without 
scruple or suspicion. That he was fond of pleasure is con- 
fessed ; but generally speaking he was moderate and tempe- 
rate in his pleasures ; and his convivial hours seem to have been 
far raore intellectual, and raore enlightened by social wit and 
wisdom, than are those of the common herd of Epicurean poets. 

Horace, of all the writers of antiquity, most abounds with 

that practical good sense, and familiar observation of life and 

manners, which render an author, in a more emphatic sense, 

the reader's companion. Good sense, in fact, seems the most 

distinguishing feature of his Satires ; for his wit seems rather 

forced ; and it is their tone of sound understanding, added to 

their easy, conversational air, and a certain turn for fine raille- 

ry, that forras the secret by which they please. In variety and 

versatility his lyric genius is unrivalled by that of any poet with 

whom we are acquainted ; and there are no marks of inequality 

or of inferiority to himself. Whether his odes be of the moral 

and philosophic kind ; or the heroic ; the descriptive ; or the 

amatory, the light, and the joyous ; each separate species 

would seem to be his peculiar province. His epistles evince 

a knowledge of the weaknesses of the human heart, which 

would do honour to a professed philosopher. What Quintilian, 

and the moderns after him, call the " Art of Poetry," seems to 

have been only the third epistle of the second book, addressed 

to the Pisos. The style and manner differ in no respect from 

the former epistles. The observations are equally desultory, 

and we meet with the same strokes of satirical humour ; which 

appear unsuitable to a didactic piece.* 

* See Elton's Specimens of the Classic Poets. 








Mjscenas, atavis edite regibus, 

O et praesidium et dulce decus meum ! 

Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicura 

Collegisse juvat ; metaque fervidis 

Evitata rotis, palmaque nobilis, 5 

Terrarum dominos evehit ad deos: 

Hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium 

Certat tergeminis tollere honoribus ; 

Ulum, si proprio condidit horreo 

Quidquid de Libycis verritur areis. 10 

Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 
Agros Attalicis conditionibus 
Nunquam dimoveas ut trabe Cypria 
Myrtoiim pavidus nauta secet mare. 
Luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum 15 

Mercator metuens, otium et oppidi 
Laudat rura sui : mox reficit rates 
Quassas, indocilis pauperiem pati. 


Est qui nec veteris poeula Massici, 

Nec partem solido demere de die 20 

Spernit, nunc viridi membra sub arbuto 

Stratus, nunc ad aquae lene caput sacree. 

Multos castra juvant, et lituo tubae 

Permixtus sonitus, bellaque matribus 

Detestata. Manet sub Jove frigido 25 

Venator, tenerse conjugis immemor ; 

Seu visa est catulis cerva fidelibus, 

Seu rupit teretes Marsus aper plagas. 

Me doctarum ederse prsemia frontium 

Dis miscent superis ; me gelidum nemus, 30 

Nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori, 

Secernunt populo ; si neque tibias 

Euterpe cohibet, nec Polyhymnia 

Lesboiinvrefugit tendere barbiton.' 

Quod si me lyricis vatibus inseres, 35 

Sublimi feriam sidera vertice. 



Jam satis terris nivis atque dira? 
Grandinis misit Pater, et, rubente 
Dextera sacras jaculatus arces, 

Terruit urbem : 
Terruit gentes, grave ne rediret 
Sseculum Pyrrhce, nova monstra questae ; 
Omne quum Proteus pecus egit altos 

Visere montes ; 



Piscium et summa genus haesit ulmo, 

Nota quae sedes fuerat columbis ; 10 

Et superjecto pavidae natarunt 

JEqnore damae. 
Vidimus flavum Tiberim, retortis 
Littore Etrusco violenter undis, 
Ire dejectum monumenta regis, 15 

Templaque Vestae : 
Iliae dum se nimium querenti 
Jactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 
Labitur ripa, Jove non probante, u- 

xorius amnis. 20 

Audiet cives acuisse ferrum 
Quo graves Persae melius perirent ; 
Audiet pugnas, vitio parentum 

Rara, juventus. 
Quem vocet divum populus ruentis 25 

Imperi rebus ? prece qua fatigent 
Virgines sanctae minus audientem 

Carmina Vestam 1 
Cui dabit partes scelus expiandi 
Jupiter 1 tandem venias, precamur, 30 

Nube candentes humeros amictus, 

Augur Apollo. 
Sive .tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
Cluam Jocus circumvolat, et Cupido. 
Sive neglectum genus et nepotes 35 

Kespicis, auctor, 
Heu ! nimis longo satiate ludo, 
Quem juvat clamor, galeaeque leves, 
Acer et Mauri peditis cruentum 

Vultus in hostem : 40 

Sive mutata juvenem ficr Ur a 
Ales, in terris imitaris, almae 


Filius Maiae, patiens vocari 

Caesaris ultor : 
Serus in coelum redeas, diuque 45 

Laetus intersis populo duirini ; 
Neve te nostris vitiis iniquum 

Ocior aura 
Tollat. Hic magnos potius triumphos, 
Hic ames dici Pater atque Princeps : 50 

Neu sinas Medos equitare inultos, 
• Te duce, Caesar. 




Sic te diva potens Cypri, 
Sic fratres Helenae, lucida sidera, 

Ventorumque regat pater, 
Obstrictis aliis, praeter Iapyga, 

Navis, quae tibi creditum 5 

Debes Virgilium, finibus Atticis 

Reddas incolumem, precor, 
Et serves animae dimidium meae. 

Illi robur et aes triplex 
Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci 10 

Commisit pelago ratem 
Primus, nec timuit praecipitem Africum 

Decertantem Aquilonibus, 
Nec tristes Hyadas, nec rabiem Noti, 

Quo non arbiter Hadriae 15 

Major, tollere seu ponere vult freta. 


Quem mortis timuit gradum, 
Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia, 

Quividit mare turgidum, et 
Infames scopulos Acroceraunia ? 20 

Nequidquam Deus abscidit 
Prudens Oceano dissociabili 

Terras, si tamen impiae 
Non tangenda rates transiliunt vada. 

Audax omnia perpeti 25 

Gens humana ruit per vetitum ; nefas ! 

Audax Iapeti genus 
Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit. 

Post ignem aetherea. domo 
Subductum, macies et nova febrium 30 

Terris incubuit cohors ; 
Semotique prius tarda necessitas 

Leti corripuit gradum. 
Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera 

Pennis non homini datis. 35 

Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. 

Nil mortalibus arduum est : 
Coelum ipsum petimus stultitia ; neque 

Per nostrum patimur scelus 
Iracunda Jovem ponere fulmina. 40 



Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni, 

Trahuntque siccas machina? carinas ; 


Ac neque jam stabulis gaudet pecus, aut arator igni ; 

Nec prata canis albicant pruinis. 
Jam Cytherea choros ducit Venus, imminente Luna ; 5 

Junctaeque Nymphis Gratiae decentes 
Alterno terram quatiunt pede, dum graves Cyclopum 

Vulcanus ardens urit officinas. 
Nunc decet aut viridi nitidum caput impedire myrto, 

Aut flore, terrae quem ferunt solutae. 10 

Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare lucis, 

Seu poscat agna, sive malit haedo. 
Pallida Mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas, 

Regumque turres. O beate Sexti, 
Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam : 15 

Jam te premet nox, fabulaeque Manes, 
Et domus exilis Plutonia ; quo simul mearis, 

Non regna vini sortiere talis. 

ode v./ * -fApeturCi" 



Scriberis Vario fortis, et hostium 

Victor, Maeonii carminis aliti, 

Quam rem cunque ferox navibus aut equis 

Miles te duce gesserit. 
Nos, Agrippa, neque haec dicere, nec gravem t> 

Pelidae stomachum cedere nescii, 
Nec cursus duplicis per mare Ulyssei', 

Nec saevam Pelopis domum, 
Conamur, tenues grandia : dum pudor, 
Imbellisque lyrae Musa potens vetat 10 

Laudes egregii Caesaris, et tuas, 

Culpa deterere ingeni. 


Quis Martem tunica tectum adamantina 
Digne scripserit 1 aut pulvere Troiq 
Nigrum Merionen ? aut ope Palladis 
Tydiden superis parem ? 


ODE Vfe 


Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut Mitylenen, 

Aut Ephesum, bimarisve Corinthi 
Mcenia, vel Baccho Thebas, vel Apolline Delphos 

Insignes, aut Thessala Tempe. 
Sunt quibus unum opus est intactae Palladis arces 

Carmine perpetuo celebrare, et 
Undique decerptam fronti praeponere olivam. 

Plurimus, in Junonis honorem, 
Aptum dicit equis Argos, ditesque Mycenas. 

Me nec tam patien3 Lacedsemon, 
Nec tam Larissae percussit campus opimae, 

duam domus Albuneae resonantis, 
Et praeceps Anio, ac Tiburni lucus, et uda 

Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 
Albus ut obscuro deterget nubila coelo 

Saepe Notus, neque parturit imbres 
Perpetuos ; sic tu sapiens finire memento 

Tristitiam viteque labores 
Molli, Plance, mero ; seu te fulgentia signis 

Castra tenent, seu densa tenebit 
Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque 
. Q,uum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo 





Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristes affatus amicos : 
" Qud nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente, 25 

Ibimus, o socii comitesque ! 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce, et auspice Teucro ; 

Certus enim promisit Apollo 
Ambiguam tellure nova. Salamina futuram. 

O fortes pejoraque passi 30 

Mecum saepe viri ! nunc vino pellite curas : 

Cras ingens iterabimus aequor." 



Lydia, dic, per omnes 
Te deos oro : Sybarin cur properas amando 

Perdere 1 cur apricum 
Oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque solis ? 

Cur neque militaris . 5 

Inter eequales equitat, Gallica nec lupatis 

Temperat ora frsenis ? 
Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere 1 cur olivum 

Sanguine viperino 
Cautius vitat? neque jam livida gestat armis 10 

Brachia, saepe disco, 
Saepe trans finem jaculo nobilis expedito ? 

Quid latet, ut marinae 
Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrymosa Trojae 

Funera, ne virilis 15 

Cultus in caedern et Lycias proriperet catervas ? 



Vides ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nec jam sustineant onus 
Silvae laborantes, geluque 
Flumina constiterint acuto. 

Dissolve frigus, ligna super foco 5 

Large reponens ; atque benignius 
Deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
O Thaliarche, merum diota. 
Permitte divis caetera : qui simul 
Stravere ventos aequore fervido 10 

Deprceliantes, nec cupressi, 
Nec veteres agitanjur orni. 
Q,uid sit futurum cras, fuge quaerere ; et 
Q,uem 4ors dierum cunque dabit, lucro 

Appone : nec dulces Camcenas 15 

Sperne puer, neque tu choreas ; 
Donec virenti canities abest 
Morosa. Nunc et campus, et areae, 
Lenesque sub noctem susurri, 

Composita repetantur hora. 20 

^^ W J ?*"e\U* fiSv/j c\yajAt v 

O ODE IX. . I , 

D^*W£«v? 4e-<epfu«^ kt&vh* 


MERcuRi/facunde nepos Atlaiitis, 
Q,ui feros cultus hominum recentum 
Voce formasti catus, et decorae 
More palaestrae ; 


Te canam, magni Jovis et deorum 5 

Nuntium, curvseque lyrse parentem ; 
Callidum, quidquid placuit, jocoso 

Condere furto. 
Te, boves olim nisi reddidisses 
Per dolum amotas, puerum minaci 10 

Voce dum terret, viduus pharetra 

Risit Apollo. 
Quin et Atridas, duce te, superbos, 
Ilio dives Priamus relicto, 
Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojae 15 

Castra fefellit. 
Tu pias lsetis animas reponis 
Sedibus, virgaque levem coerces 
Aurea turbam, superis deorum 

Gratus et imis. 20 


Tu ne quaesieris, scire nefas, quem mihi, quem tibi 
Finem di dederint, Leuconoe ; nec Babylonios 
Tentaris numeros. Ut melius, quidquid erit, pati ! 
Seu plures hiemes, seu tribuit Jupiter ultimam, 
Quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare 
Tyijjjenum. Sapias, vina liques, et spatio brevi 
Spem longam reseces. Dum loquimur, fugerit invida 
iEtas. Carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. 


•DE XI. 


Quem virum aut heroa lyra vel acri 
Tibia sumis celebrare, Clio 1 
duem deum, cujus recinet jocosa 

Nomen imago, 
Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris, 5 

Aut super Pindo, gelidove in Haemo, 
Unde vocalem temere insecutse 

Orphea silvae, 
Arte materna rapidos morantem 
Fluminum lapsus, celeresque ventos, 10 

Blandum et auritas fidibus canoris 

Ducere quercus ? 
Q,uid prius dicam solitis Parentis 
Laudibus, qui res hominum ac deorum, 
Qui mare ac terras, variisque mundum 15 

Temperat horis 1 
Unde nil majus generatur ipso, 
Nec viget quidquam simile aut secundum : 
Proximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores. 20 

Prceliis audax, neque te silebo, 
Liber, et ssevis inimica virgo 
Belluis ; nec te metuende certa 

Phoebe sagitta. 
Dicam et Alciden ; puerosque Ledae, 25 

Hunc equis, illum superare pugnis 
Nobilem : quorum simul alba nautis 

Stella refulsit, 
Defluit saxis agitatus humor ; 
Concidunt venti, fugiuntque nubes ; 30 


Et minax, nam sic voluere, ponto 

Unda recumldt. 
Romulum post hos prius, an quietum 
Pompili regnum memorem, an superbos 
Tarquini fasces, dubito, an Catonis 35 

Nobile letum. 
Regulum, et Scauros, animaeque magnae 
Pfodigum Paulum, superante Poeno, 
Gratus insigni referam Camcena, 

Fabriciumque. 40 

Hunc, et incomptis Curium capillis, 
Utilem bello tulit, et Camillum, 
Saeva paupertas, et avitus apto 

Cum lare fundus. 
Crescit occulto velut arbor sevo 45 

Fama Marcelli : micat inter omnes 
Julium sidus, velut inter ignes 

Luna minores. 
Gentis humanae pater atque custos, 
Orte Saturno, tibi cura magni 50 

Caesaris fatis data ; tu secundo 

Caesare regnes. 
Ille, seu Parthos Latio imminentes 
Egerit justo domitos triumpho, 
Sive subjectos Orientis orae 55 

Seras et Indos, 
Te minor latum reget aequus orbem : 
Tu gravi curru quaties Olympum ; 
Tu parum castis inimica mittes 

Fulmina lucis. 60 





O naVis, referent in mare te novi 
Fluctus ! O quid agis ? Fortiter occupa 
^ Portum. Nonne vides ut 

Nudum remigio latus, 
Et malus celeri saucius Africo, 
AntennaBque gemant, ac sine funibus 
Vix durare carinae 

-frfl ■ 

Possint imperiosius 
_ ^Equor ? Non tibi sunt integra lintea, 
•\_Non di quos iterum pressa voces malo : 
Q-uamvis Pontica pinus. 
Silvae filia nobilis, 
Jactes et genus et nomen inutile. 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 
Fidit. Tu, nisi ventis 
Debes ludibrium, cave. 
Nuper sollicitum quae mihi ta^dium, 
Nunc desiderium, curaque non Ievi% 
Interfusa nitentes 
Vites aequora Cycladas. 







Pastor quum traheret per freta navibus 
Idasis Helenen perfidus hospitam, 


Ingrato celeres obruit otio 

Ventos, ut caneret fera 
Nereus fata: " Mala ducis avi domum, 5 

duam multo repetet Grsecia milite, 
Conjurata tuas rumpere nuptias, 

Et regnurn Priami vetus. 
Eheu ! quantus equis, quantus adest viris 
Sudor ! quanta moves funera Dardanae 10 

Genti ! Jam galeam Pallas, et segida, 

Currusque, et rabiem, parat.^, 
Nequidquam, Veneris praesidio ferox, 
Pectes csesariem, grataque fceminis 
Imbelli cithara carmina divides : 15 

Nequidquam thalamo graves 
Hastas, et calami spicula Gnosii, 
Vitabis, strepitumque, et celerem sequi 
Ajacern : tamen, heu serus ! adulteros 

Crines pulvere collines. , 20 

Non Laertiaden, exitium tuae 
Gentis, non Pylium Nestora respicis 1 
Urgent impavidi te Salaminius 

Teucer, te Sthenelus sciens 
Pugnse, sive opus est imperitare equis, 25 

Non auriga piger. Merionen quoque 
Nosces. Ecce furit te reperire atrox , 

Tydides, melior patre : 
Quem tu, cervus uti vallis in altera 
Visum parte lupum graminis immemor, 30 

Sublimi fugies mollis anhelitu, 

Non hoc pollicitus tuae. 
Iracunda diem proferet Ilio 
Matronisque Phrygum classis Achillei" : 
Post certas hiemes uret Achaius 35 

Ignis Pergameas domos." 




O matre pulchra filia pulchrior, 
Q-uem criminosis cunque voles modum 
Pones iambis ; sive flamma, 
Sive mari libet Hadriano. 
Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit 5 

Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythius, 
Non Liber aeque, non acuta 
Sic geminant Corybantes eera, 
Tristes ut iras : quas neque Noricus 
Deterret ensis, nec mare naufragum, 10 

Nec soevus ignis, nec tremendo 
Jupiter ipse ruens tumultu. 
Fertur Prometheus addere principi 
Limo coactus particulam undique 

Desectam, et insani leonis ]5 

Vim stomacho apposuisse nostro. 
Irae Thyesten exitio gravi 
Stravere ; et altis urbibus ultimai 
Stetere caussg cur perirent 

Funditus, imprimeretque muris 20 

Hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 
Compesce mentem. Me quoque pectoris 
Tentavit in dulci juventa 
Fervor, et in celeres iambos 
Misit furentem : nunc ego mitibus 25 

Mutare quaero tristia, dum mihi 
Fias recantatis amica 

Opprobriis, animumque reddas. 




Velox amcenum ssepe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycaso Faunus, et igneam 
Defendit asstatem capellis 

Usque meis, pluviosque ventos. 
Impune tutum per nemus arbutos 5 

Quaerunt latentes et thyma deviae 
Olentis uxores mariti ; 

Nec virides metuunt colubras, 
Nec Martiales haeduleee lupos ; 
Utcunque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 10 

Valles et Usticse cubantis 
Lcvia personuere saxa. 
Di me tuentur : dis pietas mea 
Et Musa cordi est. Hic tibi copia 

Manabit ad plenum benigno 15 

Ruris honorum opulenta cornu. 
Hic in reducta valle Caniculae 
Vitabis sestus ; et fide Teia 
Dices laborantes in uno 

Penelopen vitreamque Circen. 20 

Hic innocentis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra : nec Semeleius 
Cum Marte confundet Thyoneus 
Prcelia ; nec metues protervos. 


S '^* 




Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 
Circa mite solum Tiburis, et mcenia Catili : 
Siccis omnia nam dura Deus proposuit ; neque 
Mordaces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines. 
Quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat 1 
Q,uis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venus 1 
At ne quis modici transiliat munera Liberi, 
Centaujea monet cum Lapithis<rixa super mero 
Debenata ; monet Sithoniis nonlevis Evius, 
Quum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinum 
Discernunt avidi. Non ego te, candide Bassareu, 
Invitum quatiam : nec variis obsita frondibus 
Sub divum rapiam. Sasva tene cum Berecynthio 
Cornu tympana, quae subsequitur caecus Amor sui, 
Et tollens vacuum plus nimio Gloria verticem, 
Arcanique Fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro. 







v / 


Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse testa 
Conditum levi, datus in theatro 
Quum tibi plausus, 
Care Maecenas eques, ut paterni 
Fluminis ripae, simul et jocosa 


Redderet laudes tibi Vaticani 

Montis imago. 
Caecubum et praelo domitam Caleno 
Tu bibes uvam : mea nec Falernae 10 

Temperant vites neque Formiani 

Pocula colles. 



Dianam teneras dicite virgines : 
Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium : 
Latonamque supremo 
Dilectam penitus Jovi. 
Vos laetam fluviis, et nemorum coma, 5 

Quaecunque aut gelido prominet Algido, 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Silvis, aut viridis Cragi : 
Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus, 
Natalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis, 10 

Insignemque pharetra, 
Fraternaque humerum lyra. 
Hic bellum lacrymosum, hic miseram famem 
Pestemque, a populo et principe Caesare, in 

Persas atque Britannos 15 

Vestra motus aget prece. 




Integer vitae scelerisque purus 

Non eget Mauris jaculis, neque arcu, 

Nec venenatis gravida sagittis, 
,. Fusce, pharetra ; 

Sive per Syrtes iter aestuosas, 5 

Sive facturus per inhospitalem 

Caucasum, vel quae loca fabulosus 
<J S(^ Lambit Hydaspes. 

r' Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 

Dum meam canto Lalagen, et ultra 10 

Terminum curis vagor expeditis, 
,. Fugit inermem : .-—•-"' 

CL .... 

(Gtuale portentum neque militaris 

Daunias latis alit sesculetis -\ 

Nec Jubae tellus generat, leonum 15 

Arida nutrix. 
Pone me pigris ubi nuTTa"c"ampis 

Arbor gstiva recreatur aura, 

Quod latus mundi nebulae malusque 

Jupiter urget ; 20 

Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Solis, in terra domibus negata : 
Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, 

Dulce loquentem. 

1 . A«~ 





3 k^<-"\ ODE XX. 



Quris desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tam cari capitis ? Praecipe lugubres 
Cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam Pater 

Vocem cum cithara dedit. 
Ergo Quinctilium perpetuus sopor o 

Urget ! cui Pudor, et Justitiae soror 
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas, 

Quando ullum inveniet parem 1 
Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit ; 
Nulli flebiiior quam tibi, Virgili. 10 

Tu frustra pius, heu ! non ita creditum 

Poscis Quinctilium deos. 
Quod si Threicio blandius Orpheo 
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem, 
Non vanae redeat sanguis imagini 15 

Quam virga semel horrida, 
Non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compulerit Mercurius gregi. 
Durum ! Sed levius fit patientia 

Quidquid corrigere est nefas. 20 



Musis amicus, tristitiam et metus 
Tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
Portare ventis : quis sub Arcto 
Rex gelidae metuatur orae, 


Q,uid Teridaten terreat, unice 5 

Securus. O, quse fontibus integris 
Gaudes, apricos necte flores, 
Necte meo Lamise coronam, 
PimpleV dulcis ! nil sine te mei 
Possunt honores : hunc fidibus novis, 10 

Hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro, 
Teque tuasque decet sorores. 



Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis 
Pugnare, Thracum est. Tollite barbarum 
Morem, verecundumque Bacchum 
Sanguineis prohibete rixis. 
Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces 
Immane quantum discrepat ! Impium 
Lenite clamorem, sodales, 
Et cubito remanete presso. 



: Te maris et terrae numeroque carentis arenae 
Mensorem cohibent, Archyta, 

Pulveris exigui prope littus parva Matinum 

Munera ; nec quidquam tibi prodest 


Aerias tentasse domos, animoque rotundum o 

Percurrisse polum, morituro ! " 
11 Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva deorum, 

Tithonusque remotus in auras, 
Et Jovis arcanis Minos admissus : habentque 

Tartara Panthoiden, iterum Orco 10 

Demissum, quamvis, clypeo Trojana refixo 

Tempora testatus, nihil ultra 
Nervos atque cutem morti concesserat atrae ; 

Judice me, non sordidus auctor 
Naturae verique. Sed omnes una manet nox, 15 

Et calcanda semel via leti. 
Dant alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti : 

Exitio est avidum mare nautis : 
Mixta senum ac juvenum densentur funera ; nullum 

Saeva caput Proserpina fugit. 20 

Me quoque devexi rapidus comes Orionis 

Illyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus arenae 

Ossibus et capiti inhumato 
Particulam dare : sic, quodcunque minabitur Eurus 25 

Fluctibus Hesperiis, Venusinae 
Plectantur silvae, te sospite ; multaque merces, 

Unde potest, tibi defluat aequo 
Ab Jove, Neptunoque sacri custode Tarenti ! 

Negligis immeritis nocituram 30 

Postmodo te natis fraudem committere 1 Fors et 

Debita jura vicesque superbae 
Te maneant ipsum : precibus non linquar inultis ; 

Teque piaculal luna resolvent. 
Quanquam festinas, non est mora longa ; licebit 35 

Injecto ter pulvere curras." 




Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gazis, et acrem militiam paras 
Non ante devictis Sabasae 
Regibus, horribilique Medo 
Nectis catenas. Quae tibi virginum, 5 

Sponso necato, barbara serviet 1 
Puer quis ex aula capillis 
Ad cyathum statuetur unctis, 
Doctus sagittas tendere Sericas 
Arcu paterno ? Quis neget arduis . 10 

Pronos relabi posse rivos 

Montibus, et Tiberim reverti ; 
Quum tu coemptos undique nobiles 
Libros Panseti, Socraticam et domum, 

Mutare Joricis Iberis, 15 

Pollicitus meliora, tendis ? 



O Vents, regina Gnidi Paphique, 
Sperne dilectam Cypron, et vocantis 
Thure te rnulto Glycerae decoram 

Transfer in aedem. 
Fervidus tecum puer, et solutis 
Gratios zonis, properentque Nymphse, 
Et parum comis sine te Juventas, 





Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
Vates ? quid orat, de patera novum 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opimas 
Sardinise segetes feracis ; 
Non SBstuosas grata Calabriae 5 

Armenta ; non aurum aut ebur Indicum ; 
Non rura quee Liris quieta 

Mordet aqua, taciturnus amnis. 
Premant Calena falce, quibus dedit 
Fortuna, vitem : dives et aureis 10 

Mepator exsiccet culullis 
Vina Syra reparata merce, 
Dis carus ipsis ; quippe ter et quater 
Anno revisens sequor Atlanticum 
Impune. Me pascant olivse, 15 

Me cichorea, levesque malvaB. 
Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe, dones, et, precor, integra 
Cum mente ; nec turpem senectam 

Degere, nec cithara carentem. 20 




Poscimur . . . si quid vacui sub umbra 
Lusimus tecum, quod et hunc in annum 
Vivat, et plures ; age, dic Latinum, 
Barbite, carmen ; 



Lesbio primum modiilate civi, 
Qui ferox bello, tameri inter arma, 
Sive jactatam religarat udo 
Littore navim, 
Liberum, et Musas, Veneremque, et illi 
Semper ha^rentem Puerum, canebat, 10 

Et Lycum nigris oculis nigroque 

Crine decorum. 
O decus Phoebi, et dapibus supremi 
Grata testudo Jovis, o laborum 
Dulce lenimen, mihi cunque salve 15 

Rite vocanti ! 

\ \ V — ~ 


Parcus deorum cultor, et infrequens, 
Insanientis dum sapientise 

Consultus erro ; nunc retrorsum 
Vela dare, atque iterare cursus 
Cogor relictos./ Namque Diespiter 
Igni corusco nubila dividens 
Plerumque, per purum tonantes 
Egit equos, volucremque currum : 
Quo bruta tellus, et vaga flumina, 
Quo Styx, et invisi horrida Tsenari 10 

Sedes, Atlanteusque finis 
Concutitur. / Valet ima summis 
Mutare, et insignia attenuat Deus, 
Obscura promens : hinc apicem rapax 

Fortuna cum stridore acuto 15 

Sustulit ; hic posuisse gaudet. 


\ i ¥ 





O diva, gratum quse regis Antium, 
Praesens vel imo tollere de gradu 
Mortale corpus, vel superbos 
Vertere funeribus triumphos : 
Te pauper ambit sollicita prece 5 

Ruris colonus ; te dominam sequoris, 
Quicunque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium pelagus carina. 
Te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae, 
Urbesque, gentesque, et Latium ferox, 10 

Regumque matres barbarorum, et 
Purpurei metuunt tyranni, 
Injurioso ne pede proruas 
Stantem columnam, neu populus frequens 

Ad arma cessantes ad arma 15 

Concitet, imperiumque frangat. 
Te semper anteit saeva Necessitas, 
Clavos trabales et cuneos manu 
Gestans ahena ; nec severus 

Uncus abest, liquidumque plumbum. 20 

Te Spes et albo rara Fides colit 
Velata panno ; nec comitem abnegat, 
Utcunque mutata potentes 
Veste domos inimica linqnis. 
At vulgus infidum et meretrix retro 2o 

Perjura cedit : diffugiunt cadis 
Cum faece siccatis amici, 
Ferre jugum pariter dolosi. 
Serves iturum Csesarem in ultimos 
Orbis Britannos, et juvenum recens 30 


Examen EoTs timendum 

Partibus, Oceanoque Rubro. 
Eheu ! cicatricum et sceleris pudet, 
Fratrumque. Q,uid nos dura refugimus 
" .^Etas ? quid intactum nefasti 35 

Liquimus ? unde manum juventus 
Metu deorum continuit? quibus 
Pepercit aris ? . . . O utinam nova 
Incude diffingas retusum in 

Massagetas Arabasque ferrum ! 40 



Et thure et fidibus juvat 
Placare, et vituli sanguine debito 

Custodes Numidas deos, 
Qui nunc Hesperia sospes ab ultima 

Caris multa sodalibus, 5 

Nulli plura tamen dividit oscula, 

Q,uam dulci Lamiae ; memor 
Actae non alio rege puertias, 

Mutataeque simul togae. 
Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota ; 10 

Neu promptas modus amphoraB : 
Neu morem in Salium sit requies pedum : 

Neu multi Damalis meri 
Bassum Threiicia vincat amystide : 

Neu desint epulis rosae, 15 

Neu vivax apium, neu breve lilium. 




Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero 
Pulsanda tellus ; nunc Saliaribus 
Ornare pulvinar deorurn 

Tempus erat dapibus, sodales. 
Antehac nefas depromere Cascubum 5 

Cellis avitis, dum Capitolio 
Regina dementes ruinas, 
Funus et imperio parabat, 
Contaminato cum grege turpium 
Morbo virorum, quidlibet impotens 10 

Sper-are, fortunaque dulci 
Ebria. Sed minuit furorem 
Vix una sospes navis ab ignibus : 
Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico 

Redegit in veros timores 15 

Cassar, ab Italia volantem 
Remis adurgens, accipiter velut 
Molles columbas, aut leporem citus 
Venator in campis nivaiis 

HaemoniaJ, daret ut catenis 20 

Fatale monstrum : quas generosius 
Perire quserens, nec muliebriter 
Expavit ensem, nec latentes 
Classe cita reparavit ora f i : 
Ausa et jacentem visere regiam 55 

Vultu sereno, fortis el asperas 
Tractare serpentes, ut atrum 
Corpore combiberet venenum ; 


Deliberata morte ferocior : 

Saevis Liburnis scilicet invidens 30 

Privata deduci superbo 

Non humilis mulier triumpho. 




Persicos odi, puer, apparatus ; 
Displicent nexae philyra coronae : 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum 

Sera moretur. 
Simplici myrto nihil allabores 5 

Sedulus curae : neque te ministrum 
Dedecet myrtus, neque me sub arcta 

Vite bibentem. 






Motum ex Metello consule civicum. 
Bellique^causas, et vitia, et modos, 
Ludumque Fortunss, gravesque 
Principum amicitias, et arma 
Nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus, 5 

Periculosse plenum opus aleas, 
Tractas, et incedis per ignes 
Suppositos cineri doloso. 
Paulum severae Musa tragcediee 
Desit theatris : mox, ubi publicas 10 

Res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes cothurno, 
Insigne mcestis praesidium reis, 
Et consulenti, Pollio, curia? ; 

Cui laurus ceternos honores 15 

Dalmatico peperit triumpho. 
Jam nunc minaci murmure cornuum 
Perstringis aures : jam litui strepunt ; 
Jam fulgor armorum fagaces 

Terret equos, equitumque vultus. 20 


Audire magnos jam videor duces 
Non indecoro pulvere sordidos, 
Et cuncta terrarum subacta 

Praeter atrocem animum Catonis. 
Juno, et deorum quisquis amicior 25 

Afris inulta cesserat impotens 
Tellure, victorum nepotes 
Rctulit inferias Jugurthae. 
Quis non, Latino sanguine pinguior, 
Campus sepulcris impia proelia 30 

Testatur, auditumque Medis 
Hesperiae soniturn ruinae ? 
Q,ui gurges, aut quae flumina lugubris 
Ignara belli ? quod mare Dauniae 

Non decoloravere casdes ? 35 

Quae caret ora cruore nostro ? 
Sed ne, relictis, Musa procax, jocis, 
Ceae retractes munera Naeniae : 
Mecum Dionaeo sub antro 

Quaere modos leviore plectro. 40 




Nullus argento color est avaris 
Abdito terris, inimice lamnse 
Crispe Sallusti, nisi temperato 

Splendeat usu. 
Vivet extento Proculeius aevo, » 

Notus. in fratres animi paterni : 
Illum aget penna metuente solvi 

Fama superstes. 


Latius regnes avidum domando 

Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis 10 

Gadibus jungas, et uterque Poenus 

Serviat uni. 
Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops ; 
Nec sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi 
Fugerit venis, et aquosus albo 15 

Corpore languor. 
Redditum Cyri solio Phraaten, 
Dissidens plebi, numero beatorum 
Eximit Virtus ; populumque falsis 

Dedocet uti 20 

Vocibus ; regnum et diadema tutum 
Deferens uni, propriamque laurum, 
Quisquis ingentes oculo irretorto 

Spectat acervos. 




iEauAM memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem, non secus in bonis 

Ab insolenti temperatam 
Lastitia, moriture Delli, 
Seu moestus omni tempore vixeris, t 5 

Seu te in remoto gramine per dies 

Festos reclinatum bearis ' ' 

Interiore nota Falerni, 
Qua pinus ingens albaque populus 
Umbram hospitalem consociare amant . y ,10 

Ramis, qua et obliquo laborat • 

Lympha fugax trepidare rivo. > 

,, • t 

• i J 


Huc vina, et unguenta, et nimium brevis 
Flores amoenos ferre jube rosae, 

Dum res, et astas, et Sororum 15 

Fila trium patiuntur atra. 
Cedes coemptis saltibus, et doino, 
Villaque flavus quam Tiberis lavit : 
Cedes ; et exstructis in altum 

Divitiis potietur haeres. 20 

Divesne, prisco natus ab Inacho, 
Nil interest, an pauper, et infima 
De gente, sub divo moreris, 
Victima nil miserantis Orci. 
Omnes eodem cogimur : omnium 25 

Versatur urna ; serius ocius 
Sors exitura, et nos in aeternum 
Exsilium impositura cymbas. 



Septimi, Gades aditure mecum, et 
Cantabrum indoctum juga ferre nostra, et 
Barbaras Syrtes, ubi Maura semper 

yEstuat unda : 
Tibur, Argeo positum colono, 5 

Sit meae sedes utinam senectae ! 
Sit modus lasso maris, et viarum, 

Militiaeque ! 
Unde si Parcae prohibent iniquae, 
Dulce pellitis ovibus Galaesi 10 


Flumen, et regnata petam Laconi 

Rura Phalanto. 
Ille terrarum mihi prseter omnes 
Angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 
Mella decedunt, viridique certat 15 

Bacca Venafro ; 
Ver ubi longum, tepidasque prsebet 
Jupiter brumas ; et amicus Aulon 
Fertili Baccho minimum Falernis 

Invidet uvis. 20 

Ule te mecum locus et beatae 
Postulant arces : ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacryma favillam 

Vatis amici. 



O S.EPE mecum tempus in ultimum 
Deducte, Bruto militise duce, 
duis te redonavit Quiritem 
Dis patriis, Italoque cceIo, 
Pompei, meorum prime sodalium ? 5 

Cum quo morantem saepe diem mero 
Fregi, coronatus nitentes 
Malobathro Syrio capillos 1 
Tecum Philippos et celerem fugam 
Sensi, relicta non bene parmula, 10 

Quum fracta virtus et minaces 
Turpe solum tetigere mento. 
Sed me per hostes Mercurius celer 



Denso paventem sustulit aere : 

Te rursus in bellum resorbens 15 

Unda fretis tulit aestuosis. 
Ergo obligatam redde Jovi dapem, 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauro mea : nec 

Parce cadis tibi destinatis. 20 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
Ciboria exple : funde capacibus 
Unguenta de conchis. Quis udo 
Deproperare apio coronas 
Curatve myrto 1 quem Venus arbitrum 
Dicet bibendi 1 Non ego sanius 
Bacchabor Edonis : recepto 
Dulce mihi furere est amico. 




Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos 
Manant in agros, aut mare Caspium 
Vexant inaequales procellaa 
Usque ; nec Armeniis in oris, 
Amice Valgi, stat glacies iners 5 

Menses per omnes ; aut Aquilonibus 
Querceta Gargani laborant, 
Et foliis viduantur orni. 
Tu semper urges flebilibus modis 
"ivsten ademptum : nectibi Vespero 10 

Surgente decedunc amores, 
Nec rapidum fugiente Solem. 



At non ter aevo functus amabilem 
Ploravit omnes Antilochum senex 
Annos : nec impubem parentes 
Troilon, aut Phrygiae sorores, 
Flevere semper. Desine mollium 
Tandem querelarum : et potius nova 
Cantemus Augusti tropaea 
Caesaris, et rigidum Niphaten, 
Medumque flumen, gentibus additum 
Victis, minores volvere vortices, 
Intraque praescriptum Gelonos 
Exiguis equitare campis. 





Rectius vives, Licini, neque altum 
Semper urgendo, neque, dum procellas 
Cautus horrescis, nimium premendo 

Littus iniquum. 
Auream quisquis mediocritatem 
Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sordibus tecti, caret invidenda 

Sobrius aula. 
Ssevius ventis agitatur ingens 
Pinus : et celsae graviore casu 
Decidunt turres : feriuntque summos 

Fulgura montes. 
Sperat infestis, metuit secundis, 
Alteram sortem bene praeparatum 
Pectus. Informes hiemes reducit 

Jupiter, idem 




Submovet. Non, si male nunc, et olim 
Sic erit : quondam cithara tacentem 
Suscitat Musam, neque semper arcum 

Tendit, Apollo. 20 

Rebus angustis animosus atque 
Fortis appare : sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimium secundo 

Turgida vela. 



Quid bellicosus Cantaber, et Scythes, 
Hirpine duincti, cogitet, Hadria 
Divisus objecto, remittas 

duserere : nec trepides in usum 
Poscentis sBvi pauca. Fugit retro 5 

Levis Juventas, et Decor, arida 
Pellente lascivos Amores 

Canitie, facilemque Somnum. 
Non semper idem floribus est honor 
Vernis ; neque uno Luna rubens nitet 10 

Vultu : quid aeternis minorem 
Consiliis animum fatigas 1 
Cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac 
Pinu jacentes sic temere, et rosa. 

Canos odorati capillos, 15 

Dum licet, Assyriaque nardo 
Potamus uncti ? Dissipat Evius 
Curas edaces. Q,uis puer ocius 
Restinguet ardentis Falerni 

Pocula prsetereunte lympha ? 20 




Nolis longa ferae bella NumantiaB, 

Nec durum Hannibalem, nec Siculum mare 

Pceno purpureum sanguine, mollibus 

Aptari citharae modis ; 
Nec saevos Lapithas, et nimium mero 5 

Hylaeum ; domitosve Herculea manu 
Telluris juvenes, unde periculum 

Fulgens contremuit domus 
Saturni veteris. Tuque pedestribus 
Dices historiis proelia Caesaris, 10 

Maecenas, melius, ductaque per vias 
" Regum colla minantium. 
Me dulces dominae Musa Licymniae 
Cantus, me voluit dicere lucidum 
Fulgentes oculos, et bene mutuis 15 

Fidum pectus amoribus : 
Q,uam nec ferre pedem dedecuit choris, 
Nec certare joco, nec dare brachia 
Ludentem nitidis virginibus, sacro 

Dianae celebris die. 20 

Num tu, quse tenuit dives Achaemenes, 
Aut pinguis Phrygiae Mygdonias opes, 
Permutare velis crine Licymniae, 

Plenas aut Arabum domos 1 




Ille et nefasto te posuit die, 
Quicunque primum et sacrilega manu 
Produxit, arbos, in nepotum 

Perniciem, opprobriumque pagi : 
Illum et parentis crediderim sui 5 

Fregisse cervicem, et penetralia 
Sparsisse nocturno cruore 
Hospitis : ille venena Colcha, 
Et quidquid usquam concipitur nefas, 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo 10 

Te, triste lignum, te, caducum 
In domini caput immerentis,. 
Quid quisque vitet, nunquam homini satis 
Cautum est, in horas. Navita Bosporum 

Poenus perhorrescit, neque ultra 15 

Caeca timet aliunde fata ; 
Miles sagittas et celerem fugam 
Parthi ; catenas Parthus et Italum 
Robur : sed improvisa leti 

Vis rapuit rapietque gentes. ^/\ 20 

Quam pene furvae regna Proserpinae, 
Et judicantem vidimus ^Eacum ; 
Sedesque discretas piorum et 
^Eoliis fidibus querentem 
Sappho puellis de popularibus ; 25 

Et te sonantem plenius aureo, 
Alcaee, plectro dura navis, 
Dura fugae mala, dura belli ! 
Utrumque sacro digna silentio 
Mirantur umbrae dicere : sed magis 30 


Pugnas et exactos tyrannos 

Densum humeris bibit aure vulgus. 
Quid mirum, ubi illis carminibus stupens 
Demittit atras bellua centiceps 

Aures, et intorti capillis 35 

Eumenidum recreantur angues ? 
Q,uin et Prometheus, et Pelopis parens, 
Dulci laborum decipitur sono : 
Nec curat Orion leones 

Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 40 



Eheu ! fugaces, Posthume, Posthume, 
Labuntur anni : nec pietas moram 
Rugis et instanti senectas 
Afferet, indomitsque morti. 
Non, si trecenis quotquot eunt dies, 5 

Amice, places illacrymabilem 
Plutona tauris ; qui ter amplum 
Geryonen Tityonque tristi 
Compescit unda, scilicet omnibus, 
Quicunque terrae munere vescimur, 10 

Enaviganda, sive reges, 
Sive inopes erimus coloni. 
Frustra cruento Marte carebimus, 
Fractisque rauci fluctibus Hadrise ; 

Frustra per autumnos nocentem 15 

Corporibus metuemus Austrum. 


Visendus ater flumine languido 

Cocytus errans, et Danai" genus 

Infame, damnatusque longi 

Sisyphus ^Eolides laboris. 20 

Linquenda tellus, et domus, et placens 
Uxor : neque harum quas colis arborum 
Te, praeter invisas cupressos, 

Ulla brevem dominum sequetur. v 

Absumet haeres Caecuba dignior 25 

Servata centum clavibus ; et mero 

Tinget pavimentum superbum — 

Pontificum potiore coenis f 



N ^ \ 

Jam pauca aratro jugera regiae 
Moles relinquent : undique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu ; platanusque coelebs 
Evincet ulmos : tum violaria et 5 

Myrtus, et omnis copia narium 
Spargent olivetis odorem, 
Fertilibus domino priori : 
Tum spissa ramis laurea fervidos 
Excludet ictus. Non ita Romuli 10 

Praescriptum et intonsi Catonis 
Auspiciis, veterumque norma. 
Privatus illis census erat brevis, 
Commune magnum : nulla decempedis 

Metata privatis opacam 15 

Porticus excipiebat Arcton : 


Nec fortuitum spernere cespitem 
Leges sinebant, oppida publico 
Sumptu jubentes et deorum 
Templa novo decorare saxo. 20 



Otium divos rogat in patenti 
Prensus ^Egseo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit lunam, neque certa fulgent 

Sidera nautis : 
Otium bello furiosa Thrace, 5 

Otium Medi pharetra decori, 
Grosphe, non gemmis, neque purpura ve- 

nale, neque auro. 
Non enim gazae, neque consularis 
Submovet lictor miseros tumultus 10 

Mentis, et curas laqueata circum 

Tecta volantes. 
Vivitur parvo bene, cui paternum 
Splendet in mensa tenui salinum : 
Nec leves somnos timor aut cupido 15 

Sordidus aufert. 
Q,uid brevi fortes jaculamur asvo 
Multa ? Q,uid terras alio calentes 
Sole mutamus 1 Patriae quis exsul 

Se quoque fugit 1 20 

Scandit aeratas vitiosa naves 
Cura ; nec turmas equitum relinquit, 



Ocior cervis, et agente nimbos 

Ocior Euro. 
Laetus in praesens animus quod ultra est 
Oderit curare, et amara lento 
Temperet risu. Nihil est ab omni 

Parte beatum. 
Abstulit clarum cita mors Achillem ; 
Longa Tithonum minuit senectus ; 
Et mihi forsan, tibi quod negarit, 

Porriget hora. 
Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt vaccae ; tibi tollit hinnitum 
Apta quadrigis equa ; te bis Afro 

Murice tinctas 
Vestiunt lanae : mihi parva rura et 
Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camoenae 
Parca non mendax dedit, et malignum 

Spernere vulgus. 







Cur me querelis exanimas tuis ? 
Nec dis amicum est, nec mihi, te prius 
Obire, Maecenas, mearum 
Grande decus columenque rerum. 
Ah ! te meae si partem animae rapit 
Maturior vis, quid moror altera, 
Nec carus aeque, nec superstes 
Integer V Ille dies utramque 

. vft 


Ducet ruinam. Non ego perfidum 
Dixi sacramentum : ibimus, ibimus, 10 

Utcunque praecedes, supremum 
Carpere iter comites parati. 
Me nec Chimaerae spiritus igneae, 
Nec, si resurgat centimanus Gyges, 

Divellet unquam : sic potenti 15 

• Justitiae placitumque Parcis. 
Seu Libra, seu me Scorpius aspicit 
Formidolosus, pars violentior 
Natalis horae, seu tyrannus 

Hesperiae Capricornus undae ; 20 

Utrumque nostrum incredibili modo 
Consentit astrura. Te Jovis impio 
Tutela Saturno refulgens 
Eripuit, volucrisque fati 
Tardavit alas, quum populus frequens 25 

Laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum : 
Me truncus illapsus cerebro 
Sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum 
Dextra levasset, Mercurialium 
Custos virorum. Reddere victimas 30 

iEdemque votivam memento : 
Nos humilem feriemus agnam. 



Non ebur, neque aureum 
Mea renidet in domo lacunar : 

Non trabes Hymettise 
Premunt columnas ultima recisas 


Africa : neque Attali 5 

Ignotus haeres regiam occupavi : 

Nec Laconicas mihi 
Trahunt honestae purpuras clientae. 

At fides et ingeni 
Benigna vena est ; pauperemque dives 10 

Me petit : nihil supra 
Deos lacesso ; nec potentem amicum 

Largiora flagito, 
Satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 

Truditur dies die, 15 

Novoeque pergunt interire lunae : 

Tu secanda marmora 
Locas sub ipsum iunus ; et, sepulcri 

Immemor, struis domos ; 
Marisque Baiis obstrepentis urges 20 

Submovere littora, 
Parum locuples continente ripa. 

Quid 1 quod usque proximos 
Revellis agri terminos, et ultra 

Limites clientium 25 

Salis avarus ; pellitur paternos 

In sinu ferens deos 
Et uxor, et vir, sordidosque natos ! 

Nulla certior tamen, 
Rapacis Orci fine destinata, 30 

Aula divitem manet 
Herum. duid ultra. tendis 1 iEqua tellus 

Pauperi recluditur 
Regumque pueris : nec satelles Orci 

Callidum Promethea 35 

Revexit, auro captus. Hic superbum 

Tantalum atque Tantali 
Gehus coercet : hic levare functum 


Pauperem laboribus, 
Vocatus atque non vocatus, audit. 40 



Bacchum in remotis carmina rupibus 
Vidi docentem (credite, posteri), 
Nymphasque discentes, et aures 
Capripedum Satyrorum acutas. 
Evoe ! recenti mens trepidat metu, 5 

Plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 
Lsetatur ! Evoe ! parce, Liber ! 
Parce, gravi metuende thyrso ! 
Fas pervicaces est mihi Thyiadas, 
Vinique fontem, lactis et uberes 10 

Cantare rivos, atque truncis 
Lapsa cavis iterare mella. 
Fas et beatae conjugis additum 
Stellis honorem, tectaque Penthei 

Disjecta non leni ruina, 15 

Thracis et exitium Lycurgi. 
Tu flectis amnes, tu mare barbarum : 
Tu separatis uvidus in jugis 
Nodo coerces viperino 

Bistonidum sine fraude crines : 20 

Tu, quum parentis regna per arduum 
Cohors Gigantum scanderet impia, 
Rhcetum retorsisti leonis 
Unguibus horribilique mala ; 


Quanquam, choreis aptior et jocis 25 

Ludoque dictus, non sat idoneus 
Pugnse ferebaris : sed idem 
Pacis eras mediusque belli. 
Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
Cornu decorum, leniter atterens 30 

Caudam ; et recedentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 



Non usitata, non tenui ferar 
Penna biformis per liquidum aethera 
Vates : neque in terris morabor 
Longius : invidiaque major 
Urbes relinquam. Non ego, pauperum 5 

Sanguis parentum, non ego, quem vocas 
Dilecte, Maecenas, obibo, 
Nec Stygia cohibebor unda. 
Jam jam residunt cruribus asperae 
Pelles : et album mutor in alitem 10 

Superna : nascunturque leves 
Per digitos humerosque plumae. 
Jam Daedaleo ocior Icaro 
Visam gementis littora Bospori, 

Syrtesque Gaetulas, canorus 15 

Ales, Hyperboreosque campos. 
Me Colchus, et qui dissimuJat metum 
Marsae cohortis Dacus, et ultimi 


Noscent Geloni : me peritus 

Discet Iber, Rhodanique potor. 20 

' Absint inani funere nsenise, 

Luctusque turpes, et querimonise : 
Compesce clamorem, ac sepulcri 
Mitte supervacuos honores. 

C A R M I N U M 



Odi profanum vulgus, et arceo. 
Favete linguis : carmina non prius 
Audita Musarum sacerdos 
Virginibus puerisque canto. 
Regum timendorum in proprios greges, 5 

Reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis, 
Clari Giganteo triumpho, 
Cuncta supercilio moventis. 
Est ut viro vir latius ordinet 
Arbusta sulcis ; hic generosior 10 

Descendat in Campum petitor ; 
Moribus hic meliorque fama 
Contendat ; illi turba clientium 
Sit major : asqua lege Necessitas 

Sortitur insignes et imos ; 15 

Omne capax movet urna nomen. 
Districtus ensis cui super impia 
Cervice pendet, non Siculae dapes 
Dulcem elaborabunt saporem ; 

Non avium citharseque cantus 20 



Somnum reducent. Somnus agrestium 
Lenis virorum non humiles domos 
Fastidit, umbrosamve ripam, 
Non Zephyris agitata Tempe : 
Desiderantem quod satis est, neque 25 

Tumultuosum sollicitat mare, 
Nec saevus Arcturi cadentis 
Impetus, aut orientis Hcedi : 
Non verberatae grandine vineae ; 
Fundusve mendax, arbore nunc aquas 30 

Culpante, nunc torrentia agros 
Sidera, nunc hiemes iniquas. 
Contracta pisces sequora sentiunt, 
Jactis in altum molibus : huc frequens 

Caementa demittit redemptor 35 

Cum famulis, dominusque terra?, 
Fastidiosus : sed Timor et Minae 
Scandunt eodem quo dominus ; neque 
Decedit aerata triremi, et 

Post equitem sedet atra Cura. 40 

Q,uod si dolentem nec Phrygius lapis, 
Nec purpurarum sidere clarior 
Delenit usus, nec Falerna 

Vitis, Achsemeniumve costum ; 
Cur invidendis postibus et novo 45 

Sublime ritu moliar atrium 1 
Cur valle permutem Sabina 
Divitias operosiores 1 



Angustam amice pauperiem pati 
Robustus acri militia puer 
Condiscat ; et Parthos feroces 
Vexet eques metuendus hasta : 
Vitamque sub divo et trepidis agat 5 

In rebus. Ulum ex moenibus hosticis 
Matrona bellantis tyranni 
Prospiciens, et adulta virgo, 
Suspiret : " Eheu ! ne rudis agminum 
Sponsus lacessat regius asperum 10 

Tactu leonem, quem cruenta 
Per medias rapit ira caedes." 
Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori : 
Mors et fugacem persequitur virum, 
Nec parcit imbellis juventae 15 

Poplitibus timidove tergo. 
Virtus, repulsae nescia sordidae, 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus : 
Nec sumit aut ponit secures 

Arbitrio popularis aurae. 120 

Virtus, recludens immeritis mori 
Ccelum, negata tentat iter via : 
Ccetusque vulgares et udam 
Spernit humum fugiente penna. 
Est et fideli tuta silentio 25 

Merces : vetabo, qui Cereris sacrum 
Vulgarit arcanae, sub isdem 
Sit trabibus, fragilemve mecum 
Solvat faselum. Saepe Diespiter 
Neglectus incesto addidit integrum : 30 

Raro antecedentem scelestum 
Deseruit pede Pcena claudo. 



Justum ac tenacem propositi virum 
Non civium ardor prava jubentium, 
Non vultus instantis tyranni 

Mente quatit solida, neque Auster, 
Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriee, 5 

Nec fulminantis magna Jovis manus : 
Si fractus illabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinse. 
Hac arte Pollux, et vagus Hercules, 
Enisus, arces attigit igneas : 10 

Q,uos inter Augustus recumbens 
Purpureo bibit ore nectar. 
Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuus 
Vexere~tigres, indocili jugum 

Collo trahentes. Hac Quirinus 15 

Martis equis Acheronta fugit ; 
Gratum eloquuta consiliantibus 
Junone divis : " Ilion, Uion 
Fatalis, incestusque judex, 

Et mulier peregrina, vertit 20 

In pulverem, ex quo destituit deos 
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Castseque damnatum Minervse 
Cum populo et duce fraudulento. 
Jam nec Lacaenae splendet adulterse 25 

Famosus hospes, nec Priami domus 
Perjura pugnaces Achivos 
Hectoreis opibus refiingit : 
Nostrisque ductum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protenus et graves 30 

Iras, et invisum nepotem, 

Troica quem peperit sacerdos, 


Marti redonabo. Illum ego lucidas 
Inire sedes, ducere nectaris 

Succos, et adscribi quietis 35 

Ordinibus patiar deorum. 
Dum longus inter sseviat Ilion 
Romamque pontus ; qualibet exsules 
In parte regnanto beati : 

Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

Insultet armentum, et catulos ferae 
Celent inultae ; stet Capitolium 
Fulgens, triumphatisque possit 
Roma ferox dare jura Medis. 
Horrenda late nomen in ultimas 45 

Extendat oras ; qua medius liquor 
Secernit Europen ab Afro, 
Q,ua tumidus rigat arva Nilus : 
Aurum irrepertum, et sic melius situm 
Q,uum terra celat, spernere fortior, £0 

Quam cogere humanos in usus, 
Omne sacrum rapiente dextra. 
Quicunque mundo terminus obstitit, 
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens 

Qua parte debacchentur ignes, 55 

Qua nebulae pluviique rores. 
Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus 
Hac lege dico, ne, nimium pii, 
Rebusque fidentes, avitae 

Tecta velint reparare Trojae. 60 

Trojae renascens alite lugubri 
Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur, 
Ducente victrices catervas 
Conjuge me Jovis et sorore. 
Ter si resurgat murus aheneus 66 

Auctore Phcebo ; ter pereat meis 


Excisus Argivis ; ter uxor 

Capta virum puerosque ploret." 
Non hsec jocosae conveniunt lyrse. 
Q,uo, Musa, tendis ? Desine pervicax 70 

Referre sermones deorum, et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. 



Descende coelo, dic age tibia 
Regina longum, Calliope, melos, 
Seu-voce nunc mavis acuta, 
Seu fidibus citharaque Phcebi. 
Auditis ? an me ludit amabilis 5 

Insania ? Audire et videor pios 
Errare per lucos, amcense 

Q,uos et aquae subeunt et aurse. 
Me fabulosae, Vulture in Appulo, 
Altricis extra limen Apuliae, 10 

Ludo fatigatumque somno 

Fronde nova puerum palumbes 
Texere : mirum quod foret omnibus, 
Quicunque celsa? nidum Acherontise, 

Saltusque Bantinos, et arvum 15 

Pino;ue tenent humilis Forenti ; 
Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
Dormirem et ursis ; ut premerer sacra 
Lauroque collataque myrto, 

Non sine dis animosus infans. *20 

Vester, CamcenDe, vester in arduos 


Tollor Sabinos ; seu mihi frigidum 
Praeneste, seu Tibur supinum, 
Seu liquidae placuere Baiae. 
Vestris amicum fontibus et choris 25 

Non me Philippis versa acies retro, 
Devota non exstinxit arbos, 
Nec Sicula Palinurus unda. 
Utcunque mecum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem navita Bosporum 30 

Tentabo, et arentes arenas 
Littoris Assyrii viator : 
Visam Britannos hospitibus feros, 
Et laetum equino sanguine Concanum ; 

Visam pharetratos Gelonos, 35 

Et Scythicum inviolatus amnem. 
Vos Ccesarem altum, militia simul 
Fessas cohortes abdidit oppidis, 
Finire quaerentem labores 

Pierio recreatis antro. 40 

Vos lene consilium et datis, et dato 
Gaudetis, almae. Scimus ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turmam 
Fulmine sustulerit caduco, 
Qui terram inertem, qui mare temperat 45 

Ventosum, et urbes, regnaque tristia, 
Divosque, mortalesque turbas, 
Imperio regit unus aequo. 
Magnum illa terrorem intulerat Jovi 
Fidens juventus horrida brachiis, 50 

Fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pelion imposuisse Olympo. 
Sed quid Typhceus, et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 

Quid Rhcetus, evulsisque truncis 55 


Enceladus jaculator audax, 
Contra sonantem Palladis segida 
Possent ruentes 1 Hinc avidus stetit 
Vulcanus ; hinc matrona Juno, et 

Nunquam humeris positurus arcum, 60 

Qui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
Crines solutos, qui Lyciae tenet 
Dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo. 
Vis consili expers mole ruit sua : 65 

Vim temperatam di quoque provehunt 
In majus : idem odere vires 
Omne nefas animo moventes. 
Testis mearum centimanus Gyges 
Sententiarum ; notus et integrae 70 

Tentator Orion Dianae, 
Virginea domitus sagitta. 
Injecta monstris terra dolet suis, 
Moeretque partus fulmine luridum 

Missos ad Orcum : nec peredit 75 

Impositam celer ignis ^Etnen : 
Incontinentis nec Tityi jecur 
Relinquit ales, nequitiae additus 
Custos : amatorem trecentse 

Pirithoiim cohibent catenae. 80 


Cgelo tonantem credidimus Jovem 
Regnare : praesens divus habebitur 
Augustus, adjectis Britannis 
Imperio, gravibusque Persis. 


Milesne Crassi conjuge barbara 5 

Turpis maritus vixit ! et hostium 
(Proh curia, inversique mores !) 
Consenuit socerorum in arvis, 
Sub rege Medo, Marsus et Appulus, 
Anciliorum et nominis et togae 10 

Oblitus, seternseque Vestae, 
Incolumi Jove et urbe Roma ! 
Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli, 
Dissentientis conditionibus 

Foedis, et exemplo trahenti 15 

Perniciem veniens in aevum, 
Si non periret immiserabilis 
Captiva pubes. " Signa ego Punicis 
Affixa delubris, et arma 

Militibus sine caede," dixit, 20 

" Direpta vidi : vidi ego civium 
Retorta tergo brachia libero, 
Portasque non clausas, et arva 
Marte coli populata nostro. 
Auro repensus scilicet acrior 25 

Miles redibit ? Flagitio additis 
Damnum. Neque amissos colores 
Lana refert medicata fuco ; 
Nec vera virtus, quum semel excidit, 
Curat reponi deterioribus. 30 

Si pugnat extricata densis 
Cerva plagis : erit ille fortis, 
Q,ui perfidis se credidit hostibus; 
Et Marte Pcenos proteret altero, 

Qui lora restrictis lacertis 35 

Sensit iners, timuitque mortem. 
Hic, unde vitam sumeret inscius, 
Pacem duelJo miscuit. O pudor ! 


O magna Carthago, probrosis 

Altior Italiae ruinis ! " 40 

Fertur pudicae conjugis osculum, 
Parvosque natos, ut capitis minor, 
Ab se removisse, et virilem 
Torvus humi posuisse vultum : 
Donec labantes consilio patres 45 

Firmaret auctor nunquam alias dato, 
Interque mcerentes amicos 
Egregius properaret exsul. 
Atqui sciebat quse sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet : non aliter tamen 50 

Dimovit obstantes proquinquos, 
Et populum reditus morantem, 
Quam si clientum longa negotia 
Dijudicata lite relinqueret, 

Tendens Venafranos in agros, 55 

Aut Lacedsemonium Tarentum. 



Delicta majorum immeritus lues, 
Romane, donec templa refeceris, 
iEdesque labentes deorum, et 
Fceda nigro simulacra fumo. 
Dis te minorem quod geris, imperas : 
Hinc omne principium, huc refer exitum. 
Di multa neglecti dederunt 
Hesperiae mala luctuosae. 


Jam bis Monaeses et Pacori manus 
Non auspicatos contudit impetus 10 

Nostros, et adjecisse praedam 
Torquibus exiguis renidet. 
Pene occupatam seditionibus 
Delevit urbem Dacus et ^Ethiops : 

Hic classe formidatus, ille 15 

Missilibus melior sagittis. 
Fcecunda culpae saecula nuptias 
Primum inquinavere et genus et domos : 
Hoc fonte derivata clades 

In patriam populumque fluxit. 20 

Motus doceri gaudet Ionicos 
Matura virgo, et fingitur artibus : 
Jam nunc et incestos amores 
De tenero meditatur ungui. 
Non his juventus orta parentibus 25 

Infecit aequor sanguine Punico, 
Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit 
Antiochum, Hannibalemque dirum : 
Sed rusticorum mascula militum 
Proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus 30 

Versare glebas, et severae 
Matris ad arbitrium recisos 
Portare fustes, sol ubi montium 
Mutaret umbras, et juga demeret 

Bobus fatigatis, amicum 35 

Tempus agens abeunte curru. 
Damnosa quid non imminuit dies ? 
iEtas parentum, pejor avis, tulit 
Nos nequiores, mox daturos 

Progeniem vitiosiorem. 40 




Martiis ccelebs quid agam kalendis, 
Quid velint flores, et acerra thuris 
Plena, miraris, positusque carbo in 

Cespite vivo, 
Docte sermones utriusque linguae. 5 

Voveram dulces epulas et album 
Libero caprum, prope funeratus 

Arboris ictu. 
Hic dies anno redeunte festus 
Corticem astrictum pice dimovebit 10 

Amphorae, fumum bibere institutse 

Consule Tullo. 
Sume, Ma^cenas, cyathos amici 
Sospitis centum ; et vigiles lucernas 
Perfer in lucem : procul omnis esto 15 

Clamor et ira. 
Mitte civiles super Urbe curas : 
Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen : 
Medus infestis sibi luctuosus 

Dissidet armis : 20 

Servit, Hispanse vetus hostis orse, 
Cantaber, sera domitus catena : 
Jam Scythae laxo meditantur arcu 

Cedere campis. 
Negligens, ne qua populus laboret, 25 

Parce privatus nimium cavere ; 
Dona prresentis cape lajtus horae, et 
Linque severa. 




Mercuri, (nam te docilis magistro 
Movit Amphion lapides canendo,) 
Tuque, testudo, resonare septem 

Callida nervis, 
Nec loquax olim neque grata, nunc et 5 

Divitum mensis et amica templis, 
Dic modos Lyde quibus obstinatas 

Applicet aures ; 
Tu potes tigres comitesque silvas 
Ducere, et rivos celeres morari. 10 

Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 

Janitor auloe 
Cerberus ; quamvis furiale centum 
Muniant angues caput ejus, atque 
Spiritus teter saniesque manet 15 

Ore trilingui. 
Qnin et Ixion Tityosque vultu 
Risit iuvito : stetit urna paulum 
Sicca, dum grato Danai' puellas 

Carmine mulces. 20 

Audiat Lyde scelus atque notas 
Virginum poenas, et inane lymphae 
Dolium fundo pereuntis imo, 

Seraque fata 
Q,uae manent culpas etiam sub Orco. 25 

Impiae, (nam quid potuere majus ?) 
Impise sponsos potuere duro 
Perdere ferro ! 
Una de multis, face nuptiali 
Digna, perjurum fuit in parentem 30 



Splendide mendax, et in omne virgo 

Nobilis sevum : 
" Surge," quae dixit juveni marito, 
" Surge, ne longus tibi somnus, unde 
Non times, detur : socerum et scelestas 35 

Falle sorores ; 
Quae, velut nactae vitulos leaenae, 
Singulos, eheu ! lacerant. Ego, illis 
Mollior, nec te feriam, neque intra 

Claustra tenebo. 40 

Me pater saevis oneret catenis, 
Q,uod viro clemens misero peperci ; 
Me vel extremos Numidarum in agros 

Classe releget. 
I pedes qud te rapiunt et aurae, 45 

Dum favet nox et Venus : i secundo 
Omine, et nostri memorem sepulcro 
Scalpe querelam." 



\\ 1 

O fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mero non sine floribus, 
Cras donaberis hoedo, 
Cui frons turgida cornibus 
Primis, et Venerem et prcelia destinat : 
Frustra ; nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
Rubro sanguine rivos 
Lascivi soboles gregis. 


Te flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae 
Nescit tangere : tu frigus amabile 10 

Fessis vomere tauris 
Praebes et pecori vago. 
Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
Me dicente cavis impositam ilicem 

Saxis, unde loquaces 15 

Lymphae desiliunt tuae. 



Herculis ritu, modo dictus, o plebs, 
Morte venalem petiisse laurum, 
Caesar Hispana repetit Penates 

Victor ab ora. 
Unico gaudens mulier marito 5 

Prodeat, justis operata divis ; 
Et soror clari ducis : et decorae 

Supplice vitta 
Virginum matres juvenumque nuper 
Sospitum. Vos, o pueri, et pwellae 10 

Jam virum expertae, male ominatis 

Parcite verbis. 
Hic dies vere mihi festus atras 
Eximet curas : ego nec tumultum, 
Nec mori per vim metuam, tenente 15 

Cassare terras. 
I, pete unguentum, puer, et coronas, 
Et cadum Marsi memorem duelli, 
Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem 

Fallere testa. 20 


Dic et argutae properet Neaerae 
Myrrhinum nodo cohibere crinem : 
Si per invisum mora janitorem 

Fiet, abito. 
Lenit albescens animos capillus 25 

Litium et rixae cupidos protervae : 
Non ego hoc ferrem, calidus juventa, 

Consule Planco. 



Inclusam Danaen turris ahenea, 
Robustseque fores, et vigilum canum 
Tristes excubiae, munierant satis 

Nocturnis ab adulteris ; 
Si non Acrisium, virginis abditae 5 

Custodem pavidum, Jupiter et Venus 
Risissent : fore enim tutum iter et patens 

Converso in pretium deo. 
Aurum per medios ire satellites, 
Et perrumpere amat.saxa, potentius 10 

Ictu fulmineo. Concidit auguris 

Argivi domus, ob lucrum 
Demersa excidio. Diffidit urbium 
Portas vir Macedo, et subruit aemulos 
Reges muneribus. Munera navium 15 

Saevos illaqueant duces. 
Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam, 
Majorumque fames. Jure perhorrui 
Late conspicuum tollere verticem, 

Maecenas, equitum decus^ 20 


Q,uant6 quisque sibi plura negaverit, 
A dis plura feret. Nil cupientium 
Nudus castra peto, et transfuga divitum 

Partes linquere gestio ; 
Contemptae dominus splendidior rei, 25 

duam si quidquid arat impiger Appulus 
Occultare meis dicerer horreis, 

Magnas inter opes inops. 
Purae rivus aquse, silvaque jugerum 
Paucorum, et segetis certa fides meae, 30 

Fulgentem imperio fertilis Africee 

Fallit sorte beatior. 
Quanquam nec Calabrae mella ferunt apes, 
Nec Laestrygonia Bacchus in amphora. 
Languescit mihi, nec pinguia Gallicis 35 

Crescunt vellera pascuis ; 
Importuna tamen pauperies abest ; 
Nec, si plura velim, tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melius parva cupidine ' 

Vectigalia porrigam, 40 

Quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
Campis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa. Bene est cui Deus obtulit 

Parca quod satis est manu. 



^Eli, vetusto nobilis ab Lamo, 
(duando et priores hinc Lamias ferunt 
Denominatos, et nepotum 

Per memores genus omne fastos 


Auctore ab illo ducit originem ; 5 

Qui Formiarum moenia dicitur 
Princeps, et innantem Maricae 
Littoribus tenuisse Lirim, 
Late tyrannus) ; cras foliis nemus 
Multis et alga littus inutili 10 

Demissa tempestas ab Euro 
Sternet, aquae nisi fallit augur 
Annosa cornix. Dum potes, aridum 
Compone lignum : cras Genium mero 

Curabis, et porco bimestri, 15 

Cum famulis operum solutis. 



Faune, Nympharum fugientum amator, 
Per meos fines et aprica rura 
Lenis incedas, abeasque parvis 

^Equus alumnis : 
Si tener pleno cadit haedus anno, 5 

Larga nec desunt Veneris sodali 
Vina craterse, vetus ara multo 

Fumat odore. 
Ludit herboso pecus ornne campo, 
Quum tibi Nonse redeunt Decembres : 10 

Festus in pratis vacat otioso 

Cum bove pagus : 
Inter audaces lupus errat agnos : 
Spargit agrestes tibi silva frondes : 
Gaudet invisam pepulisse fossor 15 

Ter pede terram. 




Quantum distet ab Inacho 
Codrus, pro patria. non timidus mori, 

Narras, et genus ^Eaci, 
Et pugnata sacro bella sub Uio : 

Q,uo Chium pretio cadum 5 

Mercemur, quis aquam temperet ignibus, 

Quo praebente domum et quota 
Pelignis caream frigoribus, taces. 

Da Lunae propere novae, 
Da Noctis mediae, da, puer, auguris 10 

Murenae : tribus aut novem 
Miscentur cyathis pocula commodis. 

Qui Musas amat impares, 
Ternos ter cyathos attonitus petet 

Vates : tres prohibet supra 15 

Rixarum metuens tangere Gratia, 

Nudis juncta sororibus. 
Insanire juvat. Cur Berecynthise 

Cessant flamina tibiae t 
Cur pendet tacita fistula cum lyra 1 20 

Parcentes ego dexteras 
Odi : sparge rosas ; audiat invidus 

Dementem strepitum Lycus, 
Et vicina seni non habilis Lyco. 




O nata mecum consule Manlio, 
Seu tu querelas, sive geris jocos, 
Seu rixam et insanos amores, 
Seu facilem, pia testa, somnum, 
Quocunque lectum nomine Massicum 5 

Servas, moveri digna bono die : 
Descende, Corvino jubente, 
Promere languidiora vina. 
Non ille, quanquam Socraticis madet 
Sermonibus, te negliget horridus : 10 

Narratur et prisci Catonis 
Sa&pe mero caluisse virtus. 
Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves 
Plerumque duro : tu sapientium 

Curas et arcanum jocoso 15 

Consilium retegis Lyaeo : 
Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis 
Viresque ; et addis cornua pauperi, 
Post te neque iratos trementi 

Regum apices, neque militum arma. 20 

Te Liber, et, si laeta aderit, Venus, 
Segnesque nodum solvere Gratiae, 
Vivaeque producent lucernae, 
Dum rediens fugat astra Phoebus. 




Montium custos nemorumque, virgo, 
Q,usb laborantes utero puellas 
Ter vocata audis, adimisque leto, 

Diva triformis ; 
Imminens villae tua pinus esto, 
duam per exactos ego laetus annos 
Verris obliquum meditantis ictum 

Sanguine donem. 



Cgelo supinas si tuleris manus 
Nascente Luna, rustica Phidyle, 

Si thure placaris et horna 

Fruge Lares, avidaque porca ; 
Nec pestilentem sentiet Africum 5 

Fcecunda vitis, nec sterilem seges 

Rubiginem, aut dulces alumni 
Pomifero grave tempus anno. 
Nam, quae nivali pascitur Algido 
Devota quercus inter et ilices, 10 

Aut crescit Albanis in herbis 
Victima, pontificum secures 
Cervice tinget. Te nihil attinet 
Tentare multa caede bidentium 

Parvos coronantem marino 15 


Rore deos, fragilique myrto. 
Immunis aram si tetigit manus, 
Non sumptuosa blandior hostia, 
Mollivit aversos Penates 

Farre pio et saliente mica. 20 



Intactis opulentior 
Thesauris Arabum et divitis Indise, 

Caementis licet occupes 
Tyrrhenum omne tuis et mare Apulicum ; 

Si figit adamantinos 5 

Summis verticibus dira Necessitas 

Clavos, non animum metu, 
Non mortis laqueis expedies caput. 

Campestres melius Scytha3, 
Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos, 10 

Vivunt, et rigidi Getae ; 
Immetata quibus jugera liberas 

Fruges et Cererem ferunt, 
Nec cultura placet longior annua ; 

Defunctumque laboribus 15 

iEquali recreat sorte vicarius., 

Ulic matre carentibus 
Privignis mulier temperat innocens ; 

Nec dotata regit virum 
Conjux, nec nitido fidit adultero : 20 

Dos est magna parentium 
Virtus, et metuens alterius viri 


Certo foedere castitas, 
Et peccare nefas, aut pretium emori. 

O quisquis volet impias 25 

Caedes, et rabiem tollere civicam, 

Si quaeret pater urbium 
Subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 

Refraenare licentiam, 
Clarus postgenitis : quatenus, heu nefas ! 30 

Virtutem incolumem odimus, 
Sublatam ex oculis quserimus, invidi. 

Quid tristes querimoniae, 
Si non supplicio culpa reciditur 1 

Q,uid leges, sine moribus 35 

Vanae, proficiunt 1 si neque fervidis 

Pars inclusa caloribus 
Mundi, nec Boreae finitimum latus, 

Durataeque solo nives, 
Mercatorem abigunt ? horrida callidi 40 

Vincunt aequora navitae ? 
Magnum pauperies opprobrium jubet 

Quidvis et facere et pati, 
Virtutisque viam deserere arduae 1 

Vel nos in Capitolium, 45 

Q,uo clamor vocat et turba faventium, 

Vel nos in mare proximum 
Gemmas, et lapides, aurum et inutile, 

Summi materiam mali, 
Mittamus, scelerum si bene poenitet. 50 

Eradenda cupidinis 
Pravi sunt elementa ; et tenerse nimis 

Mentes asperioribus 
Formandse studiis. Nescit equo rudis 

Hserere ingenuus puer, 55 

Venarique timet ; ludere doctior, 


Seu Graeco jubeas trocho, 
Seu malis vetita legibus alea : 

Q,uum perjura patris fides 
Gonsortem socium fallat et hospitem, 60 

Indignoque pecuniam 
Hseredi properet. Scilicet improbge 

Crescunt divitiae : tamen 
Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 



Q,uo me, Bacche, rapis tui 
Plenum ? Quae nemora, quos agor in specus, 

Velox mente nova ? Quibus 
Antris egregii Caesaris audiar 

JEternum meditans decus 5 

Stellis inserere et consilio Jovis ? 

Dicam insigne, recens, adhuc 
Indictum ore alio. Non secus in jugis 

Exsomnis stupet Evias, 
Hebrum prospiciens, et nive candidam 10 

Thracen, ac pede barbaro 
Lustratam Rhodopen. Ut mihi devio 

Ripas et vacuum nemus 
Mirari libet ! O Naiadum potens, 

Baccharumque valentium 15 

Proceras manibus vertere fraxinos ! 

Nil parvum, aut humili modo, 
Nil mortale loquar. Dulce periculum, 

O Lenaee, sequi deum 
Cingentem viridi tempora pampino ! 20 




Vixi choreis nuper idoneus, 
Et militavi non sine gloria : 
Nunc arma defunctumque bello 
Barbiton hic paries habebit, 
Lsevum marinse qui Veneris latus 5 

Custodit. Hic, hic ponite lucida 
Funalia et vectes et arcus 

Oppositis foribus minaces. t 

O quae beatam, diva, tenes Cyprum, et 
Memphin carentem Sithonia nive, 10 

Regina, sublimi flagello 
Tange Chloen semel arrogantem. 



Impios parrae recinentis omen 
Ducat, et praegnans canis, aut ab agro 
Rava decurrens lupa Lanuvino, 

Fcetaque vulpes : 
Rumpat et serpens iter institutum, 5 

Si per obliquum similis sagittae 
Terruit mannos. Ego cui timebo, 

Providus auspex, 
Antequam stantes repetat paludes 
Imbrium divina avis imminentum, 10 

Oscinem corvum prece suscitabo 

Solis ab ortu. 


Sis licet felix ubicunque mavis, 

Et memor nc-stri, Galatea, vivas : 

Teque nec lsevus vetet ire picus, 15 

Nec vaga cornix. 
Sed vides quanto trepidet tumultu 
Pronus Orion. Ego quid sit ater 
Hadrise novi sinus et quid albus 

Peccet Iapyx. 20 

Hostium uxores puerique csecos 
Sentiant motus orientis Austri, et 
iEquoris nigri fremitum, et trementes 

Verbere ripas ! 
Sic et Europe niveum doloso 25 

Credidit tauro latus, et scatentem 
Belluis pontum mediasque fraudes 

Palluit audax. 
Nuper in pratis studiosa florum, et 
Debitae Nymphis opifex coronae, 30 

Nocte sublustri nihil astra praeter 

Vidit et undas. 
Quae simul centum tetigit potentem 
Oppidis Creten, " Pater, o relictum 
Filise nomen, pietasque," dixit, 35 

" Victa furore ! 
Unde ? quo veni ? Levis una mors est 
Virginum culpae. Vigilansne ploro 
Turpe commissum 1 an vitiis carentem 

Ludit imago 40 

Vana, quae porta fugiens eburna 
Somnium ducit ? Meliusne fluctus 
Ire per longos fuit, an recentes 

Carpere flores 1 
Si quis infamem mihi nunc juvencum 45 

Dedat iratae ! lacerare ferro, et 


Frangere enitar modd multum amati 

Cornua monstri. 
Impudens liqui patrios Penates : 
Impudens Orcum moror ! O deorum 50 

Si quis haec audis, utinam inter errem 

Nuda leones ! 
Antequam turpis macies decentes 
Occupet malas, teneraeque succus 
Defluat praedae, speciosa quaero 55 

Pascere tigres. 
1 Vilis Europe,' pater urget absens, 
1 Quid mori cessas ? Potes hac ab orno 
Pendulum zona bene te sequuta 

Laedere collum. 60 

Sive te rupes et acuta leto 
Saxa delectant, age, te procellae 
Crede veloci : nisi herile mavis 

Carpere pensum, 
Regius sanguis, dominasque tradi 65 

Barbarae pellex.' " Aderat querenti 
Perfidum ridens Venus, et remisso 

Filius arcu. 
Mox, ubi lusit satis, " Abstineto," 
Dixit, " irarum calidaeque rixae, 70 

duum tibi invisus laceranda reddet 

Cornua taurus. 
Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis : 
Mitte singultus : bene ferre magnam 
Disce fortunam : tua sectus orbis 75 

Nomina ducet." 




Festo quid potius die 
Neptuni faciam 1 Prome reconditum, 

Lyde, strenua Caecubum j 
Munitaeque adhibe vim sapientiae. 

Inclinare meridiem 5 

Sentis ; ac, veluti stet volucris dies, 

Parcis deripere horreo 
Cessantem Bibuli consulis amphoram. 

Nos cantabimus invicem 
Neptunum, et virides Nereidum comas : 10 

Tu curva recines lyra 
Latonam, et celeris spicula Cynthiae : 

Summo carmine, quae Cnidon 
Fulgentesque tenet Cycladas, et Paphon 

Junctis visit oloribus : 15 

Dicetur merita Nox quoque naenia. 



Tyrrhena regum progenies, tibi 
Non ante verso lene merum cado 
Cum flore, Maecenas, rosarum, et 
Pressa tuis balanus capillis 
Jamdudum apud me est. Eripe te morae : 
Ne semper udum Tibur et ^Esulae 
Declive contempleris arvum, et 
Telegoni juga parricidae. 


Fastidiosam desere copiam, et 
Molem propinquam nubibus arduis : 10 

Omitte mirari beatae 

Fumum et opes strepitumque Romae. 
Plerumque gratae divitibus vices ; 
Mundaeque parvo sub lare pauperum 

Ccenae, sine aulaeis et ostro, 15 

Sollicitam explicuere frontem. 
Jam clarus occultum Andromedes pater 
Ostendit ignem : jam Procyon furit, 
Et stella vesani Leonis, 

Sole dies referente siccos. 20 

Jam pastor umbras cum grege languido 
Rivumque fessus quaerit, et horridi 
Dumeta Siivani ; caretque 
Ripa vagis taciturna ventis. 
Tu civitatem quis deceat status 25 

Curas, et Urbi sollicitus times 
Quid Seres et regnata Cyro 

Bactra parent, Tanaisque discors. 
Prudens futuri temporis exitum 
Caliginosa nocte premit Deus ; 30 

Ridetque, si mortalis ultra 

Fas trepidat. Q,uod adest, memento 
Componere aequus : caetera fluminis 
Ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo 

Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 35 

In mare, nunc lapides adesos 
Stirpesque raptas et pecus et domos 
Volventis una, non sine montium 
Clamore vicinaeque silvae, 

Quum fera diluvies quietos 40 

Irritat amnes. Ille potens sui 
Laetusque deget, cui licet in diem 


Dixisse, " Vixi " : cras vel atra 
Nube polum Pater occupato, 
Vel sole puro : non tamen irritum 45 

Quodcunque retro est efficiet ; neque 
Diffinget infectumque reddet 
Quod fugiens semel hora vexit. 
Fortuna, ssevo laeta negotio, et 
Ludum insolentem ludere pertinax, 50 

Transmutat incertos honores, 
Nunc mihi, nunc alii benigna» 
Laudo manentem : si celeres quatit 
Pennas, resigno quae dedit, et mea 

Virtute me involvo, probamque 55 

Pauperiem sine dote quaero. 
Non est meum, si mugiat Africis 
Malus j>rocellis, ad miseras preces 
Decurrere, et votis pacisci 

Ne Cypriae Tyriaeque merces 60 

Addant avaro divitias mari. 
Tum me, biremis praesidio scaphae, 
Tutum per ^Egaeos tumultus 
Aura feret geminusque Pollux. 


Es!egi monumentum aere perennius, 

Regalique situ pyramidum altius ; 

duod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 

Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis 

Annorum series, et fuga temporum. 

Non omnis moriar : multaque pars mei 


Vitabit Libitinam. Usque ego postera 

Crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium 

Scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex. 

Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus, 10 

Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 

Regnavit populorum, ex humili potens 

Princeps ^Eolium carmen ad Italos 

Deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam 

Quaesitam meritis, et mihi Delphica 15 

Lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam. 






Pindarum quisquis studet semulari, 
Jule, ceratis ope Daedalea 
Nititur pennis, vitreo daturus 

Nomina ponto. 
Monte decurrens velut amnis, imbres 5 

Q,uem super notas aluere ripas, 
Fervet immensusque ruit profundo 

Pindarus ore ; 
Laurea donandus Apollinari, 
Seu per audaces nova dithyrambos 10 

Verba devolvit, numerisque fertur 

Lege solutis; 
Seu deos, regesve canit, deorum 
Sanguinem, per quos cecidere justa 
Morte Centauri, cecidit tremendae 15 

Flamma Chimcerse ; 
Sive, quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma ccelestes, pugilemve equumve 
Dicit, et centum potiore signis 

Munere donat ; 20 


Flebili sponsae juvenemve raptum 
Plorat, et vires animumque moresque 
Aureos educit in astra, nigroque 

Invidet Orco. 
Multa Dircaeum levat aura cycnum, 25 

Tendit, Antoni, quoties in altos 
Nubium tractus : ego, apis Matinae 

More modoque, 
Grata carpentis thyma per laborem 
Plurimum, circa nemus uvidique 30 

Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 

Carmina fingo. 
Concines majore poeta plectro 
Caesarem, quandoque trahet feroces 
Per sacrum clivum, merita decorus 35 

Fronde, Sicambros; 
Q,uo nihil majus meliusve terris 
Fata donavere, bonique divi, 
Nec dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum 

Tempora priscum. 40 

Concines laetosque dies et Urbis 
Publicum ludum, super impetrato 
Fortis Augusti reditu, forumque 

Litibus orbum. 
Tum meae (si quid loquar audiendum) 45 

Vocis accedet bona pars ; et, o Sol 
Pulcher ! o laudande ! canam, recepto 

Caesare felix. 
Tuque dum procedis, " Io triumphe ! " 
Non semel dicemus, " Io triumphe ! " 50 

Civitas omnis, dabimusque divis 

Thura benignis. 
Te decem tauri totidemque vaccae, 
Me tener solvet vitulus, relicta 


Matre, qui largis juvenescit herbis 55 

In mea vota, 
Fronte curvatos imitatus igne3 
Tertium Lunse referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit niveus videri, 

Csetera fulvus. 60 




CIuem tu, Melpomene, semel 
Nascentem placido Iumine videris, 

Illum non labor Isthmius 
Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger 

Curru ducet Achaico 5 

Victorem ; neque res bellica Deliis 

Ornatum foliis ducem, 
duod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 

Ostendet Capitolio : 
Sed quse Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt, 10 

Et spissae nemorum comae, 
Fingent ^Eolio carmine nobilem. 

Romae principis urbium 
Dignatur soboles inter amabiles 

Vatum ponere me choros ; 15 

Et jam dente minus mordeor invido. 

O, testudinis aurese 
Dulcem quae strepitum, Pieri, temperas ; 

O mutis quoque piscibus 
Donatura cycni, si libeat, sonum ! 20 


Totum muneris hoc tui est, 
Quod monstror digito praetereuntium 

Romanae fidicen lyrae : 
Quod spiro et placeo (si placeo), tuum est. 



Q,ualem ministrum fulminis alitem 
(Cui rex deorum regnum in aves vagas 
Permisit, expertus fidelem 
Jupiter in Ganymede flavo) 
Olim juventas, et patrius vigor, 5 

Nido laborum propulit inscium ; 
Vernique, jam nimbis remotis, 
Insolitos docuere nisus 
Venti paventem ; mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostem vividus impetus ; 10 

Nunc in reluctantes dracones 
Egit amor dapis atque pugnae : 
Qualemve laetis caprea pascuis 
Intenta fulvae matris ab ubere 

Jam lacte depulsum leonem, 15 

Dente novo peritura, vidit : 
Videre Rhaetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici ; quibus 
Mos unde deductus per omne 

Tempus Amazonia securi 20 

Dextras obarmet, quaerere distuli 
(Nec scire fas est omnia) : sed diu 
Lateque victrices catervae, 
Consiliis juvenis revictae, 


Sensere quid mens rite, quid indoles, 25 

Nutrita faustis sub penetralibus, 
Posset, quid Augusti paternus 
In pueros animus Nerones. 
Fortes creantur fortibus ; et bonis 
Est in juvencis, est in equis, patrum 30 

Virtus : nec imbellem feroces 
Progenerant aquilse columbam. 
Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 
Rectique cultus pectora roborant : 

Utcunque defecere mores, 35 

Indecorant bene nata culpae. 
duid debeas, o Roma, Neronibus, 
Testis Metaurum flumen, et Hasdrubal 
Devictus, et pulcher fugatis 

Jile dies Latio tenebris, 40 

Q,ui primus alma risit adorea, 
Dirus per urbes Afer ut Italas, 
Ceu flamma per tasdas, vel Eurus 
Per Siculas equitavit undas. 
Post hoc secundis usque laboribus 45 

Romana pubes crevit, et impio 
Vastata Pcenorum tumultu 
Fana deos habuere rectos. 
Dixitque tandem perfidus Ilannibal : 
" Cervi, luporum praeda rapacium, 50 

Sectamur ultro quos opimus 

Fallere et effugere est triumphus. 
Gens, quae cremato fortis ab Uio 
Jactata Tuscis oequoribus sacra, 

Natosque, maturosque patres, 55 

Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes, 
Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus 
Nigrae feraci fiondis in Algido, 


Per damna, per caedes, ab ipso 

Ducit opes animumque ferro. 60 

Non Hydra secto corpore firmior 
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem ; 
Monstrumve submisere Colchi 
Majus, Echioniaeve Thebae. 
Merses profundo, pulchrior evenit : 65 

Luctere, multa proruet integrum 
Cum laude victorem, geretque 
Proelia conjugibus loquenda. 
Carthagini jam non ego nuntios 
Mittam superbos : occidit, occidit 70 

Spes omnis et fortuna nostri 

Nominis, Hasdrubale interempto. 
Nil Claudiae non perficient manus, 
Quas et benigno numine Jupiter 

Defendit, et curse sagaces 75 

Expediunt per acuta belli." 



Divis orte bonis, optime Romulae 
Custos gentis, abes jam nimium diu : 
Maturum reditum pollicitus Patrum 

Sancto concilio, redi. 
Lucem redde tuae, dux bone, patrise : 
Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuus 
Affulsit, populo gratior it dies, 

Et soles melius nitent. 


Ut mater juvenem, quem Notus invido 

Flatu Carpathii trans maris aequora 10 

Cunctantem spatio longius annuo 

Dulci distinet a domo, 
Votis ominibusque et precibus vocat, 
Curvo nec faciem littore dimovet : 
Sic desideriis icta fidelibus 15 

Quaerit patria Caesarem. 
Tutus bos etenim rura perambulat : 
Nutrit rura Ceres, almaque Faustitas: 
Pacatum volitant per mare navitae : 

Culpari metuit Fides : 20 

Nullis polluitur casta domus stupris : 
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas : 
Laudantur simili prole puerperae : 

_ Culpam Poena premit comes. 
Quis Parthum paveat ? quis gelidum Scythen 1 25 
Quis, Germania quos horrida parturit 
Fcetus, incolumi Caesare 1 quis ferae 

Bellum curet Iberiae 1 
Condit quisque diem collibus in suis, 
Et vitem viduas ducit ad arbores : 30 

Hinc ad vina redit laetus, et alteris 

Te mensis adhibet deum : 
Te multa prece, te prosequitur mero 
Defuso pateris ; et Laribus tuum 
Miscet numen, uti Graecia Castoris 35 

Et magni memor Herculis. 
11 Longas o utinam, dux bone, ferias 
Praestes Hesperiae ! " dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi, 

duum sol Oceano subest. 40 




Dive, quem proles Niobea magnae 
Vindicem linguae, Tityosque raptor, 
Sensit, et Troja3 prope victor altae 

Phthius Achilles, 
Caeteris major, tibi niiles impar ; 5 

Filius quanquam Thetidos marinae 
Dardanas turres quateret tremenda 

Cuspide pugnax : 
Ille, mordaci velut icta ferro 
Pinus, aut impulsa cupressus Euro, 10 

Procidit late, posuitque collum in 

Pulvere Teucro. 
Illejion, inclusus equo Minervee 
Sacra mentito, male feriatos 
Troas et laetam Priami choreis 15 

Falleret aulam : 
Sed palam captis gravis, heu nefas ! heu ! 
Nescios fari pueros Achivis 
Ureret flammis, etiam latentem 

Matris in alvo ; 20 

Ni, tuis victus Venerisque gratae 
Vocibus, divum Pater adnuisset 
Rebus iEneae potiore ductos 

Alite muros. 
Doctor Argivae fidicen Thaliae, 25 

Phoebe, qui Xantho lavis amne crines, 
Dauniae defende decus Camcenae, 

Levis Agyieu ! 
Spiritum Phcebus mihi, Phcebus artem 
Carminis nomenque dedit poetae. 30 


Virginum primae, puerique claris 

Patribus orti, 
Deliae tutela deae, fugaces 
Lyncas et cervos cohibentis arcu, 
Lesbium servate pedem, meique 35 

Pollicis ictum : 
Rite Latonae puerum canentes, 
Rite crescentem face Noctilucam, 
Prosperam frugum, celeremque pronos 

Volvere menses. 40 

Nupta jam dices : " Ego dis amicum, 
Saeculo festas referente luces, 
Reddidi carmen, docilis modorum 

Vatis Horati." 



Diffugere nives : redeunt jam gramina campis, 

Arboribusque comae : 
Mutat terra viees, et decrescentia ripas 

Flumina praetereunt. 
Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet 5 

Ducere nuda choros. 
Immortalia ne speres monet Annus, et almum 

Quae rapit Hora diem. 
Frigora mitescunt Zephyris : Ver proterit /Estas, 

Interitura, simul 10 

Pomifer Autumnus fruges effuderit : et mox 

Bruma recurrit iners. 


Damna tamen celeres reparant coelestia lunae : 

Nos, ubi decidimus 
Q,uo pius iEneas, quo dives Tullus, et Ancus, 15 

Pulvis et umbra sumus. 
duis scit an adjiciant hodiernse crastina summae 

Tempora di superi ? 
Cuncta manus avidas fugient hseredis, amico 

Quae dederis animo. 20 

Q,uum semel occideris, et de te splendida Minos 

Fecerit arbitria, 
Non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 

Restituet pietas. 
Infernis neque enim tenebris Diana pudicum 25 

Liberat Hippolytum : 
Nec Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro 

Vincula Pirithoo. 



Donarem pateras grataque commodus, 
Censorine, meis aera sodalibus, 
Donarem tripodas, praemia fortium 
Graiorum ; neque tu pessima munerum 
Ferres, divite me scilicet artium 5 

Q,uas aut Parrhasius protulit, aut Scopas ; 
Hic saxo, liquidis ille coloribus 
Solers nunc hominem ponere, nunc deum : 
Sed non hsec mihi vis, nec tibi talium 
Res est aut animus deliciarum egens. 10 

Gaudes carminibus : carmina possumus 


Donare, et pretium dicere muneri. 

Non incisa notis marmora publicis, 

Per quae spiritus et vita redit bonis 

Post mortem ducibus ; non celeres fugae, 15 

Rejectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minse ; 

Non incendia Carthaginis impiae, 

Ejus qui domita nomen ab Africa 

Lucratus rediit, clarius indicant 

Laudes, quam Calabrae Pierides : neque, 20 

Si chartae sileant quod bene feceris, 

Mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Uiae 

Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas 

Obstaret meritis invida Romuli 1 

Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus JEacum 25 

Virtus et favor et lingua potentium 

Vatum divitibus consecrat insulis. 

Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori : 

Ccelo Musa beat. Sic Jovis interest 

Optatis epulis impiger Hercules : 30 

Clarum Tyndaridce sidus ab infimis 

duassas eripiunt aequoribus rates : 

Ornatus viridi tempora pampino 

Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus. 



Ne forte credas interitura quae, 
Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum, 
Non ante vulgatas per artes 
Verba loquor socianda chordis. 


Non, si priores Maeonius tenet 5 

Sedes Homerus, Pindaricae latent, 
Ceaeque, et Alcaei minaces, 
Stesichorique graves Camoenae : 
Nec, si quid olim lusit Anacreon, 
Delevit aetas : spirat adhuc amor, 10 

Vivuntque commissi calores 
^Eoliae fidibus puellae. 
Non sola comptos arsit adulteri 
Crines, et aurum vestibus illitum 

Mirata, regalesque cultus, 15 

Et comites, Helene Lac3ena : 
Primusve Teucer tela Cydonio 
Direxit arcu : non semel Ilios 
Vexata : non pugnavit ingens 

Idomeneus Sthenelusve solus 20 

Dicenda Musis proelia : non ferox 
Hector, vel acer Deiphobus graves 
Excepit ictus pro pudicis 

Conjugibus puerisque primus. 
Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 25 

Multi : sed omnes illacrymabiles 
Urgentur, ignotique, longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 
Pauliim sepultae distat inertiae 
Celata virtus. Non ego te meis 30 

Chartis inornatum silebo, 
Totve tuos patiar labores 
Impune, Lolli, carpere lividas 
Obliviones. Est animus tibi 

Rerumque prudens, et secundis 35 

Temporibus dubiisque rectus ; 
Vindex avarae fraudis, et abstinens 
Ducentis ad se cuncta pecuniae ; 


Consulque non unius anni, 

Sed quoties bonus atque fidus 40 

Judex honestum praetulit utili, et 
Rejecit alto dona nocentium 
Vultu, et per obstantes catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 
Non possidentem multa vocaveris 45 

Recte beatum : rectius occupat 
Nomen beati, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapienter uti, 
Duramque callet pauperiem pati, 
Pejusque leto flagitium timet ; 50 

Non ille pro caris amicis 
Aut patria timidus perire. 



O crudelis adhuc, et Veneris muneribus potens, 
Insperata tuae quum veniet pluma superbiae, 
Et, quse nunc humeris involitant, deciderint comae, 
Nunc et qui color est puniceae flore prior rosae 
Mutatus Ligurinum in faciem verterit hispidam ; 
Dices, " Heu ! " (quoties te in speculo videris alterum) 
11 Quae rnens est hodie, cur eadem non puero fuit ? 
Vel cur his animis incolumes non redeunt genae 1 " 




Est mihi nonum superantis annum 
Plenus Albani cadus : est in horto, 
Phylli, nectendis apium coronis : 

Est hederae vis 
Multa, qua crines religata fulges. 5 

Ridet argento domus : ara, castis 
Vincta verbenis, avet immolato 

Spargier agno. 
Cuncta festinat manus, huc et illuc 
Cursitant mixtae pueris puellae : 10 

Sordidum flammae trepidant rotantes 

Vertice fumum. 
Ut tamen noris quibus advoceris 
Gaudiis ; Idus tibi sunt agendae, 
Giui dies mensem Veneris marinae 15 

Findit Aprilem : 
Jure solemnis mihi, sanctiorque 
Pene natali proprio, quod ex hac 
Luce Maecenas meus afnuentes 

Ordinat annos. 20 



Jam veris comites, quae mare temperant, 
Impellunt animae lintea Thraciae : 
Jam nec prata rigent, nec fluvii strepunt 
Hiberna nive turgidi. 


Nidum ponit, Ityn flebiliter gemens, 5 

Infelix avis, et Cecropiae domus 
iEternum opprobrium, qu6d male barbaras 

Regum est ulta libidines. 
Dicunt in tenero gramine pinguium 
Custodes ovium carmina fistula, 10 

Delectantque deum cui pecus et nigri 

Colles Arcadiae placent. 
Adduxere sitim tempora, Virgili : 
Sed pressum Calibus ducere Liberum 
Si gestis, juvenum nobilium cliens, 15 

Nardo vina merebere. 
Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum 
Qui nunc Sulpitiis accubat horreis, 
Spes donare novas largus, amaraque 

Curarum eluere efficax. 20 

Ad quae si properas gaudia, cum tua. 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Immunem meditor tingere poculis, 

Plena dives ut in domo. 
Verum pone moras, et studium lucri ; 25 

Nigrorumque memor, durn licet, ignium, 
Misce stultitiam consiliis brevem : 

Dulce est desipere in loco. 



Audivere, Lyce, di mea vota, di 
Audivere, Lyce : fis anus, et tamen 
Vis formosa videri ; 
Ludisque et bibis impudens. 


Importunus Amor transvolat aridas 5 

Quercus, et refugit te, quia luridi 
Dentes te, quia rugae 
Turpant, et capitis nives. 
Nec Cose referunt jam tibi purpurae, 
Nec clari lapides, ternpora quae semel 10 

Notis condita fastis 
Inclusit volucris dies. 
Q,u6 fugit Venus ? heu ! quove color decens ? 
Q,u6 motus ? quid habes illius, illius, 

Quse spirabat amores, 15 

Quae me surpuerat mihi, 
Felix post Cynaram, notaque et artium 
Gratarum facies ? Sed Cynarae breves 
Annos fata dederunt, 
Servatura diu parem 20 

Cornicis vetulae temporibus Lycen ; 
Possent ut juvenes visere fervidi, 
Multo non sine risu, 
Dilapsam in cineres facem. 



Qu.e cura Patrum, quaeve Quiritium, 
Plenis honorum muneribus tuas, 
Auguste, virtutes in aevum 
Per titulos memoresque fastos 
iEternet ? o, qua sol habitabiles 
Ulustrat oras, maxime principum, 
Quem legis expertes Latinse 
Vindelici didicere nuper 


Q,uid Marte posses 1 Milite nam tuo 
Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genus, 10 

Brennosque veloces, et arces 
Alpibus impositas tremendis, 
Dejecit acer plus vice simplici. 
Major Neronum mox grave prcelium 

Commisit, immanesque Rhaetos 15 

Auspiciis pepulit secundis : 
Spectandus, in certamine Martio, 
Devota morti pectora liberae 
duantis fatigaret ruinis, 

Indomitas prope qualis undas 20 

Exercet Auster, Pleiadum choro 
Scindente nubes, impiger hostium 
Vexare turmas, et frementem 
Mittere equum medios per ignes. 
Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 25 

Qui regna Dauni praefluit Appuli, 
Q,uum ssevit, horrendamque cultis 
Diluviem meditatur agris ; 
Ut barbarorum Claudius agmina 
Ferrata vasto diruit impetu, 30 

Primosque et extremos metendo, 
Stravit humum, sine clade victor, 
Te copias, te consilium, et tuos 
Praebente divos : nam, tibi quo die 

Portus Alexandrea supplex 35 

Et vacuam patefecit aulam, 
Fortuna lustro prospera tertio 
Belli secundos reddidit exitus, 
Laudemque et optatum peractis 

Imperiis decus arrogavit. 40 

Te Cantaber non ante domabilis, 
Medusque, et Indus, te profugus Scythes 


Miratur, o tutela praesens 
Italiae dominaeque Romae : 
Te, fontium qui celat origines, 45 

Nilusque, et Ister, te rapidus Tigris, 
Te belluosus qui remotis 

Obstrepit Oceanus Britannis, 
Te non paventis funera Galliae 
Duraeque tellus audit Iberiae : 50 

Te caede gaudentes Sicambri 
Compositis venerantur armi3. 



Phcebus volentem prcelia me loqui 
Victas et urbes increpuit lyra, 
Ne parva Tyrrhenum per aequor 
Vela darem. Tua, Caesar, aetas 
Fruges et agris rettulit uberes, 5 

Et signa nostro restituit Jovi 
Direpta Parthorum superbis 
Postibus, et vacuum duellis 
Janum Q-uirini clausit, et ordinem 
Rectum et vaganti fraena licentiae 10 

Injecif; amovitque culpas, 
Et veteres revocavit artes, 
Per quas Latinum nomen et Italae 
Crevere vires, famaque et imperi 

Porrecta majestas ad ortum 15 

Solis ab Hesperio cubili. 


Custode rerum Caesare, non furor 
Civilis, aut vis eximet otium ; 
Non ira, quae procudit enses, 

Et miseras inimicat urbes. 20 

Non qui profundum Danubium bibunt 
Edicta rumpent Julia, non Getae, 
Non Seres, infidive Persse, 

Non Tanaim prope flumen orti. 
Nosque et profestis lucibus et sacris, 25 

Inter jocosi munera Liberi, 
Cum prole matronisque nostris, 
Rite deos prius apprecati, 
Virtute functos, more patrum, duces, 
Lydis remixto carmine tibiis, 30 

Trojamque et Anchisen, et almae 
Progeniem Veneris canemus. 






Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium, 

Amice, propugnacula, 
Paratus omne Caesaris periculum 

Subire, Maecenas, tuo. 
Quid nos, quibus te vita si superstite 5 

Jucunda ; si contra, gravis ? 
Utrumne jussi persequemur otium, 

Non dulce, ni tecum simul 1 
An hunc laborem mente laturi, decet 

Clua ferre non molles viros ?• 10 

Feremus ; et te vel per Alpium juga, 

Inhospitalem et Caucasum, 
Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum, 

Forti sequemur pectore. 
Roges tuum labore quid juvem meo 15 

Imbellis, ac firmus parum ? 
Comes minore sum futurus in metu, 

Q,ui major absentes habet : 
Ut assidens implumibus pullis avis 

Serpentium allapsus timet '20 


Magis relictis ; non, ut adsit, auxili 

Latura plus praesentibus. 
Libenter hoc et omne militabitur 

Bellum in tuae spem gratiae : 
Non ut juvencis illigata pluribus 25 

Aratra nitantur meis ; 
Pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervidum 

Lucana mutet pascua ; 

Nec ut superni villa candens Tusculi 

Circsea tangat moenia. 30 

Satis superque me benignitas tua 
Ditavit : haud paravero 

Quod aut, avarus ut Chremes, terra premam, 
Discinctus aut perdam ut nepos. 



" Beatus ille qui procul hegotiis, 

Ut prisca gens mortalium, 
Paterna rura bobus exercet suis, 

Solutus omni fcenore. 
Neque excitatur classico miles truci, 5 

Neque horret iratum mare ; 
Forumque vitat, et superba civium 

Potentiorum limina. 
Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

Altas maritat populos ; 10 

Inutilesque falce ramos amputans, 

Feliciores inserit ; 
Aut in reducta valle mugientium 

Prospectat errantes greges ; 


Aut pressa puris mella condit amphoris ; 15 

Aut tondet infirmas oves ; 
Vel, quum decorum mitibus pomis caput 

Autumnus arvis extulit, 
Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pyra, 

Certaniem et uvam purpurae, 20 

Qua muneretur te, Priape, et te, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium ! 
Libet jacere modo sub antiqua ilice, 

Modo in tenaci gramine. 
Labuntur altis interim ripis aquse ; 25 

Queruntur in silvis aves ; 
Fontesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus, 

Somnos quod invitet leves. 
At, quum tonantis annus hibernus Jovis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, 30 

Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane 

Apros in obstantes plagas, 
Aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus dolos ; 
Pavidumque leporem, et advenam laqueo gruem, 35 

Jucunda captat praemia. 
Quis non malarum, quas amor curas habet, 

Haec inter obliviscitur ? 
Q,u6d si pudica mulier in partem juvans 

Domum atque dulces liberos, 40 

Sabina qualis, aut perusta solibus 

Pernicis uxor Appuli, 
Sacrum vetustis exstruat lignis focum 

Lassi sub adventum viri, 
Claudensque textis cratibus laetum pecus 45 

Distenta siccet ubera, 
Et horna dulci vina promens dolio 

Dapes inemptas apparet : 


Non me Lucrina juverint conchylia, 

Magisve rhombus, aut scari, 50 

Si quos Eois intonata fluctibus 

Hiems ad hoc vertat mare ; 
Non Afra avis descendat in ventrem meum, 

Non attagen Ionicus 
Jucundior, quam lecta de pinguissimis 55 

Oliva ramis arborum, 
Aut herba lapathi prata amantis, et gravi 

Malvse salubres corpori, 
Vel agna festis caesa Terminalibus, 

Vel hcedus ereptus lupo. 60 

Has inter epulas, ut juvat pastas oves 

Videre properantes domum ; 
Videre fessos vomerem inversum boves 

Collo trahentes languido ; 

(Positosque vernas, ditis examen domus, . 65 

Circum renidentes Lares ! " 
Haec ubi locutus foenerator Alfius, 
Jam jam futurus rusticus, 
Omnem redegit Idibus pecuniam ; 

Quserit Kalendis ponere. 70 



Parentis olim si quis impia. manu 
Senile guttur fregerit, 

Edat cicutis allium nocentius. 
O dura messorum ilia ! 

Quid hoc veneni saevit in praecordiis ? 
Num viperinus his cruor 


Incoctus herbis me fefellit ? an malas 

Canidia tractavit dapes 1 
Ut Argonautas prseter omnes candidum 

Medea mirata est ducem, 10 

Ignota tauris illigaturum juga, 

Perunxit hoc Jasonem : 
Hoc delibutis ulta donis pellicem, 

Serpente fugit alite. 
Nec tantus unquam siderum insedit vapor 15 

Siticulosae Apuliae ; 
Nec munus humeris efficacis Herculis 

Inarsit aestuosius. 



Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit, 

Tecum mihi discordia est, 
Ibericis peruste funibus latus, 

Et crura dura compede. 
Licet superbus ambules pecunia, 5 

Fortuna non mutat genus. 
Videsne, sacram metiente te viam 

Cum bis ter ulnarum toga, 
Ut ora vertat huc et huc euntiurr 

Liberrima indignatio 1 10 

Sectus flagellis hic Triumviralibus, 

Praeconis ad fastidium,, 
Arat Falerni mille fundi jugera, 

Et Appiam mannis terit : 
Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques, 15 

Othone contempto, sedet. 



duid attinet tot ora navium gravi 

Rostrata duci pondere 
Contra latrones atque servilem manum, 

Hoc, hoc tribuno militum ? 20 



11 At, o deorum quidquid in coelo regit 

Terras et humanum genus ! 
Quid iste fert tumultus ? et quid omnium 

Vultus in unum me truces ? 
Per liberos te, si vocata partubus 5 

Lucina veris adfuit, 
Per hoc inane purpurse decus, precor, 

Per improbaturum haec Jovem, 
Quid ut noverca me intueris, aut uti 

Petita ferro bellua 1 " 10 

Ut hsec trementi questus ore, constitit 

Insignibus raptis puer, 
Impube corpus, quale posset impia 

Mollire Thracum pectora ; 
Canidia, brevibus implicata viperis 15 

Crines et incomptum caput, 
Jubet t ^pulcris caprificos erutas, 

Jubet cupressos funebres, 
Et uncta turpis ova ranae sanguine, 

Plumamque nocturnse strigis, 20 

Herbasque quas Iolcos atque Iberia 

Mittit venenorum ferax, 
Et ossa ab ore rapta jejunae canis, 

FJammis aduri Colchicis. 


At expedita Sagana, per totam domum 25 

Spargens Avernales aquas, 
Horret capillis ut marinus asperis 

Echinus, aut currens aper. 
Abacta nulla Veia conscientia 

Ligonibus duris humum 30 

Exhauriebat, ingemens laboribus ; 

Quo posset infossus puer 
Longo die bis terque mutatse dapis 

Inemori spectaculo ; 
Q,uum promineret ore, quantum exstant aqua 35 

Suspensa mento corpora : 
Exusta uti medulla et aridum jecur 

Amoris esset poculum, 
Interminato quum semel fixse cibo 

Intabuissent pupulae. 40 

Non defuisse masculae libidinis 

Ariminensem Foliam, 
Et otiosa credidit Neapolis, 

Et omne vicinum oppidum, 
Q,uae sidera, excantata voce Thessala, 45 

Lunamque ccelo deripit. 
Hic irresectum saeva dente livido 

Canidia rodens pollicem, 
Quid dixit ? aut quid tacuit ? "O rebus meis 

Non infideles arbitrse, 50 

Nox et Diana quae silentium regis, 

Arcana quum fiunt sacra ; 
Nunc, nunc adeste ; nunc in hostiles domos 

Iram atque numen vertite. 
Formidolosae dum latent silvis ferae, 55 

Dulci sopore languidae, 
Senem, quod omnes rideant, adulterum 

Latrent Suburanae canes, 


Nardo perunctum, quale non perfectius 

Meae laborarint manus. 60 

Q,uid accidit 1 cur dira barbaroe minus 

Venena Medeae valent, 
Quibus superbam fugit ulta pellicem, 

Magni Creontis filiam, 
Quum palla, tabo munus imbutum, novam 65 

Incendio nuptam abstulit 1 
Atqui nec herba nec Iatens in asperis 

Radix fefellit me Iocis. 
Indormit unctis omnium cubilibus 

Oblivione pellicum. 70 

Ah ! ah ! solutus ambulat veneficaB 

Scientioris carmine. 
Non usitatis, Vare, potionibus, 

_0 multa fleturum caput ! 
Ad me recurres ; nec vocata mens tua 75 

Marsis redibit vocibus. 
Majus parabo, majus infundam tibi 

Fastidienti poculum. 
Priusque coelum sidet inferius mari, 

Tellure porrecta super, 80 

Quam non amore sic meo flagres, uti 

Bitumen atris ignibus." 
Sub haec puer jam non, ut ante, mollibus 

Lenire verbis impias ; 
Sed, dubius unde rumperet silentium, 85 

Misit Thyesteas preces : 
" Venena, magnum fas nefasque, non valent 

Convertere humanam vicem. 
Diris agam vos : dira detestatio 

Nulla expiatur victima. 90 

Quin, ubi perire jussus exspiravero, 

Nocturnus occurram Furor, 


Petamque vultus umbra curvis unguibus, 

Quae vis Deorum est Manium ; 
Et inquietis adsidens praecordiis, 95 

Pavore somnos auferam. 
Vos turba vicatim hinc et hinc saxis petens 

Contundet obsccenas anus. 
Pdst insepulta membra different lupi 

Et Esquilinae alites : 100 

Neque hoc parentes, heu ! mihi superstites ! 

Effugerit spectaculum." 



Quid immerentes hospites vexas, canis, 

Ignavus adversum lupos 1 
Q,uin huc inanes, si potes, vertis minas, 

Et me remorsurum petis ? 
Nam, qualis aut Molossus aut fulvus Lacon, 5 

Amica vis pastoribus, 
Agam per altas aure sublata nives, 

Quaecunque praecedet fera. 
Tu, quum timenda voce complesti nemus, 

Projectum odoraris cibum. 10 

Cave, cave, namque in malos asperrimus 

Parata tollo cornua : 
Qualis Lycamb33 spretus infido gener, 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 
An, si quis atro dente me petiverit, 15 

Inultus ut flebo puer ? 




Q,uo, qu6 scelesti ruitis ? aut cur dexteris 

Aptantur enses conditi ? 
Parumne campis atque Neptuno super 

Fusum est Latini sanguinis? 
Non ut superbas invidae Carthaginis 5 

Romanus arces ureret, 
Intactus aut Britannus ut descenderet 

Sacra catenatus via ; 
Sed ut, secundum vota Parthorum, sua 

Urbs haec periret dextera. 10 

Neque hic lupis mos, nec fuit leonibus, 

Nunquam nisi in dispar feris. 
Furorne caecus, an rapit vis acrior ? 

An culpa ? responsum date. 
Tacent ; et ora pallor albus inficit, 15 

Mentesque perculsae stupent. 
Sic est : acerba fata Romanos agunt, 

Scelueque fraternae necis, 
Ut immerentis fluxit in terram Remi 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 20 



Quando repostum Caecubum ad festas dapes, 

Victore loetus Caesare, 
Tecum sub alta, sic Jovi gratum, domo, 

Beate Maecenas, bibam, 


Sonante mixtum tibiis carmen lyra, 5 

Hac Dorium, illis Barbarum ; 
Ut nuper, actus quum freto Neptunius 

Dux fugit, ustis navibus, 
Minatus urbi vincla, quse detraxerat 

Servis amicus perfidis 1 10 

Romanus, eheu ! (posteri negabitis ! ) 

Emancipatus fceminse, 
Fert vallum et arma miles, et spadonibus 

Servire rugosis potest ; 
Interque signa turpe militaria 15 

Sol adspicit conopium. 
Ad hoc frementes verterunt bis mille equos 

Galli, canentes Ca^sarem ; 
Hostiliumque navium portu latent 

Puppes sinistrorsum citae. 20 

Io Triumphe ! tu moraris aureos 

Currus, et intactas boves : 
Io Triumphe ! nec Jugurthino parem 

Bello reportasti ducem ; 
Neque Africano, cui super Carthaginem 25 

Virtus sepulcrum condidit. 
Terra marique victus hostis Punico 

Lugubre mutavit sagum ; 
Aut ille centum nobilem Cretam urbibus, 

Ventis iturus non suis, 30 

Exercitatas aut petit Syrtes Noto ; 

Aut fertur incerto mari. 
Capaciores affer huc, puer, scyphos, 

Et Chia vina, aut Lesbia, 
Vel, quod fluentem nauseam coerceat, 35 

Metire nobis Caecubum. 
Curam metumque Csesaris rerum juvat 

Dulci Lyaeo solvere. 






Mala soluta navis exit alite, 

Ferens olentem Maevium. 
Ut horridis utrumque verberes latus, 

Auster, memento fluctibus. 
Niger rudentes Eurus, inverso mari, 

Fractosque remos difFerat. 
Insurgat Aquilo, quantus altis montibus 

Franoit trementes ilices : 
Nec sidus atra nocte amicum appareat, 

Q,ua tristis Orion cadit : 
Quietiore nec feratur sequore, 

Ctuam Graia victorum manus, 
Quum Pallas usto vertit iram ab Ilio 

In impiam Ajacis ratem. 
O quantus instat navitis sudor tuis, 

Tibique pallor luteus, 
Et illa non virilis ejulatio, 

Preces et aversum ad Jovem, 
Ionius udo quum remugiens sinus 

Noto carinam ruperit ! 
Opima quod si prseda curvo littore 

Porrecta mergos juveris, 
Libidinosus immolabitur caper, 

Et agna Tempestatibus. 








Horrida tempestas ccelum contraxit, et imbres 
Nivesque deducunt Jovem : nunc mare, nunc silme, 

Threicio Aquilone sonant. Rapiamus, amici, 
Occasionem de die : dumque virent genua, 

Et decet, obducta solvatur fronte senectus. 5 

Tu vina Torquato move consule pressa meo. 

Csetera mitte loqui : deus haec fortasse benigna 
Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Achsemenio 

Perfundi nardo juvat, et fide Cyllenea 
Levare diris pectora sollicitudinibus : 10 

Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaurus.alumno : 
"Invicte mortalis, dea nate puer Thetide, 

Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 
Findunt Scamandri flumina, lubricus et Simois ; 

Unde tibi reditum certo subtemine Parcae 35 

Rupere ; nec mater domum ccerula te revehet. 

Illic omne malum vino cantuque levato, 
Deformis a^grimoniae dulcibus alloquiis." 



Altera jam teritur bellis civilibus getas, 

Suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit : 
Quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marsi, 

Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenee manus, 
iEmula nec virtus Capuae, nec Spartacus acer, 

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox, 


Nec fera ccerulea domuit Germania pube, 

Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal, 
Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetas, 

Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum. 10 

Barbarus, heu ! cineres insistet victor, et Urbem 

Eques sonante verberabit ungula : 
Quaeque carent ventis et solibus, ossa Quirini, 

Nefas videre ! dissipabit insolens. 
Forte, quid expediat, communiter, aut melior pars, 15 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus. 
Nulla sit hac potior sententia : Phocseorum 

Velut profugit exsecrata civitas, 
Agros atque Lares proprios, habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis ; 20 

Ire pedes quocunque ferent, quocunque per undas 

Notus vocabit aut protervus Africus. 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suadere 1 secunda 

Ratem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sed juremus in haec : " Simul imis saxa renarint 25 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas : 
Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea, quando 

Padus Matina laverit cacumina ; 
In mare seu celsus procurrerit Apenninus ; 

Novaque monstra junxerit libidine 30 

Mirus amor, juvet ut tigres subsidere cervis, 

Adulteretur et columba miluo, 
Credula nec ravos timeant armenta leones, 

Ametque salsa levis hircus aequora." 
Haec, et quae poterunt reditus abscindere dulces, 35 

Eamus omnis exsecrata civitas, 
Aut pars indocili melior grege : mollis et exspes 

Inominata perprimat cubilia. 
Vos, quibus est virtus, muliebrem tollite luctum, 

Etrusca praeter et volate littora. 40 


Nos manet Oceanus circum vagus arva : beata 

Petamus arva, divites et insulas, 
Reddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis, 

Et imputata floret usque vinea, 
Germinat et nunquam fallentis termes olivge, 45 

Suamque pulla ficus ornat arborem, 
Mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

Levis crepante lympha desilit pede. 
Ulic injussae veniunt ad mulctra capellse, 

Refertque tenta grex amicus ubera ; 50 

Nec vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovile, 

Nec intumescit alta viperis humus ; 
Nulla nocent pecori contagia, nullius astri 

Gregem aestuosa torret impotentia. 
Pluraque felices mirabimur ; ut neque largis 55 

Aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
Pinguia nec siccis urantur semina glebis, 

Utrumque rege temperante ccelitum. 
Non huc Argoo contendit remige pinus, 

Neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 60 

Non huc Sidonii torserunt cornua nautse, 

Laboriosa nec cohors Ulyssei" : 
Jupiter illa piae secrevit littora genti, 

Ut inquinavit aere tempus aureum ; 
iEre, dehinc ferro duravit saecula, quorum f>5 

Piis secunda, vate me, datur fuga. 






Jam jam efficaci do manus scientiae ; 

Supplex et oro regna per Proserpinae, 

Per et Dianae non movenda numina, 

Per atque libros carminum valentium 

Refixa ccelo devocare sidera, 5 

Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris, 

Citumque retro solve, solve, turbinem. 

Movit nepotem Telephus Nereium, 

In quem superbus ordinarat agmina 

Mysorum, et in quem tela acuta torserat. 10 

Unxere matres Iliae addictum feris 

Alitibus atque canibus homicidam Hectorem, 

Postquam relictis mcenibus rex procidit, 

Heu ! pervicacis ad pedes Achillei. 

Setosa duris exuere pellibus 15 

Laboriosi remiges Ulyssei", 

Volente Circe, membra ; tunc mens, et sonus 

Relapsus, atque notus in vultus honor. 

Dedi satis superque poenarurn tibi, 

Amata nautis multum et institoribus. 20 

Fugit juventas, et verecundus color 

Reliquit ossa pelle amicta lurida ; 

Tuis capillus albus est odoribus. 

Nullum a labore me reclinat otium : 

Urget diem nox, et dies noctem ; neque est 25 

Levare tenta spiritu praecordia. 

Ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 

Sabella pectus increpare carmina, 

Caputque Marsa dissilire naenia. 


Quid amplius vis 1 O mare et terra ! ardeo, 30 

Quantum neque atro delibutus Hercules 

Nessi cruore, nec Sicana fervida 

Urens in ^Etna flamma. Tu, donec cinis 

Injuriosis aridus ventis ferar, 

Cales venenis officina Colchicis. 35 

Quae finis ? aut quod me manet stipendium ? 

EfTare : jussas cum fide poenas luam, 

Paratus expiare, seu poposceris 

Centum juvencos, sive mendaci lyra 

Voles sonari ; tu pudica, tu proba, 40 

Perambulabis astra sidus aureum. 

Infamis Helenae Castor offensus vice, 

Fraterque magni Castoris, victi prece, 

Adempta vati reddidere lumina. 

Et tu, potes nam, solve me dementia, 45 

O nec paternis obsoleta sordibus, 

Nec in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus 

Novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

Tibi hospitale pectus et puree manus. 


Quid obseratis auribus fundis preces ? 50 ' 

Non saxa nudis surdiora navitis 

Neptunus alto tundit hibernus salo. 

Inultus ut tu riseris Cotyttia 

Vulgata, sacrum liberi Cupidinis ? 

Et Esquilini pontifex venefici 55 

Impune ut urbem nomine impleris meo 1 

duid proderat ditasse Pelignas anus, 

Velociusve miscuisse toxicum 1 

Sed tardiora fata te votis manent. 

Ingrata misero vita ducenda est, in hoc, 60 

Novis ut usque suppetas doloribus. 

Optat quietem Pelopis infidus pater, 


Egens benignae Tantalus semper dapis ; 

Optat Prometheus obligatus aliti : 

Optat supremo collocare Sisyphus 65 

In monte saxum : sed vetant leges Jovis. 

Voles modo altis desilire turribus, 

Modo ense Dectus Norico recludere ; 

Frustraque vincla gutturi nectes tuo, 

Fastidiosa tristis aegrimonia. 70 

Vectabor humeris tunc ego inimicis eques, 

Meaeque terra cedet insolentiae. 

An, quae movere cereas imagines 

(Ut ipse nosti curiosus), et polo 

Deripere Lunam vocibus possim meis, 75 

Possim crematos excitare mortuos, 

Desiderique temperare poculum, 

Plorem artis in te nil habentis exitum ? 



Phcebe, silvarumque potens Diana, 
Lucidum coeli decus, o colendi 
Semper et culti, date quse precamur 

Tempore prisco ; 
Quo Sibyllini monuere versus 5 

Virgines lectas puerosque castos 
Dis, quibus septem placuere colles, 

Dicere carmen. 
Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Promis et celas, aliusque et idem 10 

Nasceris, possis nihil urbe Roma 

Visere majus ! 
Rite maturos aperire partus 
Lenis Ilithyia, tuere matres ; 
Sive tu Lucina probas vocari, 15 

Seu Genitalis. 
Diva, producas sobolem, Patrumque 
Prosperes decreta super jugandis 
Fceminis, prolisque novae feraci 

Lege marita. 20 


Certus ut denos decies per annos 
Orbis et cantus referatque ludos, 
Ter die claro, totiesque grata 

Nocte frequentes. 
Vosque veraces cecinisse, Parcse, 25 

Quod semel dictum est, stabilisque rerum 
Terminus servet, bona jam peractis 

Jungite fata. 
Fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus 
Spicea donet Cererem corona : oO 

Nutriant fo3tus et aquae salubres 

Et Jovis aurae. 
Condito mitis placidusque telo 
Supplices audi pueros, Apollo : 
Siderum regina bicornis, audi, 35 

Luna, puellas. 
Roma si vestrum est opus, Iliaeque 
Littus Etruscum tenuere turmae, 
Jussa pars mutare Lares et urbem 

Sospite cursu, 40 

Cui per ardentem sine fraude Trojam 
Castus iEneas, patriae superstes, 
Liberum munivit iter, daturus 

Plura relictis : 
Di, probos mores docili juventae, 45 

Di, senectuti placidae quietem, 
Romul33 genti date remque prolemque 

Et decus omne. 
Q,uaeque vos bobus veneratur albis 
Clarus Anchisae Venerisque sanguis, 50 

Impetret, bellante prior, jacentem 

Lenis in hostem. 


Jam mari terraque manus potentes 
Medus Albanasque timet secures : 
Jam Scythae responsa petunt, superbi 55 

Nuper, et Indi. 
Jam Fides, et Pax, et Honor, Pudorque 
Priscus, et neglecta redire Virtus 
Audet ; apparetque beata pleno 

Copia cornu. 60 

Augur et fulgente decorus arcu 
Phcebus, acceptusque novem Camcenis, 
Qui salutari levat arte fessos 

Corporis artus, 
Si Palatinas videt aequus aras ; 65 

Remque Romanam Latiumque felix 
Alterum in lustrum meliusque semper 

Proroget aevum. 
Quseque Aventinum tenet Algidumque, 
Q,uindecim Diana preces virorum 70 

Curet, et votis puerorum amicas 

Applicet aures. 
Hsec Jovem sentire deosque cunctos 
Spem bonam certamque domum reporto, 
Doctus et Phcebi chorus et Dianse 75 

Dicere laudes. 







Q,ui fit, Msecenas, ut nemo quam sibi sortem 

Seu ratio dederit, seu fors objecerit, illa 

Contentus vivat, laudet diversa sequentes ? 

" O fortunati mercatores ! " gravis annis 

Miles ait, multo jam fractus membra labore. 5 

Contra mercator, navim jactantibus Austris, 

" Militia est potior : quid enim 1 concurritur ; horse 

Momento cita mors venit, aut victoria Iseta." 

Agricolam laudat juris legumque peritus, 

Sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat. 10 

Ille, datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbem est, 

Solos felices viventes clamat in urbe. 

Csetera de genere hoc, adeo sunt multa, loquacem 

Delassare valent Fabium. Ne te morer, audi 

Q,ud rem deducam. Si quis deus, " En ego," dicat, 15 

" Jam faciam quod vultis : eris tu, qui modo miles, 

Mercator : tu, consultus mod6, rusticus : hinc vos, 

Vos hinc, mutatis discedite partibus. Eia! 


Quid statis ? n Nolint. Atqui licet esse beatis. 
Quid causae est merito quin illis Jupiter ambas 20 

Iratus buccas inflet, neque se fore posthac 
Tam facilem dicat votis ut praebeat aurem 1 
Praeterea, ne sic, ut qui jocularia, ridens 
Percurram : quanquam ridentem dicere verum 
Quid vetat ? ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi 25 

Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima : 
Sed tamen amoto quaeramus seria ludo. 
IIIg gravem duro terram qui vertit aratro, 
Perfidus hic caupa, miles, nautaeque per omne 
Auciaces mare qui currunt, hac mente laborem 30 

Sese ferre, senes ut in otia tuta recedant, 
Aiunt, quum sibi sint congesta cibaria # : sicut 
Parvula, nam exemplo est, magni formica laboris • 
Ore trahit quodcunque potest, atque addit acervo 
Quem struit, haud ignara ac non incauta futuri. 35 

Quae, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum, 
Non usquam prorepit, et illis utitur ante 
Quaesitis sapiens : quum te neque fervidus aestus 
Dimoveat lucro, neque hiems, ignis, mare, ferrum ; 
Nil obstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter. 40 

Q,uid juvat immensum te argenti pondus et auri 
Furtim defossa timidum deponere terra ? — 
Quod, si comminuas, vilem redigatur ad assem. — 
At, ni id fit, quid habet pulchri constructus acervus ? 
Millia frumenti tua triverit area centum ; 45 

Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus quam meus : ut, si 
Reticulum panis venales inter onusto 
Forte vehas humero, nihilo plus accipias quam 
Qui nil portarit. Vel dic, quid referat intra 
Naturae fines viventi, jugera centum, an 50 

Mille aret ? — At suave est ex magno tollere acervo. — 
Dum ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire relinquas, 



Cur tua plus laudes cumeris granaria nostris ? 

Ut, tibi si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna, 

Vel cyatho, et dicas: " Magno de flumine mallem, 55 

Quam ex hoc fonticulo tantundem sumere." E6 fit 

Plenior ut si quos delectet copia justo, 

Cum ripa simul avulsos ferat Aufidus acer : 

At qui tantulo eget quanto est opus, is neque limo 

Turbatam haurit aquam, neque vitam amittit in undis. 60 

At bona pars hominum decepta cupidine falso, 
" Nil satis est," inquit ; " quia tanti, quantum habeas, sis." 
Quid facias illi ? jubeas miserum esse, libenter 
Quatenus id facit : ut quidam memoratur Athenis, 
Sordidus ac dives, populi coritemnere voces 65 

Sic solitus : " Populus me sibilat ; at mihi plaudo 
Ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arca." 
Tantalus a labris sitiens fugientia captat 
Flumina. Quid rides 1 mutato nomine de te 
Fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis 70 

Indormis inhians, et tanquam parcere sacris 
Cogeris, aut pictis tanquam gaudere tabellis. 
Nescis quo valeat nummus, quem prsebeat usum 1 
Panis ematur, olus, vini sextarius : adde, 
Queis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 75 

An vigilare metu exanimem, noctesque diesque 
Formidare malos fures, incendia, servos, 
Ne te compilent fugientes, hoc juvat 1 horum 
Semper ego optarirn pauperrimus esse bonorum. — - 
At, si condoluit tentatum frigore corpus, 80 

Aut alius casus lecto te affixit, habes qui 
Assideat, fomenta paret, medicum roget, ut te 
Suscitet, ac reddat natis carisque propinquis 1 — 
Non uxor salvum te vult, non filius : omnes 
Vicini oderunt, noti, pueri atque puellae. 85 

Miraris, quurn tu argento post omnia ponas, 


Si nemo prsestet, quem non merearis, amorem ? 

An, si cognatos, nullo natura labore 

Quos tibi dat, retinere velis, servareque amicos, 

Infelix operam perdas, ut si quis asellum 90 

In campo doceat parentem currere fraenis ? 

Denique sit finis quserendi ; quoque habeas plus, 

Pauperiem metuas minus, et finire laborem 

Incipias, parto quod avebas ; ne facias quod 

Ummidius quidam, non longa est fabula, dives 95 

Ut metiretur nummos ; ita sordidus, ut se 

Non unquam servo meliiis vestiret ; ad usque 

Supremum tempus, ne se penqria victus 

Opprimeret, metuebat. At hunc liberta securi 

Divisit medium, fortissima Tyndaridarum. — 100 

Quid mi igitur suades 1 ut vivam Nsevius 1 aut sic 

Ut Nomentanus 1 — Pergis pugnantia secumj) 

Frontibus adversis componere ? Non ego, avarum 

Quum veto te fieri, vappam jubeo ac nebulonem. 

Est inter Tanaim quiddam socerumque Viselli. 105 

Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines, 

Q,uos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. 

Illuc, unde abii, redeo. JNemon' ut avarus 
Se probet, at potius laudet diversa sequentes""^- 
Quodque aliena capella gerat distentius uber, 110 

Tabescai*v neque se majori pauperiorum 
Turbae comparet^ hunc atque hunc superare laboret 1 ^ 
Sie festinanti semper locupletior obstat : 
Ut, quum carceribus missos rapit ungula currus, 
Instat equis auriga suos vincentibus, illum 115 

Prseteritum temnens extremos inter euntem. 
Inde fit ut rard, qui se vixisse beatum 
Dicat, et exacto contentus tempore vitae 
Cedat uti conviva satur, reperire queamus. 

Jam satis est : ne me Crispmi scrinia lippi 120 

Compilasse putes, verbum non amplius addam. 




Ambubajarum collegia, pharmacopolse, 

Mendici, mimae, balairones, hoc genus omne 

Mcestum ac sollicitum est cantoris morte Tigelli ; 

Quippe benignus erat : contra hic, ne prodigus esse 

Dicatur metuens, inopi dare nolit amico 5 

Frigus quo duramque famem depellere possit. 

Hunc si perconteris, avi cur atque parentis 

Praeclaram ingrata stringat malus ingluvie rem, 

Omnia conductis coemens obsonia nummis ; 

Sordidus atque animi quod parvi nolit haberi, 10 

Respondet : laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illis. 

Fufidius vappae famam timet ac nebulonis, 

Dives agris, dives positis in foenore nummis. 

Quinas hic capiti mercedes exsecat ; atque 

Quanto perditior quisque est, tanto acrius urget; 15 

Nomina sectatur, modo sumpta. veste virili 

Sub patribus duris, tironum. " Maxime," quis non, 

" Jupiter ! " exclamet, simul atque audivit ? — At in se 

Pro qusestu sumptum facit. — Hic vix credere possis 

Q,uam sibi non sit amicus : ita ut pater ille, Terenti 20 

Fabula quem miserum nato vixisse fugato 

Inducit, non se pejus cruciaverit atque hic. 

Si quis nunc qunerat, " Q-uo res haec pertinet? " IIIuc : 
Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria currunt. 
Pastillos Rufillus olet, Gorgonius hircum, 25 

-C* ^ SATIRARUM LIB. I. 125 


Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus, inter amicos 
Ut nunquam inducant animum cantare rogati, 
Injussi nunquam desistant. Sardus habebat 
Ille Tigellius hoc. Caesar, qui cogere posset, 
Si peteret per amicitiam patris atque suam, non 5 

Quidquam proficeret : si collibuisset, ab ovo 
Usque ad mala citaret, " Io Bacche," modo summa 
Voce, modo hac resonat quae chordis quatuor ima. 
Nil squale homini fuit illi : saepe velut qui 
Currebat fugiens hostem : perssepe velut qui 10 

Junonis sacra ferret : habebat saepe ducentos, 
Saepe decem servos : modo reges atque tetrarchas, 
Omnia magna loquens; modo, " Sit mihi mensa tripes, et 
Concha salis puri, et toga, quae defendere frigus, 
Quamvis crassa, queat." Decies centena dedisses 15 
Huic parco paucis contento, quinque diebus 
Nil erat in loculis : noctes vigilabat ad ipsum 
Mane ; diem totam stertebat : nil fuit unquam 
Sic impar sibi. Nunc aliquis dicat mihi : — Quid tu ? 
Nullane habes vitia 1 — Immo alia, et fortasse minora. 20 
Maenius absentem Novium quum carperet ; " Heus tu," 
Cluidarn ait, " ignoras te 1 an ut ignotum dare nobis 
Verba putas ? " " Egomet mi ignosco," Maenius inquit. 
Stultus et improbus hic amor est, dignusque notari. 
Quum tua pervideas oculis mala lippus inunctis, 25 

Cur in amicorum vitiis tam cernis acutum, 
Quam aut aquila, aut serpens Epidaurius ? At tibi contra 
Evenit, inquirant vitia ut tua rursus et illi. — 
Iracundior est paulo : minus aptus acutis 
Naribus horum hominum. Rideri possit, eo quod 30 
Rusticius tonso toga defluit, et male laxus 



In pede calceus haeret. — At est bonus, ut melior vir 
Non alius quisquam : at tibi amicus : at ingenium ingens 
Inculto latet hoc sub corpore. Denique te ipsum 
Concute, num qua tibi vitiorum inseverit olim 35 

Natura, aut etiam consuetudo mala : namque 
Neglectis urenda filix innascitur agris. 

111 uc prasvertamur, amatorem quod amicae 
Turpia decipiunt caecum vitia, aut etiam ipsa haec 
Delectant ; veluti Balbinum polypus Hagnee. 40 

Vellem in amicitia sic erraremus, et isti 
Errori nomen virtus posuisset honestum. 
At, pater ut gnati, sic nos debemus amici, 
Si quod sit vitium, non fastidire. Strabonem 
Appellat paetum pater ; et pullum, male parvus 45 

Si cui filius est, ut abortivus fuit olim 
Sisyphus : hunc varum, distortis cruribus ; illum 
Balbutit scaurum, pravis fultum male talis. 
Parcius hic vivit-? frugi dicatur : ineptus 
Et jactantior hic paulo est 1 concinnus amicis 50 

Postulat ut videatur : at est truculentior, atque 
Plus aequo liber ? simplex fortisque habeatur. 
Caldior est 7 acres inter numeretur : opinor, 
Haec res et jungit, junctos et servat amicos. 
At nos virtutes ipsas invertimus, atque 55 

Sincerum cupimus vas incrustare. Probus quis 
Nobiscum vivit; multum est demissus homo : illi 
Tardo cognomen pingui damus : hic fugit omnes 
Insidias, nullique malo latus obdit apertum, 
duum genus hoc inter vitae versetur, ubi acris 60 

Invidia atque vigent ubi crimina ; pro bene sano 
Ac non incauto, fictum astutumque vocamus. 
Simplicior quis, et est qualem me saepe libenter 
Obtulerim tibi, Maecenas, ut forte legentem 
Aut tacitum impellat quovis sermone 7 " Molestus ! 65 


Communi sensu plane caret," inquimus. Eheu ! 

duam temere in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam ! 

Nam vitiis nemo sine nascitur : optimus ille est 

Qui minimis urgeturT} Amicus dulcis, ut aequum est, . 

duum mea compenset vitiis bona, pluribus hisce, 70 

Si modo plura mihi bona sunt, inclinet : amari 

Si volet hac lege, in trutina ponetur eadem. 

Q,ui ne tuberibus propriis offendat amicum 

Postulat, ignoscet verrucis illius : aequum est 

Peccatis veniam poscentem reddere rursus. 75 

Denique, quatenus excidi penitus vitium irae, 
Csetera item nequeunt stultis haerentia : cur non 
Ponderibus modulisque suis ratio utitur, ac res 
Ut quaeque est, ita suppliciis delicta coercet ? 
Si quis eum servum, patinam qui tollere jussus 80 

Semesos pisces tepidumque ligurrierit jus, 
In cruce suffigat, Labeone insanior inter 
Sanos dicatur. Quanto hoc furiosius atque 
Majus peccatum est ! Paulum deliquit amicus 
(duod nisi concedas, habeare insuavis) ; acerbus 85 

Odisti, et fugis, ut Drusonem debitor aeris, 
Qui, nisi, quum tristes misero venere Kalendae, 
Mercedem aut nummos unde unde extricat, amaras 
Porrecto jugulo historias, captivus ut, audit. 
Comminxit lectum potus, mensave catillum 90 

Evandri manibus tritum dejecit ; ob hanc rem, 
Aut positum ante mea quia pullum in parte catini 
Sustulit esuriens, minus hoc jucundus amicus 
Sit mihi. Quid faciam, si furtum fecerit, aut si 
Prodiderit commissa fide, sponsumve negarit 1 95 

Queis paria esse fere placuit peccata, laborant 
Cluum ventum ad verum est : sensus moresque repug- 

Atque ipsa utilitas, justi prope mater et aequi. 


Quum prorepserunt primis animalia terris, 
Mutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubilia propter, 100 
Unguibus et pugnis, dein fustibus, atque ita porro 
Pugnabant armis quae post fabricaverat usus ; 
Donec verba, quibus voces sensusque notarent, 
Nominaque invenere : dehinc absistere bello, 
Oppida cceperunt munire, et ponere leges, 105 

Ne quis fur esset, neu latro, neu quis adulter. 
Nam fuit ante Helenam mulier teterrima belli 
Causa : sed ignotis perierunt mortibus illi, 
Quos Venerem incertam rapientes, more ferarum, 
Viribus editior csedebat, ut in grege taurus. 110 

Jura inventa metu injusti fateare necesse est, 
Tempora si fastosque velis evolvere mundi. 
Nec natura potest justo secernere iniquum, 
Dividit ut bona diversis, fugienda petendis. X 
Nec vincet ratio hoc, tantundem ut peccet idemque 115 
Qui teneros caules alieni fregerit horti, 
Et qui nocturnus diviim sacra legerit. Adsit 
Regula peccatis qua? pcenas irroget aequas, 
Ne scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. 
Nam, ut ferula ceedas meritum majora subire 120 

Verbera, non vereor ; quum dicas esse pares res 
Furta latrociniis, et magnis parva mineris 
Falce recisurum simili te, si tibi regnum 
Permittant homines. Si dives, qui sapiens est, 
Et sutor bonus et solus formosus et est rex ; 125 

Cur optas quod habes ? — Non nosti quid pater, inquit, 
Chrysippus dicat : sapiens crepidas sibi nunquam 
Nec soleas fecit ; sutor tamen est sapiens. — Q,uo 1 — 
Ut, quamvis tacet Hermogenes, cantor tamen atque 
Optimus est modulator ; ut Alfenus vafer, omni 130 

Abjecto instrumento artis, clausaque taberna, 
Sutor erat ; sapiens operis sic optimus omnis 


Est opifex solus, sic rex. — Vellunt tibi barbam 
Lascivi pueri ; quos tu nisi fuste coerces, 
Urgeris turba circum te stante, miserque 135 

Rumperis et latras, magnorum maxime regum. 
Ne longum faciam : dum tu quadrante lavatum 
Rex ibis, neque te quisquam stipator, ineptum 
Prseter Crispinum, sectabitur ; et mihi dulces 
Ignoscent, si quid peccavero stultus, amici ; 140 

Inque vicem illorum patiar delicta libenter, 
Privatusque magis vivam te rege beatus. 


Eupolts atque Cratinus Aristophanesque, poetae, 

Atque alii quorum comoedia prisca virorum est, 

Si quis erat dignus describi, quod malus, aut fur, 

Quod moechus foret, aut sicarius, aut alioqui 

Famosus, multa cum libertate notabant. 5 

Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius, hosce sequutus, 

Mutatis tantum pedibus numerisque ; facetus, 

Emunctae naris, durus componere versus. 

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus ; in hora saepe ducentos, 

Ut magnum, versus dictabat, stans pede in uno. 10 

duum flueret lutulentus, erat quod tollere velles : 

Garrulus, atque piger scribendi ferre laborem, 

Scribendi recte ; nam ut multum, nil moror. Ecce, 

Crispinus minimo me provocat. — Accipe, si vis, 

Accipe jam tabulas ; detur nobis locus, hora, 15 

Custodes ; videamus uter plus scribere possit. — 

Di bene fecerunt, inopis me quodque pusilli 

Finxerunt animi, raro et perpauca loquentis : 


At tu conclusas hircinis follibus auras, 

Usque laborantes, dum ferrum molliat ignis, 20 

Ut mavis, imitare . . . Beatus Fannius, ultro 

Delatis capsis et imagine ! quum mea nemo 

Scripta legat, vulgo recitare timentis, ob hanc rem, 

Gluod sunt, quos genus hoc minime juvat, utpote plures 

Culpari dignos. Qugmvis media erue turba : 25 

Aut ob avaritiam, aut misera ambitione laborat. 

Hunc capit argenti splendor ; stupet Albius sere : 

Hic mutat merces surgente a sole ad eum quo 

Vespertina tepet regio ; quin per mala praeceps 

Fertur, uti pulvis collectus turbine, ne quid 30 

Summa deperdat metuens, aut ampliet ut rem. 

Omnes hi metuunt versus, odere poetas. — 

Foenum habet in cornu ; longe fuge, dummodd risum 

Excutiat sibi, non hic cuiquam parcet amico ; 

Et, quodcunque semel chartis illeverit, omnes 35 

Gestiet a furno redeuntes scire, lacuque, 

Et pueros et anus. — Agedum, pauca accipe contra. 

Primum ego me illorum, dederim quibus esse poetas, 

Excerpam numero : neque enim concludere versum 

Dixeris esse satis ; neque, si quis scribat, uti nos, 40 

Sermoni propiora, putes hunc esse poetam. 

Ingenium cui sit, cui mens divinior, atque os 

Magna sonaturum, des nominis hujus honorem. 

Idcirco quidam, Comoedia necne poema 

Esset, quaesivere ; quod acer spiritus ac vis 45 

Nec verbis nec rebus inest ; nisi quod pede certo 

DirTert sermoni, sermo merus. — At pater ardens 

Saevit quod, meretrice nepos insanus amica, 

Filius uxorem grandi cum dote recuset, 

Ebrius et, magnum quod dedecus, ambulet ante 1 50 

Noctem cum facibus. — Numquid Pomponius istis 

Audiret leviora, pater si viveret 1 . . . Ergo 


Non satis est puris versum perscribere verbis ; 

Q,uem si dissolvas, quivis stomachetur eodem 

Quo personatus pacto pater. His, ego quae nunc, 55 

Olim quas scripsit Lucilius, eripias si 

Tempora certa modosque, et, quod prius ordine ver- 

bum est, 
Posterius facias, praeponens ultima primis ; 
Non, ut si solvas, " Postquam discordia tetra 
Betti ferratos postes portasque refregit" 60 

Invenias etiam disjecti membra poetse. 
Hactenus heec : alias, justum sit necne poema ; 
Nunc illud tantum quseram, meritone tibi sit 
Suspectum genus hoc scribendi. Sulcius acer 
Ambulat et Caprius, rauci male, cumque libellis ; 65 

Magnus uterque timor latronibus ; at, bene si quis 
Et puris vivat manibus, contemnat utrumque. 
Ut sis tu similis Cceli Birrique latronum, 
Non ego sim Capri, neque Sulci ; cur metuas me 1 
Nulla taberna meos habeat neque pila libellos, 70 

Queis manus insudet vulgi Hermogenisque Tigelli ; 
Nec recitem cuiquam, nisi amicis, idque coactus, 
Non ubivis, coramve quibuslibet. — In medio qui 
Scripta foro recitent sunt multi. — Quique Iavantes : 
Suave locus voci resonat conclusus. Inanes 75 

Hoc juvat, haud illud quaerentes, num sine sensu, 
Tempore num faciant alieno. — Laedere gaudes, 
Inquis : et hoc studio pravus facis. — Unde petitum 
Hoc in me jacis 1 est auctor quis denique eorum 
Vixi cum quibus ? Absentem qui rodit amicum ; 80 

Qui non defendit, afio culpante ; solutos , 
Qui captat risus hominum, famamque dicacis ; 
Fingere qui non visa potest ; commissa tacere 
Qui nequit : hic niger est ; hunc tu, Romane, caveto. 
Saepe tribus lectis videas coenare quaternos ; 85 


E quibus unus avet quavis aspergere cunctos, 

Praeter eum qui praebet aquam ; p6st, hunc quoque 

Condita quum verax aperit prsecordia Liber : 
Hic tibi comis et urbanus liberque videtur 
Infesto nigris. Ego, si risi quod ineptus 90 

Pastillos Rufillus olet, Gorgonius hircum, 
Lividus et mordax videor tibi. Mentio si qua 
De Capitolini furtis injecta Petilli 
Te coram fuerit, defendas, ut tuus est mos : — 
Me Capitolinus convictore usus amicoque 95 

A puero est, causaque mea permulta rogatus 
Fecit ; et incolumis laetor qu6d vivit in urbe : 
Sed tamen admiror quo pacto judicium illud 
Fugerit. — Hic nigrae succus loliginis ; haec est 
JErugo mera; quod vitium procul abfore chartis, 100 
Atque animo prius, ut, si quid promittere de me 
Possum aliud, vere promitto. Liberius si 
Dixero quid, si forte jocosius, hoc mihi juris 
Cum venia dabis : insuevit pater optimus hoc me, 
Ut fugerem, exemplis vitiorum quaeque notando. 105 

Quum me hortaretur, parce, frugaliter, atque 
Viverem uti contentus eo quod mi ipse parasset : 
" Nonne vides, Albi ut male vivat fiiius 1 utque 
Barrus inops 1 magnum docnmentum, ne patriam rem 
Perdere quis velit." A turpi meretricis amore 110 

Quum deterreret, " Sectani dissimilis sis." 
Ne sequerer moechas, concessa quum Venere uti 
Possem, " Deprensi non bella est fama Treboni/' 
Aiebat. " Sapiens, vitatu quidque petitu 
Sit melius, causas reddet tibi : mi satis est, si 115 

Traditum ab antiquis morem servare, tuamque, 
Dum custodis eges, vitam famamque tueri 
Incolumem possum : simul ac duraverit aetas 


Membra animumque tuum, nabis sine cortice." Sic me 

Formabat puerum dictis : et sive jubebat 120 

Ut facerem quid, " Habes auctorem quo facias hoc ; " 

Unum ex judicibus selectis objiciebat : 

Sive vetabat, " An hoc inhonestum et inutile factum 

Necne sit, addubites, flagret rumore malo quum 

Hic atque ille 1 " Avidos vicinum funus ut aegros 125 

Exanimat, mortisque metu sibi parcere cogit ; 

Sic teneros animos aliena opprobria saepe 

Absterrent vitiis. Ex hoc ego sanus ab illis 

Perniciem quaecunque ferunt 7 mediocribus, et queis y 

Ignoscas, vitiis teneor : fortassis et isthinc 130 

Largiter abstulerit longa aetas, liber amicus, 

Consilium proprium. Neque enim, quum lectulus 

aut me 
Porticus excepit, desum mihi : " Rectius hoc est ; 
Hoc faciens, vivam melius ; sic dulcis amicis 
Occurram : hoc quidam non belle ; numquid ego illi 135 
Imprudens olim faciam simile ? " Haec ego mecum 
Compressis agito labris ; ubi quid datur oti, 
Illudo chartis. Hoc est mediocribus illis 
Ex vitiis unum ; cui si concedere nolis, 
Multa poetarum veniat manus, auxilio quae 140 

Sit mihi, nam multo plures sumus ; ac veluti te 
Judaei cogemus in hanc concedere turbam. 


Egressum magna me excepit Aricia Roma 
Hospitio modico ; rhetor comes Heliodorus, 
Graecorum longe doctissimus. Inde Forum Appi, 



Differtum nautis, cauponibus atque malignis. 

Hoc iter ignavi divisimus, altius ac nos 5 

Praecinctis unum : minus est gravis Appia tardis. 

Hic ego, propter aquam, quod erat deterrima, ventri 

Indico bellum, coenantes haud animo aequo 

Exspectans comites. Jam nox inducere terris 

Umbras, et ccelo diffundere signa parabat : 10 

Tum pueri nautis, pueris convicia nautae 

Ingerere. " Huc appelle." " Trecentos inseris ; ohe ! 

Jam satis est ! " Dum aes exigitur, dum mula ligatur, 

Tota abit hora. Mali culices ranseque palustres 

Avertunt somnos ; absentem ut cantat amicam 15 

Multa prolutus vappa nauta atque viator 

Certatim : tandem fessus dormire viator 

Incipit; ac missae pastum retinacula mulae 

Nauta piger saxo. religat, stertitque supinus. 

Jamque dies aderat, quum nil procedere iintrem 20 

Sentimus ; donec cerebrosus prosilit unus, 

Ac mulse naut33que caput Jumbosque saligno 

Fuste dolat : quarta vix demuin exponimur hora. 

Ora manusque tua lavimus, Feronia, lympha. 

Millia tum pransi tria repimus, atque subimus 25 

Impositum saxis late candentibus Anxur. 

Huc venturus erat Maecenas, optimus atque 

Cocceius, missi magnis de rebus uterque 

Legati, aversos soliti componere amicos. 

Hic oculis ego nigra meis collyria lippus 30 

Illinere. Interea Maecenas advenit atque 

Cocceius, Capitoque simul Fonteius, ad unguem 

Factus homo, Antoni, non ut magis alter, amicus. 

Fundos Aufidio Lusco prsetore libenter 
Linquimus, insani ridentes prsemia scribae, 35 

PraBtextam, et latum clavum, prunaeque batillum. 
In Mamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemus, 


Muraena. praebente domum, Capitone culinam. 

Postera lux oritur multo gratissima : namque 
Plotius et Varius Sinuessae Virgiliusque 40 

Occurrunt ; animae, quales neque candidiores 
Terra tulit, neque queis me sit devinctior alter. 
O qui complexus et gaudia quanta fuerunt ! 
Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico. 
Proxima Campano ponti quae villula tectum 45 

Praebuit, et parochi, quae debent, ligna salemque. 
Hinc muli Capuae clitellas tempore ponunt. 
Lusum it Maecenas; dormitum ego Virgiliusque : 
Namque pila lippis inimicum et ludere crudis. 

Hinc nos Cocceii recipit plenissima villa, 50 

duae super est Caudi cauponas. Nunc mihi paucis 
Sarmenti scurrae pugnam Messique Cicirri, 
Musa, velim memores ; et quo patre natus uterque 
Contulerit lites. Messi clarum genus Osci ; 
Sarmenti domina exstat. Ab his majoribus orti 55 

Ad pugnam venere. Prior Sarmentus : " Equi te 
Esse feri similem dico." Ridemus : et ipse 
Messius, " Accipio " ; caput et movet. " O tua cornu 
Ni foret exsecto frons," inquit, " quid faceres, quum 
Sic mutilus minitaris ? " At illi faeda cicatrix 60 

Setosam laevi frontem turpaverat oris. 
Campanum in morbum, in faciem permulta jocatus, 
Pastorem saltaret uti Cyclopa rogabat : 
Nil iJli larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis. 
Multa Cicirrus ad haec : donasset jamne catenam 65 
Ex voto Laribus, quaerebat : scriba quod esset, 
Deterius nihilo dominae jus esse. Rogabat 
Denique cur unquam fugisset, cui satis una 
Farris libra foret, gracili sic tamque pusillo. 
Prorsus jucunde ccenam produximus illam. 70 

Tendimus hinc recta Beneventum, ubi sedulus hospes 


Pene arsit, macros dum turdos versat in igne : 
Nam vaga per veterem dilapso flamma culinam 
Vulcano summum properabat lambere tectum. 
Convivas avidos ccenam servosque timentes 75 

Tum rapere, atque omnes restinguere velle videres. 

Incipit ex illo montes Apulia notos 
Ostentare mihi, quos torret Atabulus, et quos 
Nunquam erepsemus, nisi nos vicina Trivici 
Villa recepisset, lacrymoso non sine fumo, 80 

Udos cum foliis ramos urente camino. 

Quatuor hinc rapimur viginti et millia rhedis, 
Mansuri oppidulo quod versu dicere non est, 
Signis perfacile est : venit vilissima rerum 
Hic aqua ; sed panis longe puleherrimus, ultra 85 

Callidus ut soleat humeris portare viator : 
Nam Canusi lapidosus, aquae non ditior urna ; 
Qui locus a forti Diomede est conditus olim. 
Flentibus hic Varius discedit mcestus amicis. 

Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus, utpote longum 90 

Carpentes iter, et factum corruptius imbri. 
Postera tempestas melior ; via pejor ad usque 
Bari moenia piscosi. Dehinc Gnatia, lymphis 
Iratis exstructa, dedit risusque jocosque ; 
Dum, flamma sine, thura liquescere limine sacro 95 

Persuadere cupit : credat Judaeus Apella, 
Non ego ; namque deos didici securum agere aevum ; 
Nec, si quid miri faciat natura, deos id 
Tristes ex alto cceli demittere tecto. 
Brundusium longae finis chartaeque viaeque. 100 




Non, quia, Maecenas, Lydorum quidquid Etruscos 

Incoluit fines, nemo generosior est te ; 

Nec quod avus tibi maternus fuit atque paternus 

Olim qui magnis legionibus imperitarent ; 

Ut plerique solent, naso suspendis adunco 5 

Ignotos, ut me libertino patre natum : 

Quum referre negas, quali sit quisque parente 

Natus, dum ingenuus. Persuades hoc tibi vere, 

Ante potestatem Tulli atque ignobile regnum, 

Multos saepe viros nullis majoribus ortos 10 

Et vixisse probos, amplis et honoribus auctos : 

Contra, Laevinum, Valeri genus, unde Superbus 

Tarquinius regno pulsus fuit, unius assis 

Non unquam pretio pluris licuisse, notante 

Judice, quem nosti, populo, qui stultus honores 15 

Saepe dat indignis et famae servit ineptus ; 

Qui stupet in titulis et imaginibus. Quid oportet 

Nos facere, a vulgo ionge lateque remotos? 

Namque esto, populus Laevino mallet honorem 

Quam Decio mandare novo ; censorque moveret 20 

Appius, ingenuo si non essem patre natus : 

Vel merito, quoniam in propria non pelle quiessem. 

Sed fulgente trahit constrictos Gloria curru 

Non minus ignotos generosis. Quo tibi, Tulli, 

Sumere depositum clavum, fierique tribuno 1 25 

Invidia accrevit, privato quse minor esset ; 

Nam, ut quisque insanus nigris medium impediit crus 

Pellibus, et latum demisit pectore clavum, 

Audit continuo, " Q,uis homo hic 1 " et, " Q,uo patre 

natus 1 " 
Ut, si qui aegrotet quo morbo Barrus, haberi 30 



Ut cupiat formosus, eat quacunque, puellis 

Injiciat curam quaerendi singula, quali 

Sit facie, sura. quali, pede, dente, capillo : 

Sic qui promittit, cives, Urbem sibi curae, 

Imperium fore, et Italiam, et delubra deorum ; 35 

Quo patre sit natus, num ignota. matre inhonestus, 

Omnes mortales curare et quaerere cogit. — 

Tune Syri, Damae, aut Dionysi filius, audes 

Dejicere e saxo cives, aut tradere Cadmo ? — 

At Novius collega gradu post me sedet uno : 40 

Namque est ille, pater quod erat meus. — Hoc tibi Pau- 

Et Messala videris ? At hic, si plaustra ducenta 
Concurrantque foro tria funera, magna sonabit 
Cornua quod vincatque tubas : saltem tenet hoc nos. 

Nunc ad me red-eo, libertino patre natum : 45 

Quem rodunt omnes libertino patre natum ; 
Nunc, quia, Msecenas, tibi sum convictor ; at olim, 
duod mihi pareret legio Romana tribuno. 
Dissimile hoc illi est : quia non, ut forsit honorem 
Jure mihi invideat quivis, ita te quoque amicum ; 50 

Praesertim cautum dignos assumere, prava 
Ambitione procul. Felicein dicere non hoc 
Me possum, casu quod te sortitus amicum ; 
Nulla etenim tibi me fors obtulit: optimus olim 
Virgilius, post hunc Varius, dixere quid essem. 55 

Ut veni coram, singultim pauca locutus, 
Infans namque pudor prohibebat plura profari, 
Non ego me claro natum patre, non ego circum 
Me Satureiano vectari rura caballo, 
Sed, quod eram, narro. Respondes, ut tuus est mos, 60 
Pauca : abeo; et revocas nono post mense, jubesque 
Esse in amicorum numero. Magnum hoc ego duco, 
Quod placui tibi, qui turpi secernis honestum, 


Non patre praeclaro, sed vita et pectore puro. 

Atqui, si vitiis mediocribus ac mea paucis 65 

Mendosa est natura, alioqui recta, velut si 
Egregio inspersos reprendas corpore naevos ; 
Si neque avaritiam, neque sordes, nec mala lustra, 
Objiciet vere quisquam mihi ; purus et insons 
(Ut me collaudem) si vivo, et carus amicis : 70 

Causa fiiit pater his, qui macro pauper agello 
Noluit in Flavi ludum me mittere, magni 
Q,uo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti, 
Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto, 
Ibant octonis referentes idibus aera. 75 

Sed puerum est ausus Romam portare, docendum 
Artes quas doceat quivis eques atque senator 
Semet prognatos : vestem servosque sequentes 
In magno ut populo si quis vidisset, avita 
Ex re praeberi sumptus mihi crederet illos. 80 

Ipse mihi custos incorruptissimus omnes 
Circum doctores aderat. Quid multa ? pudicum, 
Qui primus virtutis honos, servavit ab omni 
Non solum facto, verum opprobrio quoque turpi : 
Nec timuit, sibi ne vitio quis verteret, olim 85 

Si praeco parvas, aut, ut fuit ipse, coactor, 
Mercedes sequerer ; neque ego essem questus. Ab hoc 

Laus illi debetur et a me gratiarnajor. 
Nil me poeniteat sanum patris hujus : eoque 
Non, ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars 90 

Quod non ingenuos habeat clarosque parentes, 
Sic me defendam. Longe mea discrepat istis 
Et vox et ratio. Nam si natura juberet 
A certis annis aevum remeare peractum, 
Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscunque parentes 95 
Optaret sibi quisque ; meis contentus, honestos 


Fascibus et sellis nolim mihi sumere ; demens 

Judicio vulgi ; sanus fortasse tuo, quod 

Nollem onus, haud unquam solitus, portare moles- 

Nam mihi continuo major quaerenda foret res, 100 

Atque salutandi plures ; ducendus et unus 
Et comes alter, uti ne solus rusve peregreve 
Exirem ; plures calones atque caballi 
Pascendi ; ducenda petorrita. Nunc mihi curto 
Ire licet mulo, vel, si libet, usque Tarentum, 105 

Mantica cui lumbos onere ulceret, atque eques armos. 
Objiciet nemo sordes mihi, quas tibi, Tulli, 
Q,uum Tiburte via praetorem quinque sequuntur 
Te pueri, lasanum portantes oenophorumque. 
Hoc ego commodius, quam tu, praeclare senator, 110 
Millibus atque aliis vivo : quacunque libido est, 
Incedo solus ; percontor quanti olus ac far ; 
Fallacem circum vespertinumque pererro 
Saepe forum ; assisto divinis ; inde domum me 
Ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum : 115 

Coena ministratur pueris tribus ; et lapis albus 
Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet ; adstat echino 
Vilis cum patera guttus, Campana supellex. 
Deinde eo dormitum, non sollicitus mihi quod cras 
Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se 120 

Vultum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris. 
Ad quartam jaceo ; post hanc vagor ; aut ego, lecto 
Aut scripto quod me tacitum juvet, ungor olivo, 
Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucernis. 
Ast, ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum 125 

Admonuit, fugio rabiosi tempora signi. 
Pransus non avide, quantum interpellet inani 
Ventre diem durare, domesticus otior. Hsec est 


Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique : 

His me consolor, victurus suavius ac si 130 

Q-uaestor avus pater atque meus patruusque fuissent. 


Proscripti Regis Rupili pus atque venenum 
Ibrida quo pacto sit Persius ultus, opinor 
Omnibus et lippis notum et tonsoribus esse. 
Persius hic permagna negotia dives habebat 
Clazomenis, etiam lites cum Rege molestas ; 5 

Durus homo, atque odio qui posset vincere Regem ; 
Confidens, tumidusque ; adeo sermonis amari, 
Sisennas, Barros, ut equis preecurreret albis. 

Ad Regem redeo. Postquam nihil inter utrumque 
Convenit (hoc etenim sunt omnes jure molesti, 10 

duo fortes, quibus adversum bellum incidit : inter 
Hectora Priamiden animosum atque inter Achillem 
Ira fuit capitalis, ut ultima divideret mors ; 
Non aliam ob causam, nisi quod virtus in utroque 
Summa fuit. Duo si discordia vexet inertes, 15 

Aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomedi 
Cum Lycio Glauco ; discedet pigrior, ultro 
Muneribus missis) Bruto praetore tenente 
Ditem Asiam, Rupili et Persi par pugnat, uti non 
Compositus melius cum Bitho Bacchius ; in jus 20 

Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque. 

Persius exponit causam, ridetur ab omni 
Conventu ; laudat Brutum, laudatque cohortem ; 
Solem Asiae Brutum appellat ; stellasque salubres 
Appellat comites, excepto Rege ; Canem illum, 25 


Invisum agricolis sidus, venisse : ruebat, 
Flumen ut hibernum fertur qud rara securis. 

Tum Prsenestinus salso multumque fluenti 
Expressa arbusto regerit convicia ; durus 
Vindemiator et invictus, cui seepe viator 30 

Cessisset, magna compellans voce cuculum. 

At Grsecus, postquam est Italo perfusus aceto, 
Persius exclamat : " Per magnos, Brute, deos te 
Oro, qui reges consueris tollere, cur non 
Hunc Regem jugulas ? operum hoc, mihi crede, tuo- 
rum est." 35 


Olim truncus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum, 

Quum faber, incertus scamnum faceretne Priapum, 

Maluit esse deum. Deus inde ego, furum aviumque 

Maxima formido : nam fures dextra coercet, 

Ast importunas volucres in vertice arundo 5 

Terret fixa, vetatque novis considere in hortis. 

Huc prius angustis ejecta cadavera cellis 

Conservus vili portanda locabat in arca. 

Hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, 

Pantolabo scurrae, Nomentanoque nepoti. 10 

Mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 

Hic dabat ; haeredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 

Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 

Aggere in aprico spatiari, quo modo tristes 

Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum. 15 

Quum mihi non tantum furesque, feiaeque suetae 

Hunc vexare locum, curae sunt atque labori, 

duantum carminibus quae versant atque venenis 


Humanos animos : has nullo perdere possum 

Nec prohibere modo, simul ac vaga luna decorum 20 

Protulit os, quin ossa legant, herbasque nocentes. 

Vidi egomet nigra succinctam vadere palla 
Canidiam, pedibus nudis passoque capillo, 
Cum Sagana majore ululantem ; pallor utrasque 
Fecerat horrendas aspectu. Scalpere terram 25 

Unguibus, et pullam divellere mordicus agnam 
Co3perunt : cruor in fossam confusus, ut inde 
Manes elicerent, animas responsa daturas. 
Lanea et effigies erat, altera cerea ; major 
Lanea, quae pcenis compesceret inferiorem. 30 

Cerea suppliciter stabat, servilibus, utque 
Jam peritura, modis. Hecaten vocat altera saevam, 
Altera Tisiphonen : serpentes atque videres 
Infernas errare canes ; lunamque rubentem, 
Ne foret his testis, post magna latere sepulcra. 35 

Mentior at si quid, merdis caput inquiner albis 
Corvorum ; atque in me veniant mictum atque caca- 

Julius et fragilis Pediatia furque Voranus. 
Singula quid memorem ? quo pacto alterna ioquentes 
Umbrae cum Sagana resonarint triste et acutum ; 40 

Utque lupi barbam variae cum dente colubrae 
Abdiderint furtim terris ; et imagine cerea 
Largior arserit ignis ; et ut non testis inultus 
Horruerim voces Furiarum et facta duarum ? 
Nam, displosa sonat quantum vesica, pepedi 45 

Diffissa nate ficus ; at illae currere in urbem : 
Canidiae dentes, altum Saganae caliendrum 
Excidere, atque herbas, atque incantata lacertis 
Vincula, cum magno risuque jocoque videres. 



Ibam forte via Sacra, sicut meus est mos, 
Nescio quid meditans nugarum, totus in illis : 
Accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum ; 
Arreptaque manu : " Quid agis, dulcissime, rerum ? " 
" Suaviter, ut nunc est," inquam ; " et cupio omnia quae 

vis." 5 

Q,uum assectaretur, " Num quid vis ? " occupo. At ille, 
" Noris nos," inquit ; " docti sumus." Hic ego, " Pluris 
Hoc," inquam, " mihi eris." Misere discedere quaerens, 
Ire modo ocius, interdum consistere, in aurem 
Dicere nescio quid puero. Quum sudor ad imos 10 

Manaret talos : " O te, Bolane, cerebri 
Felicem ! " aiebam tacitus. Q,uum quidlibet ille 
Garriret, vicos, urbem laudaret ; ut illi 
Nil respondebam : " Misere cupis," inquit, " abire, 
Jamdudum video : sed nil agis ; usque tenebo, 15 

Persequar. Hinc quo nunc iter est tibi 1 " " Nil opus est te 
Circumagi : quendam volo visere, non tibi notum : 
Trans Tiberim longe cubat is, prope Caesaris hortos." 
" Nil habeo quod agam, et non sum piger ; usque se- 

quar te." 
Demitto auriculas, ut iniquea mentis asellus, 20 

duum gravius dorso subiit onus. Incipit ille : 
" Si bene me novi, non Viscum pluris amicum, 
Non Varium, facies : nam quis me scribere plures 
Aut citius possit versus ? quis membra movere 
Mollius ? invideat quod et Hermogenes, ego canto." 25 

Interpellandi locus hic erat : " Est tibi mater, 
Cognati, queis te salvo est opus 1 " " Haud mihi quis- 

quam ; - 
Omnes composui." " Felices ! nunc ego resto : 
Confice ; namque instat fatum mihi triste, Sabella 


Quod puero cecinit, divina mota anus urna : 30 

' Hunc neque dira venena, nec hosticus aufcret ensis, 
Nec laterum dolor, aut tussis, nec tarda podagra ; 
Garrulus hunc quando consumet cunque : loquaces, 
Si sapiat, vitet, simul atque adoleverit setas.' " 

Ventum erat ad Vestse, quarta jam parte diei 35 

Prasterita ; et casu, tunc respondere vadato 
Debebat : quod ni fecisset, perdere litem. 
11 Si me amas," inquit, " paulum hic ades." " Inteream, si 
Aut valeo stare, aut novi civilia jura ! 
Et propero quo scis." " Dubius sum quid faciam," in- 

quit ; 40 

" Tene relinquam, an rem." " Me, sodes." " Non faciam," 

ille ; 
Et pra^cedere ccepit. Ego, ut contendere durum est 
Cum victore, sequor. " Maecenas quomodo tecum ? " 
Hinc repetit. " Paucorum hominum, et mentis bene 

sanre : 
Nemo dexterius fortuna est usus." " Haberes 45 

Magnum adjutorem, posset qui ferre secundas, 
Hunc hominem velles si tradere ; dispeream, ni 
Summdsses omnes." " Non isto vivimus iilic, 
Q,uo tu rere, modo : domus hac nec purior ulla est, 
Nec magis his aliena malis : nil mi officit unquam, 50 
Ditior hic, aut est quia doctior : est locus uni- 
cuique suus." " Magnum narras, vix credibile." " Atqui 
Sic habet." " Accendis quare cupiam magis illi 
Proximus esse." " Velis tantummodo ; quse tua virtus, 
Expugnabis : et est qui vinci possit ; ecque 55 

Difficiles aditus primos habet." " Haud mihi deero : 
Muneribus servos corrumpam ; non, hodie si 
Exclusus fuero, desistam ; tempora quaeram ; 
Occurram in triviis ; deducam. Nil sine mugno 
Vita labore dedit mortalibus." Haec dum agit, ecce 60 


Fuscus Aristius occurrit, mihi carus, et illum 
Q,ui pulchre nosset. Consistimus. " Unde venis ? " et 
" Q,uo tendis ? " rogat ; et respondet. Vellere cospi, 
Et prensare manu lentissima brachia, nutans, 
Distorquens oculos, ut me eriperet : male salsus 65 

Ridens dissimulare : meum jecur urere bilis. 
" Certe nescio quid secreto velle loqui te 
Aiebas mecum." " Memini bene ; sed meliori 
Tempore dicam : hodie tricesima sabbata ; vin' tu 
Cwrtis Juda^is oppedere ? " " Nulla mihi," inquam, 70 
" Relligio est." " At mi : sum paulo infirmior, unus 
Multorum : ignosces ; alias loquar." " Hunccine solem 
Tam nigrum surrexe mihi ! fugit improbus, ac me 
Sub cultro linquit." Casu venit obvius illi 
Adversarius : et, " Qud tu, turpissime ? " magna 75 
Exclamat voce ;- et, " Licet antestari ? " Ego vero 
Oppono auriculam : rapit in jus : clamor utrinque ; 
Undique concursus. Sic me servavit Apollo. 


Nempe incomposito dixi pede currere versus 

Lucili. Quis tam Lucili fautor inepte est, 

Ut non hoc fateatur ? At idem, qu6d sale multo 

Urbem defricuit, charta laudatur eadem. 

Nec tamen hoc tribuens dederim quoque csstera : nam sic 5 

Et Laberi mimos, ut pulchra poemata, mirer. 

Ergo non satis est risu diducere rictum 

Auditoris : et est qua^dam tamen hic quoque virtus. 

Est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia, neu se 

tmpediat verbis lassas onerantibus aures. 10 


Et sermone opus est modo tristi, ssepe jocoso, 

Defendente vicem modo rhetoris atque poetae, 

Interdum urbani, parcentis viribus, atque 

Extenuantis eas consulto. Ridiculum acri 

Fortius et melius magnas pleriimque secat res. 15 

Illi, scripta quibus comoedia prisca viris est, 

Hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi ; quos neque pulcher 

Hermogenes unquam legit, neque simius iste, 

Nil praeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullum. — 

At magnum fecit, quod verbis Grseca Latinis 20 

Miscuit. — O seri studiorum ! quine putetis 

Difficile et mirum, Rhodio quod Pitholeonti 

Contigit 1 — At sermo lingua concinnus utraque 

Suavior, ut Chio nota si commixta Falerni est. 

Q,uum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, an et quum 25 

Dura tibi peragenda rei sit causa Petilli, 

Scilicet oblitus patriaeque patrisque Latini, 

&uum Pedius causas exsudet Poplicola, atque 

Corvinus, patriis intermiscere petita 

Verba foris malis, Canusini more bilinguis ? 30 

Atque ego, quum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, 

Versiculos, vetuit me tali voce Quirinus, 

Post mediam noctem visus, quum somnia vera : 

In silvam non ligna feras insanius, ac si 

Magnas Graecorum malis implere catervas. 35 

Turgidus Alpinus jugulat dum Memnona, dumque 
Diffingit Rheni luteum caput, ha^c ego ludo, 
Quae nec in ^Ede sonent certantia, judice Tarpa, 
Nec redeant iterum atque iterum spectanda theatris. 
Arguta meretrice potes, Davoque Chremeta 4() 

Eludente senem, comis garrire libellos, 
Unus vivorum, Fundani : Pollio regum 
Facta canit, pede ter percusso : forte epos acer, 
Ut nemo, Varius ducit : molle atque facetum 


Virgilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camcense. 45 

Hoc erat, experto frustra Varrone Atacino 
Atque quibusdam aliis, melius quod scribere possem, 
Inventore minor : neque ego illi detrahere ausim 
Hasrentem capiti multa cum laude coronam. 

At dixi fluere hunc lutulentum, saepe ferentem 50 

Plura quidem tollenda relinquendis : age, quseso, 
Tu nihil in magno doctus reprendis Homero ? 
Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Acci ? 
Non ridet versus Enni gravitate minores, 
Quum de se loquitur, non ut majore reprensis ? 55 

Quid vetat et nosmet, Lucili scripta legentes, 
Quasrere num illius, num rerum, dura negarit 
Versiculos natura magis factos, et euntes 
Mollius, ac si quis pedibus quid claudere senis, 
Hoc tantum, contentus, amet scripsisse ducentos 60 

Ante cibum versus, totidem coenatus ; Hetrusci 
tiuale fuit Cassi rapido ferventius amni 
Ingenium, capsis quem fama est esse librisque 
Ambustum propriis ? Fuerit Lucilius, inquam, 
Comis et urbanus ; fuerit limatior idem, 65 

Quam rudis et Greecis intacti carminis auctor, 
Quamque poetarum seniorum turba : sed ille, 
Si foret hoc nostrum fato dilatus in sevum, 
Detereret sibi multa ; recideret omne quod ultra 
Perfectum traheretur ; et in versu faciendo 70 

Saepe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet ungues. 

Saepe stylum vertas, iterum, quae digna legi sint, 
Scripturus, neque, te ut miretur turba, labores, 
Contentus paucis lectoribus. An tua demens 
Vilibus in ludis dictari carmina malis ? 75 

Non ego : nam satis est Equitem mihi plaudere, ut au- 

Contemptis aliis, explosa Arbuscula dixit. 


. "i 

Men' moveat cimex Pantilius ? aut crucier, quod 
VelCcet absentem Demetrius, aut, quod ineptus 
Fannius Hermogenis laedat conviva Tigellf 1 80 

Plotius et Varius, Maecenas Virgiliusque, 
Valgius, et probet hsec Octavius optimus, atque 
Fuscus ; et haec utinam Viscorum laudet uterque ; 
Ambitione relegata, te dicere possum, 
Pollio, te, Messala, tuo cum fratre ; simulque 85 

Vos, Bibule et Servi ; simul his te, candide Furni : 
Complures alios, doctos ego quos et amicos 
Prudens prsetereo, quibus haec, sint qualiacunque, 
Arridere velim ; doliturus, si placeant spe 
Peterms nostra. Demetri, teque, Tigelli, 90 

Discipularum inter jubeo plorare cathedras. 
I, puer, atque meo citus haec subscribe libello. 







Sunt quibus in Satira videor nimis acer, et ultra 
Legem tendere opus ; sine nervis altera, quidquid 
Composui, pars esse putat,' similesque meorum 
Mille die versus deduci posse. Trebati, 
Quid faciam preescribe. 




Ne faciam, inquis; 5 
Omnino versus 1 




Peream male, si non 
Optimum erat : verum nequeo dormire. 


Ter uncti 
Transnanto Tiberim, somno quibus est opus alto, 
Irriguumque mero sub noctem corpus habento. 


Aut, si tantus amor scribendi te rapit, aude 10 

Csesaris invicti res dicere, multa laborum 
Praemia laturus. 


Cupidum, pater optime, vires 
Deficiunt : neque enim quivis horrentia pilis 
Agmina, nec fracta. pereuntes cuspide Gallos, 
Aut labentis equo describat vulnera Parthi. 15 


Attamen et justum poteras et scribere fortem, 
Scipiadam ut sapiens Lucilius. 


Haud mihi deero, 
duum res ipsa feret. Nisi dextro tempore, Flacci 
Verba per attentam non ibunt Caesaris aurem : 
Cui male si palpere, recalcitrat undique tUtiis, 20 


♦Quanto rectius hpc, quam tristi lsedere versu 
Pantolabum scurram Nomentanumque nepotem ! 
Quum sibi quisque timet, quanquam est intactus, et 


Q,uid faciam ? Saltat Milonius, ut semel icto 

Accessit fervor capiti numerusque lucernis : 25 

Castor gaudet equis ; ovo prognatus eodem, 

Pugnis : quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum 

Millia. Me pedibus delectat claudere verba, 

Lucili ritu, nostrum melioris utroque. 

Ille velut fidis arcana sodalibus olim 30 

Credebat libris ; neque, si male cesserat, usquam 

Decurrens alio, neque si bene : quo fit ut omnis 

Votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella 

Vita senis. Sequor hunc, Lucanus an Appulus, anceps : 

Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus, 35 

Missus ad hoc, pulsis, vetus est ut fama, Sabellis, 


Quo ne per vacuum Romano incurreret hostis ; 
Sive quod Appula gens, seu quod Lucania bellum 
Incuteret violenta. Sed hic stylus haud petet ultro 
Q,uenquam animantem ; et me veluti custodiet ensis 40 
Vagina tectus ; quem cur distringere coner, 
Tutus ab infestis latronibus 1 O pater et rex 
Jupiter, ut pereat positum rubigine telum, 
Nec quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis ! At ille 
Q,ui me commorit, " Melius non tangere ! " clamo, 45 
Flebit, et insignis tota cantabitur urbe. 
Servius iratus leges minitatur et urnam : 
Canidia Albuti, quibus est inimica, venenum j^J 
Grande malum Turius, si quis se judice certet. 
Ut, quo quisque valet, suspectos terreat, utque 50 

'Imperet hoc natura potens, sic collige mecum : 
Dente lupus, cornu taurus petit ; unde, nisi intus 
Monstratum 1 Scsevse vivacem crede nepoti 
Matrem : nil faciet sceleris pia dextera : mirum ! 
Ut neque calce lupus quenquam, neque dente petit 
bos : 55 

y Sed mala tollet anum vitiato melle cicuta. 

Ne longum faciam ; seu me tranquilla senectus 
Exspectat, seu mors atris circumvolat alis ; 
Dives, inops ; Romse, seu fors ita jusserit, exsul ; 
Quisquis erit vitae, scribam, color. 


O puer, ut sis 60 
Vitalis metuo, et majorum ne quis amicus 
Frigore te feriat. 


Quid ? quum est Lucilius ausus 
Primus in hunc operis componere carmina morem, 
Detrahere et pellem, nitidus qua quisque per ora 
Cederet, introrsum turpis ; num Laelius, et qui 65 


Duxit ab oppressa meritum Carthagine nomen, 
Ingenio offensi, aut laeso doluere Metello, 
Famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus ? Atqui 
Primores populi arripuit populumque tributim, 
Scilicet uni aequus virtuti atque ejus amicis. 70 

Quin, ubi se a vulgo et scena in secreta remorant 
Virtus Scipiadas et mitis sapientia Laeli, 
Nugari cum illo, et discincti ludere, donec 
Decoqueretur olus, soliti. Quidquid sumego, quamvis 
Infra Lucili censum ingeniumque, tamen me 75 

Cum magnis vixisse invita fatebitur usque 
Invidia, et, fragili quaerens illidere dentem, 
Offendet solido : nisi quid tu, docte Trebati, 


Equidem nihil hic diffineTere possum. 
Sed tamen, ut monitus caveas, ne forte negoti 80 

Incutiat tibi quid sanctarum inscitia legum, 
Si mala condiderit in quem quis carmina, jus est 


Esto, si quis mala ; sed bona si quis 
Judice condiderit laudatus Caesare, si quis 
Opprobriis dignum latraverit, integer ipse ? 85 


Solventur risu tabulss : tu missus abibis. 


Q,uj£ virtus et quanta, boni, sit vivere parvo, 
Nec meus hic sermo est, sed quae praecepit Ofellus 
Rusticus, abnormis sapiens crassaque Minerva, 


Discite, non inter lances mensasque nitentes, 

Quum stupet insanis acies fulgoribus, et quum 5 

Acclinis falsis animus meliora recusat ; 

Verum hic impransi mecum disquirite. — Cur hoc 1 — 

Dicam, si potero. Male verum examinat omnis 

Corruptus judex. Leporem sectatus, equove 

Lassus ab indomito, vel si Romana fatigat 10 

Militia assuetum grascari, seu pila velox, 

Molliter austerum studio fallente laborem, 

Seu te discus agit ; pete cedentem aera disco : 

Quum labor extuderit fastidia, siccus, inanis, 

Sperne cibum vilem ; nisi Hymettia mella Falerno 15 

Ne biberis diluta ; foris est promus, et atrum 

Defendens pisces hiemat mare ; cum sale panis 

Latrantem stomachum bene leniet. Unde putas, aut 

Qui partum 1 Non in caro nidore voluptas 

Summa, sed in te ipso est. Tu pulmentaria qusere 20 

Sudando : pinguem vitiis albumque nec ostrea, 

Nec scarus, aut poterit peregrina juvare lagois. 

Vix tamen eripiam, posito pavone, velis quin 

Hoc potius, quam gallina, tergere palatum, 

Corruptus vanis rerum ; quia veneat auro 25 

Rara avis, et picta pandat spectacula cauda. 

Tanquam ad rem attineat quidquam. Num vesceris ista 

Quam laudas pluma 1 coctove num adest honor idem ? 

Carne tamen quamvis distat nihil hac magis illa, 

Imparibus formis deceptum te patet ; esto : 30 

Unde datum sentis, lupus hic Tiberinus, an alto 

Captus hiet, pontesne inter jactatus, an amnis 

Ostia sub Tusci 1 Laudas, insane, trilibrem 

Mullum, in singula quem minuas pulmenta necesse est. 

Ducit te species, video. Qud pertinet ergo 35 

Proceros odisse lupos? Quia scilicet illis 

Majorem natura modum dedit, his breve pondus. 




" Porrectum magno magnum spectare catino 

Vellem," ait Harpyiis giila digna rapacibus. At vos, 

Praesentes Austri, coquite horum obsonia : quamvis 40 

Putet aper rhombusque recens, mala copia quando 

iEgrum sollicitat stomachum ; quum rapula plenus 

Atque acidas mavult inulas. Necdum omnis abacta 

Pauperies epulis regum : nam vilibus ovis 

Nigrisque est oleis hodie locus. Haud ita pridem 45 

Galloni praeconis erat acipensere mensa 

Infamis. Q,ufd ? tum rhombos minus aequor alebat ? 

Tutus erat rhombus, tutoque ciconia nido, 

Donec vos auctor docuit praetorius. * Ergo, 

Si quis nunc mergos suaves edixerit assos, 50 

Parebit pravi docilis Romana juventus. 

Sordidus a tenui victu distabit, Ofello 
Judice : nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud, 
Si te alio pravum detorseris. Avidienus, 
Cui Canis ex vero ductum cognomen adhaeret, 55 

Quinquennes oleas est et silvestria corna ; 
Ac, nisi mutatum, parcit defundere vinum ; et 
Cujus odorem olei nequeas perferre, licebit 
Ille repotia, natales, aliosve dierum 
Festos albatus celebret, cornu ipse bilibri 60 

Caulibus instillat, veteris non parcus aceti. 

Quali igitur victu sapiens utetur ? et horum 
Utrum imitabitur ? Hac urget lupus, hac canis, aiunt. - 
Mundus erit, qui non onendat sordibus, atque 
In neutram partem cultus miser. Hic neque servis, 65 
Albuti senis exemplo, dum munia didit, 
Soevus erit ; neque, sicut simplex Naevius, unctam 
Convivis prsebebit aquam : vitium hoc quoque magnum. 

Accipe nunc victus tenuis quse quantaque secum 
Afferat. Imprimis valeas bene : nam, variae res 70 

Ut noceant homini, credas, memor illius escae 


Quae simplex olim libi sederit. At simul assis 

Miscueris elixa, simul conchylia turdis ; 

Dulcia se in bilem vertent, stomachoque tumultum 

Lenta feret pituita. Vides ut pallidus omnis 75 

Ccena desurgat dubia ? Quin corpus onustum 

Hesternis vitiis animum quoque praegravat una, 

Atque affligit humo divinae particulam aurae. 

Alter, ubi dicto citius curata sopori 

Membra dedit, vegetus praescripta ad munia surgit. 80 

Hic tamen ad melius poterit transcurrere quondam : 

Sive diem festum rediens adduxerit annus ; 

Seu recreare volet tenuatum corpus ; ubique 

Accedent anni, et tractari mollius aetas 

Imbecilla volet. Tibi quidnam accedet ad istam 85 

Q,uam puer et validus praesumis mollitiem, seu 

Dura valetudo inciderit, seu tarda senectus ? 

Rancidum aprum antiqui laudabant: non quia nasus 
Illis nullus erat, sed, credo, hac mente, quod hospes 
Tardius adveniens vitiatum commodius, quam 90 

Integrum edax dominus, consumeret. Hos utinam inter 
Heroas natum tellus me prima tulisset ! 
Das aliquid famae, quae carmina gratior aurem 
Occupat humanam ? Grandes rhombi patinaeque 
Grande ferunt una cum damno dedecus : adde 95 

Iratum patruum, vicinos, te tibi iniquum, 
Et frustra mortis cupidum, quum deerit egenti 
As, laquei pretium. " Jure," inquit, " Trausius istis 
Jurgatur verbis : ego vectigalia magna 
Divitiasque habeo tribus amplas regibus." Ergo, 100 
Quod superat, non est melius qu^ insumere possis? 
Cur eget indignus quisquam, te divite ? Quare 
Templa ruunt antiqua deum ? Cur, improbe, carae 
Non aliquid patriae tanto emetiris acervo ? 
Uni nimirum tibi recte semper erunt res ? 105 


O magnus posthac inimicis risus ! Uterne 
Ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius ; hic qui 
Pluribus assuerit mentem corpusque superbum ; 
An qui, contentus parvo metuensque futuri, 
In pace, ut sapiens, aptarit idonea bello 1 110 

Qud magis his credas ; puer hunc ego parvus Ofellum 
Integris opibus novi non latius usum, 
Q,uam nunc accisis. Videas metato in agello 
Cum pecore et gnatis fortem mercede colonum, 
" Non ego," narrantem, " temere edi luce profesta 115 
Quidquam, praeter olus, fumosae cum pede pernae. 
Ac mihi seu longum post tempus venerat hospes, 
Sive operum vacuo gratus conviva per imbrem 
Vicinus, bene erat, non piscibus urbe petitis, 
Sed pullo atque hcedo : tum pensilis uva secundas 120 
Et nux ornabat mensas cum duplice ficu : 
Post hoc ludus erat cuppa potare magistra ; 
Ac venerata Ceres, ita culmo surgeret alto, 
Explicuit vino contractae seria frontis. 
Saeviat atque novos moveat Fortuna tumultus, 125 

Quantum hinc imminuet? quanto aut egoparcius, aut 

O pueri, nituistis, ut hoc novus incola venit 1 
Nam propriae telluris herum natura neque illum, 
Nec me, nec quenquam statuit : nos expulit ille ; 
111 um aut nequities aut vafri inscitia juris, 130 

Postremo expellet certe vivacior haeres. 
Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli 
Dictus, erit nulli proprius ; sed cedit in usum 
Nunc mihi, nunc alii : quocirca vivite fortes, 
Fortiaque adversis opponite pectora rebus." 135 





Sic raro scribis, ut toto non quater anno 

Membranam poscas, scriptorum quoeque retexens, 

Iratus tibi quod vini somnique benignus 

Nil dignum sermone canas. Quid fiet 1 ab ipsis 

Saturnalibus huc fugisti ; sobrius ergo 5 

Dic aliquid dignum promissis : incipe. Nil est. 

Culpantur frustra calami, immeritusque laborat 

Iratis natus paries dis atque poetis. 

Atqui vultus erat multa et preeclara minantis, 

Si vacuum tepido cepisset villula tecto. 10 

Quorsum pertinuit stipare Platona Menandro ; 

Eupolin, Archilochum, comites educere tantos 1 

Invidiam placare paras virtute relicta 1 

Contemnere miser : vitanda est improba Siren 

Desidia ; aut, quidquid vita meliore parasti, 15 

Ponendum aequo animo. 


Di te, Damasippe, deaeque, 
Verum ob consilium donent tonsore ! Sed unde 
Tam bene me nosti 1 


Postquam omnis res mea Janum 
Ad medium fracta est, aliena negotia curo, 
Excussus propriis. Olim nam quaerere amabam 20 

Ciuo vafer ille pedes lavisset Sisyphus sere, 
Gluid sculptum infabre, quid fusum durius esset ; 
Callidus huic signo ponebam millia centum ; 
Hortos egregiasque domos mercarier unus 
Cum lucro noram : unde frequentia Mercuriale 25 

Imposuere mihi cognomen compita. 



Novi : 
Et morbi miror purgatum te illius. 


Emovit veterem mire novus, ut solet, in cor 
Trajecto lateris miseri capitisque dolore : 
Ut lethargicus hic, quum fit pugil, et medicum urget. 30 


Dum ne quid simile huic, esto ut libet. 


O bone, ne te 
Frustrere ; insanis et tu, stultique prope omnes, 
Si quid Stertinius veri crepat ; unde ego mira 
Descripsi docilis proscepta hsec, tempore quo me 
Solatus jussit sapientem pascere barbam, 35 

Atque e Fabricio non tristem ponte reverti. 
Nam male re gesta quum vellem mittere operto 
Me capite in flumen, dexter stetit: et, " Cave faxis 
Te quidquam indignum ; pudor," inquit, " te malus urget, 
Insanos qui inter vereare insanus haberi. 40 

Primum nam inquiram quid eit furere : hoc si erit in te 
Solo, nil verbi, pereas quin fortiter, addam. 
duem mala stultitia et quemcunque inscitia veri 
Csecum agit, insanum Chrysippi porticus et grex 
Autumat. Haec populos, haec magnos formula reges, 45 
Excepto sapiente, tenet. Nunc accipe quare 
Desipiant omnes eeque ac tu, qui tibi nomen 
Insano posuere. Velut silvis, ubi passim 
Palantes error certo de tramite pellit, 
Ille sinistrorsum, hic dextrorsum abit ; unus utrique 50 
Error, sed variis illudit partibus : hoc te 
Crede modo insanum, nihilo ut sapientior ille 
Qui te deridet caudam trahat. Est genus unum 


Stultitiae, nihilum metuenda timentis ; ut ignes, 

Ut rupes, fluviosque in campo obstare queratur : 55 

Alterum et huic varium, et nihilo sapientius, ignes 

Per medios fluviosque ruentis. Clamet amica 

Mater, honesta soror, cum cognatis, pater, uxor : 

' Hic fossa est ingens ! hic rupes maxima ! serva ! ' 

Non magis audierit, quam Fusius ebrius olim, 60 

Q,uum Uionam edormit, Catienis mille ducentis, 

1 Mater, te appello,' clamantibus. Huic ego vulgum 

Errori similem cunctum insanire docebo. 

Insanit veteres statuas Damasippus emendo. 

Integer est mentis Damasippi creditor ? Esto : 65 

' Accipe quod nunquam reddas mihi,' si tibi dicam ; 

Tune insanus eris si acceperis, an magis excors 

Rejecta prseda quam praesens Mercurius fert ? 

Scribe decem a Nerio : non est satis ; adde Cicuta? 

Nodosi tabulas centum ; mille adde catenas : 70 

EfFugiet tamen haec sceleratus vincula Proteus. 

Quum rapies in jus malis ridentem alienis, 

Fiet aper, modo avis, modo saxum, et, quum volet, arbor. 

Si male rem gerere insani est ; contra bene, sani : 

Putidius multo cerebrum est, mihi crede, Perilli, 75 

Dictantis quod tu nunquam rescribere possis. 

Audire, atque togam jubeo componere, quisquis 

Ambitione mala aut argenti pallet amore, 

Quisquis luxuria, tristive superstitione, 

Aut alio mentis morbo calet ; huc propius me, 80 

Dum doceo insanire omnes, vos ordine adite. 

Danda est ellebori multo pars maxima avaris : 

Nescio an Anticvram ratio illis destinet omnem. 

Haeredes Staberi summam incidere sepulcro : 

Ni sic fecissent, gladiatorum dare centum 85 

Damnati populo paria, atque epulum arbitrio Arri, 

Frumenti quantum metit Africa. ' Sive ego prave, 


Seu recte, hoc volui, ne sis patruus mihi.' Credo 

Hoc Staberi prudentem animumvidisse . . ." "Quidergo 

Sensit, quum summam patrimoni insculpere saxo 90 

Haeredes voluit ?" "Quoad vixit, credidit ingens 

Pauperiem vitium, et cavit nihil acrius ; ut, si 

Forte minus locuples uno quadrante perisset, 

Ipse videretur sibi nequior : omnis enim res, 

Virtus, fama, decus, divina humanaque, pulchris 95 

Divitiis parent ; quas qui contraxerit, ille 

Clarus erit, fortis, justus." " Sapiensne 1 " " Etiam ; 

et rex, 
Et quidquid volet. Hoc, veluti virtute paratum, 
Speravit magnae laudi fore. Quid simile isti 
Graecus Aristippus, qui servos projicere aurum 100 

In media jussit Libya, quia tardius irent 
Propter onus segnes ? uter est insanior horum 1 " 
" Nil agit exemplum litem quod lite resolvit." 
" Si quis emat citharas, emptas comportet in unum, 
Nec studio citharae, nec Musa3 deditus ulli ; 105 

Si scalpra et formas, non sutor ; nautica vela, 
Aversus mercaturis ; delirus et amens 
Undique dicatur merito. Q,ui discrepat istis, 
Q,ui nummos aurumque recondit, nescius uti 
Compositis, metuensque velut contingere sacrum 1 110 
Si quis ad ingentem frumenti semper acervum 
Porrectus vigilet cum longo fuste ; neque illinc 
Audeat esuriens dominus contingere granum, 
Ac potius foliis parcus vescatur amaris ; 
Si, positis intus Chii veterisque Falerni 115 

Mille cadis . . . nihil est . . . tercentum rnillibus, acre 
Potet acetum ; age, si et stramentis incubet, unde- 
octoginta annos natus, cui stragula vestis, 
Blattarum ac tinearum epulae, putrescat in arca : 
Nimirum insanus paucis videatur, eo quod 120 



Maxima pars hominum morbo jactatur eodem. 
Filius aut etiam haec libertus ut ebibat hseres, 
Dis inimice senex custodis ? ne tibi desit 1 
Cluantulum enim summae curtabit quisque dierum, 
Ungere si caules oleo meliore, caputque 125 

Coeperis impexa fcedum porrigine 1 Quare, 
Si quidvis satis est, perjuras, surripis, aufers 
Undique 1 tun' sanus ? Populum si caedere saxis 
Incipias, servosque tuo quos aere pararis, 
Insanum te omnes pueri clamentque puellae : 130 

Q,uum laqueo uxorem interimis matremque veneno, 
Incolumi capite es 1 Quid enim ? neque tu hoc facis 

Nec ferro, ut demens genitricem occidit Orestes. 
An tu reris eum occisa insanisse parente 1 
Ac non ante mal-is dementem actum Furiis, quam 135 
In matris jugulo ferrum tepefecit acutum 1 
Quin, ex quo est habitus male tutae mentis Orestes, 
Nil sane fecit quod tu reprendere possis : 
Non Pyladen ferro violare aususve sororem 
Electram : tantum maledicit utrique, vocando 140 

Hanc Furiam, hunc aliud, jussit quod splendida bilis. 
Pauper Opimius argenti positi intus et auri, 
Q,ui Veientanum festis potare diebus 
Campana solitus trulla, vappamque profestis, 
Quondam lethargo grandi est oppressus, ut haeres 145 
Jam circum loculos et claves laetus ovansque 
Curreret : hunc medicus multum celer atque fidelis 
Excitat hoc pacto : mensam poni jubet, atque 
Effundi saccos nummorum ; accedere plures 
Ad numerandum : hominem sic erigit. Addit et illud : 150 
{ Ni tua custodis, avidus jam haec auferet haeres.' 
' Men' vivo V l \Jt vivas igitur, vigila : hoc age.' 
1 Quid vis 1 ' 


1 Deficient inopem venas te, ni cibus atque 

Ingens accedat stomacho fultura ruenti. 

Tu cessas 1 agedum, sume hoc ptisanarium oryzae.' 155 

'Quanti emptae?' ' Parvo.' 'Q,uanti ergo V 'Octussi- 

bus.' ' Eheu ! 
Quid refert morbo an furtis pereamve rapinis ? ' " 
" Quisnam igitur sanus 1 " " Qui non stultus." "Quid 

avarus ? " 
" Stultus et insanus." " Quid 1 si quis non sit avarus. 
Continuosanus?" "Minime." " Cur, Stoice 1 " " Di- 

cam. 160 

' Non est cardiacus/ Craterum dixisse putato, 
• Hic aeger.' « Recte est igitur, surgetque 1 ' Negabit, 
Qu6d latus aut renes morbo tententur acuto. 
Non est perjurus, neque sordidus ; immolet aequis 
Hic porcum Laribus : verum ambitiosus et audax ; 165 
Naviget Anticyram : quid enim differt, barathrone 
Dones quidquid habes, an nunquam utare paratis ? 
Servius Oppidius Canusi duo praedia, dives 
Antiquo censu, gnatis divisse duobus 
Fertur, et haec moriens pueris dixisse vocatis 170 

Ad lectum : ' Postquam te talos, Aule, nucesque 
Ferre sinu laxo, donare et ludere vidi ; 
Te, Tiberi, numerare, cavis abscondere tristem ; 
Extimui ne vos ageret vesania discors ; 
Tu Nomentanum, tu ne sequerere Cicutam. 175 

duare, per divos oratus uterque Penates, 
Tu cave ne minuas, tu ne majus facias id 
Q,uod satis esse putat pater, et natura coercet. 
Praeterea, ne vos titillet gloria, jure- 
jurando obstringam ambo : uter aedilis fueritve 180 

Vestrum praetor, is intestabilis et sacer esto. 
In cicere atque faba bona tu perdasque lupinis, 
Latus ut in Circo spatiere, aut aeneus ut stes, 


Nudus agris, nudus nummis, insane, paternis 1 

Scilicet ut plausus quos fert Agrippa feras tu, 185 

Astuta ingenuum vulpes imitata leonem ? ' 

* Ne quis humasse velit Ajacem, Atrida, vetas cur ? ' 

1 Rex sum.' ' Nil ultra quaero plebeius.' ' Et aequam 

Rem imperito : at, si cui videor non justus, inulto 

Dicere quod sentit permitto.' ' Maxime regum, 190 

Di tibi dent capta classem reducere Troja ! 

Ergo consulere, et mox respondere licebit ? ' 

1 Consule.' ' Cur Ajax, heros ab Achille secundus, 

Putrescit, toties servatis clarus Achivis ? 

Gaudeat ut populus Priami Priamusque inhumato, 195 

Per quem tot juvenes patrio caruere sepulcro ? ' 

* Mille ovium insanus morti dedit, inclytum Ulyssem 
Et Menelaum una mecum se occidere clamans.' 

' Tu quum pro vitula statuis dulcern Aulide natam 
Ante aras, spargisque mola caput, improbe, salsa, 200 
Rectum animi servas 1 ' ' Quorsum 1 ' ' Insanus quid enim 

Fecit, quum stravit ferro pecus ? abstinuit vim 
Uxore et gnato, mala multa precatus Atridis. 
Non ille aut Teucrum aut ipsum violavit Ulyssem.' 
' Verum ego, ut hserentes adverso littore naves 205 

Eriperem, prudens placavi sanguine divos.' 
' Nernpe tuo, furiose.' ' Meo, sed non furiosus.' 
' dui species alias veris scelerisque tumultu 
Permixtas capiet, coinmotus habebitur ; atque, 
Stultitiane erret, nihilum distabit, an ira. 210 

Ajax, quum immeritos occidit, desipit, agnos ? 
Q,uum prudens scelus ob titulos admittis inanes, 
Stas animo ? et purum est vitio tibi, quum tumidum est, 

cor ? 
Si quis lectica nitidam gestare amet agnam, 214 

Huic vestem, ut gnatae, paret, ancillas paret, aurum ; 


Rufam aut Rufillam appellet, fortique marito 

Destinet uxorem ; interdicto huic omne adimat jus 

Praetor, et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos. 

duid ! si quis gnatam pro muta devovet agna, 

Integer est animi ? Ne dixeris. Ergo, ubi prava 220 

Stultitia, hic est summa insania : qui sceleratus, 

Et furiosus erit : quem cepit vitrea fama, 

Hunc circumtonuit gaudens Bellona cruentis.' 

Nunc age, luxuriam et Nomentanum arripe mecum. 

Vincet enim stultos ratio insanire nepotes. 225 

Hic simul accepit patrimoni mille talenta, 

Edicit piscator uti, pomarius, auceps, 

Unguentarius, ac Tusci turba impia vici, 

Cum scurris fartor, cum Velabro omne macellum, 229 

Mane domum veniant. Quid tum? Venere frequentes. 

Verba facit leno : ' Quidquid mihi, quidquid et horum 

Cuique domi est, id crede tuum ; et vel nunc pete, vel 

Accipe quid contra juvenis responderit sequus : 
c In nive Lucana dormis ocreatus, ut aprum 
Coenem ego ; tu pisces hiberno ex aequore vellis : 235 
Segnis ego, indignus qui tantum possideam. Aufer : 
Sume tibi decies ; tibi tantundem ; tibi triplex.' 
Filius iEsopi detractam ex aure Metellae, 
Scilicet ut decies solidum exsorberet, aceto 
Diluit insignem baccam : qui sanior ac si 240 

Illud idem in rapidum flumen jaceretve cloacam ? 
duinti progenies Arri, par nobile fratrum, 
Nequitia, et nugis, pravorum et amore gemellum, 
Luscinias soliti impenso prandere coemptas. 
Quorsum abeant 1 sani ut creta, an carbone notandi ? 245 
^Edificare casas, plaustello adjungere mures, 
Ludere par impar, equitare in arundine longa, 
Si quem delectet barbatum, amentia verset. 


Si puerilius his ratio esse evincet amare ; 

Nec quidquam differre, utrumne in pulvere, trimus 250 

Q-uale prius, ludas opus, an meretricis amore 

Sollicitus plores : qua?ro, faciasne quod olim 

Mutatus Polemon ? ponas insignia morbi, 

Fasciolas, cubital, focalia, potus ut ille 

Dicitur ex collo furtim carpsisse coronas, 255 

Postquam est impransi correptus voce magistri ? 

Porrrigis irato puero quum poma, recusat : 

' Sume, Catelle ; ' negat : si non des, optat. Amator 

Exclusus qui distat, agit ubi secum, eat an non 

Quo rediturus erat non arcessitus, et haeret 260 

Invisis foribus ? ' Ne nunc, quum me vocat ultro, 

Accedam ? an potius mediter finire dolores ? 

Exclusit, revocat : redeam ? non, si obsecret.' Ecce 

Servus, non paulo sapientior : ' O here, quae res 264 

Nec modum habet, neque consilium, ratione modoque 

Tractari non vult. In amore hsec sunt mala ; bellum, 

Pax rursum : haec si quis, tempestatis prope ritu 

Mobilia et caeca fluitantia sorte, laboret 

Reddere certa sibi, nihilo plus explicet ac si 

Insanire paret certa ratione modoque.' 270 

Q,uid 1 quum, Picenis excerpens semina pomis, 

Gaudes si cameram percusti forte, penes te es ? 

Quid 1 quum balba feris annoso verba palato, 

iEdificante casas qui sanior ? Adde cruorem 274 

Stultitiae, atque ignem gladio scrutare. Modo, inquam, 

Hellade percussa Marius quum praecipitat se, 

Cerritus fuit ? an commotse crimine mentis 

Absolves hominem, et sceleris damnabis eundem, 

Ex more imponens cognata vocabula rebus ? 

Libertinus erat, qui circum compita siccus 280 

Lautis mane senex manibus currebat ; et, ' Unum,' 

Quiddam rnagnum addens, l unum me surpite morti, 


Dis etenim facile est,' orabat : sanus utrisque 
Auribus atque oculis ; mentem, nisi litigiosus, 
Exciperet dominus quum venderet. Hoc quoque vul- 
gus - 285 

Chrysippus ponit foecunda in gente Meneni. 
{ Jupiter, ingentes qui das adimisque dolores, 5 
Mater ait pueri menses jam quinque cubantis, 
1 Frigida si puerum quartana reliquerit, illo 
Mane die quo tu indicis jejunia, nudus 290 

In Tiberi stabit.' Casus medicusve levarit 
Mgrum ex praecipiti, mater delira necabit 
In gelida fixum ripa, febrimque reducet. 
Quone malo mentem concussa 1 timore deorum." 
Haec mihi Stertinius, sapientum octavus, amico 295 

Arma dedit, posthac ne compellarer inultus. 
Dixerit insanum qui me, totidem audiet ; atque 
Respicere ignoto discet pendentia tergo. 


Stoice, post damnum sic vendas omnia pluris : 

Qua me stultitia, quoniam non est genus unum, 300 

Insanire putas 1 ego nam videor mihi sanus. 


Quid 1 caput abscissum demens quum portat Agave 
Gnati infelicis, sibi tum furiosa videtur 1 


Stultum me fateor, liceat concedere veris, 304 

Atque etiam insanum ; tantum hoc edissere, quo me 
iEgrotare putes animi vitio. 


Accipe : primum 
iEdificas, hoc est, longos imitaris, ab imo 
Ad summum totus moduli bipedalis ; et idem 
Corpore majorem rides Turbonis in armis 
Spiritum et incessum : qui ridiculus minus illo 1 310 


An, quodcunque facit Maecenas, te quoque verum est, 

Tanto dissimilem et tanto certare minorem ? 

Absentis ranse pullis vituli pede pressis, 

Unus ubi effugit, matri denarrat ut ingens 

Bellua cognatos eliserit. Illa rogare, 315 

" Quantane 1 num tandem," se inrlans, " sic magna fuis- 

set ? " 
" Major dimidio." " Num tanto ? " Q,uum magis atque 
Se magis inflaret ; " Non, si te ruperis," inquit, 
" Par eris." Haec a te non multum abludit imago. 
Adde poemata nunc, hoc est, oleum adde camino : 320 
Quae si quis sanus fecit, sanus facis et tu. 
Non dico horrendam rabiem . . . 


Jam desine. 


Majorem censu . . . 


Teneas, Damasippe, tuis te. 
O major tandem parcas insane minori. 



Unde, et quo Catius 1 


Non est mihi tempus aventi 
Ponere signa novis praeceptis, qualia vincant 
Pythagoram, Anytique reum, doctumque Platona. 


Peccatum fateor, quum te sic tempore laevo 
Interpellarim : sed, des veniam bonus, oro. 5 

Q,udd si interciderit tibi nunc aliquid, repetes mox ; 


Sive est naturae hoc, sive artis, mirus utroque. 


Quin id erat curae, quo pacto cuncta tenerem ; 
Utpote res tenues, tenui sermone peractas. 


Ede hominis nomen : simul et Romanus an hospes. 10 


Ipsa memor praecepta canam ; celabitur auctor. 
Longa quibus facies ovis erit, illa memento, 
Ut succi melioris et ut magis alma rotundis, 
Ponere : namque marem cohibent callosa vitellum. 
Caule suburbano, qui siccis crevit in agris, 15 

Dulcior ; irriguo niliil est elutius horto. 
Si vespertinus subito te oppresserit hospes, 
Ne gallina malum responset dura palato, 
Doctus eris vivam mixto mersare Falerno : 
Hoc teneram faciet. Pratensibus optima fungis 20 

Natura est; aliis male creditur. Ille salubres 
^Estates peraget, qui nigris prandia moris 
Finiet, ante gravem quae legerit arbore solem. 
Aufidius forti miscebat mella Falerno; 
Mendose, quoniam vacuis committere venis 25 

Nil nisi lene decet : leni praecordia mulso 
Prolueris melius. Si dura morabitur alvus, 
Mytilus et viles pellent obstantia conchae, 
Et lapathi brevis herba, sed albo non sine Coo. 
Lubrica nascentes implent conchylia lunse. 30 

Sed non omne mare est generosae fertile testae : 
Murice Baiano rnelior Lucrina peloris ; 
Ostrea Circeiis, Miseno oriuntur echini ; 
Pectinibus patulis jactat se molle Tarentum. 
Nec sibi coenarum quivis temere arroget artem, 35 

Non prius exacta tenui ratione saporum. 
Nec satis est cara pisces averrere mensa 



Ignarum quibus est jus aptius, et quibus assis 

Languidus in cubitum jam se conviva reponet. 

Umber, et iligna nutritus glande, rotundas 40 

Curvet aper lances carnem vitantis inertem : 

Nam Laurens malus est, ulvis et arundine pinguis. 

Vinea submittit capreas non semper edules. 

Fcecundae leporis sapiens sectabitur armos. 

Piscibus atque avibus quae natura et foret aetas, 45 

Ante meum nulli patuit quaesita palatum. 

Sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit. 

Nequaquam satis in re una consumere curam : 

Ut si quis solum hoc, mala ne sint vina, laboret, 

Quali perfundat pisces securus olivo. 50 

Massica si cGelo supponas vina sereno, 

Nocturna, si quid crassi est, tenuabitur aura, 

Et decedet odor~nervis inimicus; at illa 

lntegrum perdunt lino vitiata saporem. 

Surrentina vafer qui miscet faece Falerna 55 

Vina, columbino limum bene colligit ovo ; 

Quatenus ima petit volvens aliena vitellus. 

Tostis marcentem squillis recreabis et Afra 

Potorem cochlea ; nam lactuca innatat acri 

Post vinum stomacho : perna magis ac magis hillis 60 

Flagitat in morsus refici ; quin omnia malit, 

Quaecunque immundis fervent illata popinis. 

Est operae pretium duplicis pernoscere juris 

Naturam: simplex e dulci constat olivo, 

Q,uod pingui miscere mero muriaque decebit, 65 

Non alia quam qua Byzantia putruit orca. 

Hoc ubi confusum sectis inferbuit herbis, 

Corycioque croco sparsum stetit, insuper addes 

Pressa Venafranae quod bacca remisit olivae. 

Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia succo ; 70 

Nam facie praestant. Venucula convenit ollis ; 


Rectius Albanam fumo duraveris uvam. 

Hanc ego cum malis, ego fcecem primus et halec, 

Primus et invenior piper album, cum sale nigro 

Incretum, puris circumposuisse catillis. 75 

Immane est vitium dare millia terna macello, 

Angustoque vagos pisces urgere catino. 

Magna movet stomacho fastidia, seu puer unctis 

Tractavit calicem manibus, dum furta ligurrit ; 

Sive gravis veteri craterae limus adhsesit. 80 

Vilibus in scopis, in mappis, in scobe, quantus 

Consistit sumptus 1 neglectis, flagitium ingens. 

Ten' lapides varios lutulenta radere palma, 

Et Tyrias dare circum illota toralia vestes, 

Oblitum quanto curam sumptumque minorem 85 

Haec habeant, tanto reprendi justius illis 

Quse nisi divitibus nequeant contingere mensis 1 


Docte Cati, per amicitiam divosque rogatus, 
Ducere me auditum, perges quocunque, memento. 
Nam, quamvis referas memori mihi pectore cuncta, 90 
Non tamen interpres tantundem juveris : adde 
Vultum habitumque hominis ; quem tu vidisse beatus 
Non magni pendis, quia contigit : at mihi cura 
Non mediocris inest, fontes ut adire remotos 
Atque haurire queam vitae praecepta beatae. 95 



Hoc quoque, Tiresia, praeter narrata, petenti 
Responde, quibus amissas reparare queam res 
Artibus atque modis. Q,uid rides ? 



Jamne doloso 
Non satis est Ithacam revehi, patriosque Penates 
Aspicere 1 


O nulli quidquam mentite, vides ut 5 

Nudus inopsque domum redeam, te vate ; neque illic 
Aut apotheca procis intacta est, aut pecus : atqui 
Et genus, et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga est. 


Quando pauperiem, missis ambagibus, horres, 

Accipe qua ratione queas ditescere. Turdus 10 

Sive aliud privum dabitur tibi ; devolet illuc 

Res ubi magna nitet, domino sene ; dulcia poma, 

Et quoscunque feret cultus tibi fundus honores, 

Ante Larem gusiet venerabilior Lare dives : 

Q,ui quamvis perjurus erit, sine gente, cruentus 15 

Sanguine fraterno, fugitivus ; ne tamen illi 

Tu comes exterior, si postulet, ire recuses. 


Utne tegam spurco Damee latus 1 haud ita Trojae 
Me gessi, certans semper melioribus. 


Pauper eris. 


Fortem hoc animum tolerare jubebo : 20 
Et quondam majora tuli. Tu protenus, unde 
Divitias serisque ruam, dic, augur, acervos. 


Dixi equidem, et dico. Captes astutus ubique 
Testamenta senum : neu, si vafer unus et alter 
Insidiatorem preeroso fugeret hamo, 25 

Aut spem deponas, aut artem illusus omittas. 
Magna minorve foro si res certabitur olim, 


Vivet uter locuples sine gnatis, improbus ultro 

Q,ui meliorem audax vocet in jus ; illius esto 

Defensor : fama civem causaque priorem 30 

Sperne, domi si gnatus erit foecundave conjux. 

"Quinte," puta, aut " Publi," (gaudent praenomine molles 

Auriculae,) " tibi me virtus tua fecit amicum : 

Jus anceps novi, causas defendere possum : 

Eripiet quivis oculos citius mihi, quam te 35 

Contemptum cassa nuce pauperet : hsec mea cura est, 

Ne quid tu perdas, neu sis jocus." Ire domum atque 

Pelliculam curare jube : fi cognitor ipse. 

Persta atque obdura, seu rubra Canicula findet 

Infantes statuas, seu pingui tentus omaso 40 

Furius hibernas cana nive conspuet Alpes. 

"Nonne vides," aliquis cubito stantem prope tangens 

Inquiet, " ut patiens ! ut amicis aptus ! ut acer ! " 

Plures annabunt thunni, et cetaria crescent. 

Si cui praeterea validus male filius in re 45 

Praeclara sublatus aletur ; ne manifestum 

Caelibis obsequium nudet te, leniter in spem 

Arrepe officiosus, ut et scribare secundus 

Haeres, et, si quis casus puerum egerit Orco, 

In vacuum venias : perraro haec alea fallit. 50 

Qui testamentum tradet tibi cunque legendum, 

Abnuere et tabulas a te removere memento : 

Sic tamen ut limis rapias quid prima secundo 

Cera velit versu ; solus multisne cohaeres, 

Veloci percurre oculo. Plerumque recoctus 55 

Scriba ex Quinqueviro corvum deludet hiantem, 

Captatorque dabit risus Nasica Corano. 


Num furis ? an prudens ludis me obscura canendo 1 



O Laertiade, quidquid dicam, aut erit, aut non : 
Divinare etenim magnus mihi donat Apollo. 60 


Quid tamen ista velit sibi fabula, si licet, ede. 


Tempore quo juvenis Parthis horrendus, ab alto 

Demissum genus ^Enea, tellure marique 

Magnus erit, forti nubet procera Corano 

Filia Nasicae, metuentis reddere soldum, 65 

Tum gener hoc faciet ; tabulas socero dabit, atque 

Ut legat orabit : multum Nasica negatas 

Accipiet tandem et tacitus leget ; invenietque 

Nil sibi legatum, prseter plorare, suisque. 

Illud ad haec jubeo : mulicr si forte dolosa 70 

Libertusve senem deiirum temperet, illis 

Accedas socius ; laudes, lauderis ut absens. 

Me sene, quod dicam, factum est : Anus improba Thebis 

Ex testamento sic est elata : cadaver 

Unctum oleo largo nudis humeris tulit hseres ; 75 

Scilicet elabi si posset mortua, credo, 

Quod nimidm institerat viventi. Cautus adito : 

Neu desis operae, neve immoderatus abundes. 

Difficilem et morosum offendet garrulus : ultra 

Non etiam sileas. Davus sis comicus, atque 80 

Stes capite obstipo, multum similis metuenti. 

Obsequio grassare : mone, si increbuit aura, 

Cautus uti velet carum caput : extrahe turba, 

Oppositis humeris : aurem substringe loquaci. 

Importunus amat laudari I donec, " Ohe ! jam ! " 85 

Ad ccelum manibus sublatis, dixerit, urge ; et 

Crescentem tumidis infla sermonibus utrem. 

Q,uum te servitio longo curaque levarit ; 

Et certum vigilans, " Q,uarta3 esto partis Ulysses,' 



Audieris, " haeres " : " Ergo nunc Dama sodalis 90 

Nusquam est ! unde mihi tam fortem tamque fidelem 1 " 
Sparge subinde : et, si paulum potes, illacrymare. Est 
Gaudia prodentem vultum celare. Sepulcrum, 
Permissum arbitrio, sine sordibus exstrue : funus 
Egregie factum laudet vicinia. Si quis 95 

Forte cohaeredum senior male tussiet, huic tu 
Dic, ex parte tua, seu fundi sive domus sit 
Emptor, gaudentem nummo te addicere. Sed me 
Imperiosa trahit Proserpina : vive, valeque. 


Hoc erat in votis : modus agri non ita magnus, 

Hortus ubi, et tecto vicinus jugis aquse fons, 

Et paulum silvae super his foret. Auctius atque 

Di melius fecere : bene est. Nihil amplius oro, 

Maia nate, nisi ut propria haec mihi munera faxis. 5 

Si neque majorem feci ratione mala rem, 

Nec sum facturus vitio culpave minorem ; 

Si veneror stultus nihil horum, " O si angulus ille 

Proximus accedat, qui nunc denormat agellum ! 

O si urnam argenti fors quae mihi monstret ! ut illi, 10 

Thesauro invento, qui mercenarius agrum 

Illum ipsum mercatus aravit, dives amico 

Hercule ; " si quod adest gratum juvat : hac prece te oro, 

Pingue pecus domino facias, et caetera, praeter 

Ingenium ; utque soles, custos mihi maximus adsis. 15 

Ergo, ubi me in montes et in arcem ex urbe removi, 

Quid prius illustrem satiris, Musaque pedestri ? 

Nec mala me ambitio perdit, nec plumbeus Auster, 


Autumnusque gravis, Libitinae quaestus acerbae. 

Matutine pater, seu Jane libentius audis, 20 

Unde homines operum primos vitaeque labores 
Instituunt, sic dis placitum, tu carminis esto 
Principium. Romae sponsorem me rapis. " Eia ! 
Ne prior ofFicio quisquam respondeat, urge." 
Sive Aquilo radit terras, seu bruma nivalem 25 

Interiore diem gyro trahit, ire necesse est. 
Postmodo, quod mi obsit, clare certumque locuto, 
Luctandum in turba ; facienda injuria tardis. 
" Q,uid vis, insane ? et quas res agis 1 " improbus urget 
Iratis precibus ; " tu pulses omne quod obstat, 30 

Ad Maecenatem memori si mente recurras." 
Hoc juvat et melli est, non mentiar. At, simul atras 
Ventum est Esquilias, aliena negotia centum 
Per caput et circa saliunt latus. " Ante secundam 
Roscius orabat sibi adesses ad Puteal cras." 35 

" De re communi scribae magna. atque nova te 
Orabant hodie meminisses, Quinte, reverti." 
" Imprimat his, cura, Maecenas signa tabellis." 
Dixeris, " Experiar " : " Si vis, potes," addit et instat. 
Septimus octavo propior jam fugerit annus, 40 

Ex quo Maecenas me coepit habere suorum 
In numero, duntaxat ad hoc, quem tollere rheda 
Vellet, iter faciens, et cui concredere nugas 
Hoc genus : " Hora quota est ? Thrax est Gallina Syro 

Matutina parum cautos jam frigora mordent : " 45 

Et quae rimosa bene deponuntur in aure. 
Per totum hoc tempus subjectior in diem et horam 
Invidiae. " Noster ludos spectaverat una ; 
Luserat in campo ; Fortunae filius ; " omnes. 
Frigidus a Rostris manat per compita rumor : 50 

Quicunque obvius est me consulit : " O bone, nam te 


Scire, deos quoniam propius contingis, oportet : 

Num quid de Dacis audisti 1 " " Nil equidem." " Ut tu 

Semper eris derisor ! " " At omnes di exagitent me, 

Si quidquam." "Quid? militibus promissa Triquetra 

Praedia Caesar, an est Itala tellure daturus ? " 56 

Jurantem me scire nihil mirantur, ut unum 

Scilicet egregii mortalem altique silenti. 

Perditur haec inter misero lux, non sine votis : 
O rus, quando ego te aspiciam ? quandoque licebit, 60 
Nunc veterum libris, nunc somno et inertibus horis, 
Ducere sollicitae jucunda oblivia vitae ? 
O quando faba, Pythagorae cognata, simulque 
Uncta satis pingui ponentur oluscula lardo ? 
O noctes coenaeque deum, quibus ipse meique 65 

Ante Larem proprium vescor, vernasque prOcaces 
Pasco libatis dapibus ! Prout cuique libido est, 
Siccat inaequales calices conviva, solutus 
Legibus insanis : seu quis capit acria fortis 
Pocula, seu modicis uveseit Icetius. Ergo 70 

Sermo oritur, non de villis domibusve alienis, 
Nec male necne Lepos saltet : sed, quod magis ad nos 
Pertinet et nescire malum est, agitamus ; utrumne 
Divitiis homines, an sint virtute beati : 
Quidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos; 75 

Et, quae sit natura boni ; summumque quid ejus. 
, .£) Cervius haec inter vicinus garrit aniles 

Ex re fabellas. Nam si quisJaudat Arelli 

Sollicitas ignarus opes, sic incipit : "Olim 

Rusticus urbanum murem mus paupere fertur 80 

Accepisse cavo, veterem vetus hospes amicum ; 

Asper et attentus quaesftts, ut tamen arctum 

Solveret hospitiis animum. Q,uid multa ? neque ille 

Sepositi ciceris, nec longae invidit avenae : 

Aridum et ore ferens acinum, semesaque lardi 85 

■1 ; 


Frusta dedit, cupiens varia fastidia ccena 
Vincere tangentis male singula dente superbo : 
Q,uum pater ipse domus palea porrectus in horna 
Esset ador loliumque, dapis meliora relinquens. 
Tandem urbanus ad hunc, 'Quid te juvat,' inquit, 
1 amice, 90 

Praerupti nemoris patientem vivere dorso ? 
Vis tu homines urbemque feris praeponere silvis 1 
Carpe viam, mihi crede, comes, terrestria quando 
Mortales animas vivunt sortita, neque ulla est 
Aut magno aut parvo leti fuga : quo, bone, circa, 95 
Dum licet, in rebus jucundis vive beatus ; 
Vive memor quam sis aevi brevis.' Haec ubi dicta 
Agrestem pepulere, domo levis exsilit : inde 
Ambo propositum peragunt iter, urbis aventes 
Mcenia nocturril subrepere. Jamque tenebat 100 

Nox medium coeli spatium, quum ponit uterque 
In locuplete domo vestigia ; rubro ubi cocco 
Tincta super lectos canderet vestis eburnos, 
Multaque de magna superessent fercula coana, 
duae procul exstructis inerant hesterna canistris. 105 
Ergo ubi purpurea porrectum in veste locavit 
Agrestem, veluti succinctus cursitat hospes, 
Continuatque dapes ; nec non vernaliter ipsis 
Fungitur officiis, praelambens omne quod adfert. 
Ille cubans gaudet mutata sorte, bonisque 110 

Rebus agit laetum convivam ; quum subito ingens 
Valvarum strepitus lectis excussit utrumque. 
Currere per totum pavidi conclave ; magisque 
Exanimes trepidare, simul domus alta Molossis 114 

Personuit canibus. Tum rusticus, ' Haud mihi vita 
Est opus hac, ait ; et valeas : me silva cavusque 
Tutus ab insidiis tenui solabitur ervo.' " 




Jamdudum ausculto ; et, cupiens tibi dicere servus 
Pauca, reformido. 



Davusne 1 


Ita, Davus, amicum 
Mancipium domino, et frugi, quod sit satis, hoc est, 
Ut vitale putes. 


Age, libertate Decembri, 
duando ita majores voluerunt, utere ; narra. 5 


Pars hominum vitiis gaudet constanter, et urget 

Propositum : pars multa natat, modo recta capessens, 

Interdum pravis obnoxia. Ssepe notatus 

Cum tribus annellis, modo laeva Priscus inani, 

Vixit insequalis, clavum ut mutaret in horas ; 10 

^Edibus ex magnis subito se conderet, unde 

Mundior exiret vix libertinus honeste. 

Jam moschus Romse, jam mallet doctor Athenis 

Vivere, Vertumnis, quotquot sunt, natus iniquis. 

Scurra Volanerius, postquam illi justa chiragra 15 

Contudit articulos, qui pro se tolleret atque 

Mitteret in phimum talos, mercede diurna 

Conductum pavit : quanto constantior idem 

In vitiis, tanto levius miser, ac prior illo 

Qui jam contento, jam laxo, fune laborat. 20 


Non dices hodie quorsum haec tam putida tendant, 
Furcifer 1 


Ad te, inquam. 



Quo pacto, pessime 1 



Fortunam et mores antiquae plebis ; et idem, 

Si quis ad illa deus subito te agat, usque recuses ; 

Aut quia non sentis, quod clamas, rectius esse, 25 

Aut quia non firmus rectum defendis, et haeres, 

Nequidquam cceno cupiens evellere plantam. 

Romse rus optas ; absentem rusticus urbem 

Tollis ad astra levis. Si nusquam es forte vocatus 

Ad ccenam, laudas securum olus : ac, velut usquam 30 

Vinctus eas, ita te felicem dicis, amasque, 

Cluod nusquam tibi sit potandum. Jusserit ad se 

Mascenas serum sub lumina prima venire 

Convivam ; " Nemon' oleum feret ocius ? ecquis 

Audit 1 " cum magno blateras clamore, furisque. 35 

Milvius et scurrae, tibi non referenda precati, 

Discedunt. Etenim fateor mc, dixerit ille, 

Duci ventre levem ; nasum nidore supinor ; 

Imbecillus, iners, si quid vis, adde, popino. 

Tu, quum sis quod ego, et fortassis nequior, ultro 40 

Insectere, velut melior 1 verbisque decoris 

Obvolvas vitium 1 Quid, si me stultior ipso, 

Quingentis empto drachmis, deprenderis 1 Aufer 

Me vultu terrere ; manum stomachumque teneto, 

Dum, quse Crispini docuit me janitor, edo. 45 

« Non sum moBchus," ais. Neque ego, hercule, fur, ubi 

PraDtereo sapiens argentea. Tolle periclum, 
Jam vaga prosiliet freenis natura remotis. 
Tune mihi dominus, rerum imperiis hominumque 
Tot tantisque minor, quem ter vindicta quaterque 50 

Imposita haud unquam misera formidine privet 1 


Adde super, dictis quod non Ievius valeat : nam 

Sive vicarius est, qui servo paret, uti mos 

Vester ait, seu consorvus ; tibi qurd sum ego ? Nempe 

Tu, mihi qui imperitas, aliis servis miser, atque 55 

Duceris ut nervis alienis mobile lignum. 

Quisnam igitur liber ? Sapiens, sibi qui imperiosus ; 

duem neque pauperies, neque mors, neque vincula ter- 

Responsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores 
Fortis, et in seipso totus, teres atque rotundus, 60 

Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari ; 
In quem manca ruit semper Fortuna. Potesne 
Ex his ut proprium quid noscere 1 Quinque talenta 
Poscit te mulier, vexat, foribusque repulsum 
Perfundit gelida : rursus vocat. Eripe turpi 65 

Colla jugo : " Liber, liber sum," dic age. Non quis ; 
Urget enim dominus mentem non lenis, et acres 
Subjectat lasso stimulos, versatque negantem. 
Vel, quum Pausiaca torpes, insane, tabella, 
Q,ui peccas minus atque ego, quum Fulvi Rutubasque, 
Aut Placideiani contento poplite miror 71 

Prcelia, rubrica picta aut carbone ; velut si 
Re vera pugnent, feriant vitentque moventes 
Arma viri ? Nequam et cessator Davus ; at ipse 
Subtilis veterum judex et callidus audis. 75 

Nil e£0, si ducor libo fumante : tibi inorens 
Virtus atque animus ccenis responsat opimis. 
Obsequium ventris mihi perniciosius est : cur ? 
Tergo plector enim. Qui tu impunitior illa, 
Quae parvo sumi nequeunt, quum obsonia captas ? 80 
Nempe inamarescunt epulae sine fine petitae, 
Ulusique pedes vitiosum ferre recusant 
Corpus. An hic peccat, sub noctem qui puer uvam 
Furtivam mutat strigili ? qui praedia vendit, 


Nil servile, gulae parens, habet ? Adde, quod idem 85 
Non horam tecum esse potes ; non otia recte 
Ponere ; teque ipsum vitas, fugitivus ut erro, 
Jam vino quaerens, jam somno, fallere curam : 
Frustra ; nam comes atra premit sequiturque fugacem. 


Unde mihi lapidem ? 


Quorsum est opus ? 


Unde sagittas ? 


Aut insanit homo, aut versus facit. 


Ocius hinc te 91 
Ni rapis, accedes opera agro nona Sabino. 



Ut te Nasidieni juvit coena beati ! 

Nam mihi, quaerenti convivam, dictus here illic 

De medio potare die. 


Sic, ut mihi nunquam 
In vita fuerit melius. 


Da, si grave non est 
Q,uae prima iratum ventrem placaverit esca. 5 


In primis Lucanus aper : leni fuit Austro 
Captus, ut aiebat coenae pater. Acria circum 
Rapula, lactucae, radices, qualia lassum 


Pervellunt stomachum ; siser, halec, fsecula Coa. 

His ubi sublatis puer alte cinctus acernam 10 

Gausape purpureo mensam pertersit, et alter 

Sublegit quodcunque jaceret inutile, quodque 

Posset coenantes offendere ; ut Attica virgo 

Cum sacris Cereris, procedit fuscus Hydaspes, 

Caecuba vina ferens ; Alcon, Chium maris expers. 15 

Hic herus : " Albanum, Msecenas, sive Falernum 

Te magis appositis delectat, habemus utrumque." 


Divitias miseras ! Sed queis coenantibus una, 
Fundani, pulchre fuerit tibi, nosse laboro. 


Summus ego ; et prope me Viscus Thurinus ; et infra, 20 

Si memini, Varius : cum Servilio Balatrone 

Vibidius, quos Maecenas adduxerat umbras. 

Nomentanus erat super ipsum, Porcius infra, 

Ridiculus totas simul obsorbere placentas. 

Nomentanus ad hoc, qui, si quid forte lateret, 25 

Indice monstraret digito : nam csetera turba, 

Nos, inquam, coenamus aves, conchylia, pisces, 

Longe dissimilem noto celantia succum ; 

Ut vel continuo patuit, quum passeris atque 

Ingustata mihi porrexerat ilia rhombi. 30 

Post hoc me docuit melimela rubere minorem 

Ad lunam delecta. Quid hoc intersit, ab ipso 

Audieris melius. Tum Vibidius Balatroni : 

" Nos, nisi damnose bibimus, moriemur inulti." 

Et calices poscit majores. Vertere pallor 35 

Tum parochi faciem, nil sic metuentis ut acres 

Potores ; vel quod maledicunt liberius, vel 

Fervida quod subtile exsurdant vina palatum. 

Invertunt Alliphanis vinaria tota 

Vibidius Balatroque, sequutis omnibus : imi 40 


Convivae lecti nihilum nocuere lagenis. 
Affertur squillas inter murasna natantes 
In patina porrecta. Sub hoc herus, " Haec gravida," 

" Capta est, deterior post partum carne futura. 
His mixtum jus est oleo quod prima Venafri 45 

Pressit cella ; garo de succis piscis Iberi ; 
Vino quinquenni, verum citra mare nato, 
Dum coquitur, cocto Chium sic convenit ut non 
Hoc magis nllum aliud ; pipere albo, non sine aceto 
Quod Methymnseam vitio mutaverit uvam. 50 

Erucas virides, inulas ego primus amaras 
Monstravi incoquere ; illutos Curtillus echinos, 
Ut melius, muria quam testa marina remittit." 
Interea suspensa graves aulsea ruinas 
In patinam fecefe, trahentia pulveris atri 55 

Quantum non Aquilo Campanis excitat agris. 
Nos majus veriti, postquam nihil esse pericli 
Sensimus, erigimur. Rufus posito capite, ut si 
Filius immaturus obisset, flere. Quis esset 
Finis, ni sapiens sic Nomentanus amicum 60 

Tolleret ? " Heu Fortuna ! quis est crudelior in nos 
Te deus ? ut semper gaudes illudere rebus 
Humanis ! " Varius mappa compescere risum 
Vix poterat. Balatro, suspendens omnia naso, 
" Ha3C est conditio vivendi," aiebat ; " eoque 65 

Responsura tuo nunquam est par fama labori. 
Tene, ut ego accipiar laute, torquerier omni 
Sollicitudine districtum ? ne panis adustus, 
Ne male conditum jus apponatur 1 ut omnes 
Pra^cincti recte pueri comptique ministrent ? 70 

Adde hos prseterea casus : aulaea ruant si, 
Ut modo ; si patinam pede lapsus frangat agaso. 
Sed convivatoris, uti ducis, ingenium res 


Adversse nudare solent, celare secundae." 
Nasidienus ad hsec : " Tibi di, qusecunque preceris, 75 
Commoda dent ; ita vir bonus es convivaque comis." 
Et soleas poscit. Tum in lecto quoque videres 
Stridere secreta divisos aure susurros. 


Nullos his mallem ludos spectasse : sed illa 
Redde, age, quae deinceps risisti. 


Vibidius dum 80 
Quaerit de pueris num sit quoque fracta lagena, 
Q,uud sibi poscenti non dentur pocula ; dumque 
Ridetur fictis rerum, Balatrone secundo ; 
Nasidiene, redis mutatae frontis, ut arte 
Emendaturus fortunam ; deinde sequuti 85 

Mazonomo pueri magno discerpta ferentes 
Membra gruis, sparsi sale multo, non sine farre, 
Pinguibus et ficis pastum jecur anseris albi ; 
Et leporum avulsos, ut muito suavius, armos, 
Quam si cum lumbis quis edit : tum pectore adusto 90 
Vidimus et merulas poni, et sine clune palumbes. 
Suaves res, si non causas narraret earum et 
Naturas dominus : quem nos sic fugimus ulti, 
Ut nihil omnino gustaremus, velut illis 
Canidia afflasset, pejor serpentibus Afris. 95 








Prima dicte mihi, summa dicende Camama, 

Spectatum satis, et donatum jam rude, quseris, 

Msecenas, iteruin antiquo me includere ludo. 

Non eadem est aetas, non mens. Vejanius, armis 

Herculis ad postem fixis, latet abditus agro, 5 

Ne populum extrema toties exoret arena. 

Est mihi purgatam crebro qui personet aurem : 

" Solve senescentem mature sanus equum, ne 

Peccet ad extremum ridendus, et ilia ducat." 

Nunc itaque et versus et caetera ludicrapono : 10 

Quid verum atque decens curo et rogo, et omnis in hoc 

sum : 
Condo et compono quse mox depromere possim. 
Ac, ne forte roges quo me duce, quo lare tuter : 
Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri, 
Q,uo me cunque rapit tempestas, deferor hospes. 15 

Nunc agilis fio, et mersor civilibus undis, 


Virtutis verae custos, rigidusque satelles : 

Nunc in Aristippi furtim preecepta relabor, 

Et mihi res, non me rebus submittere conor. 

Ut nox longa quibus somni pars nulla, diesque . 20 

Longa videtur opus debentibus ; ut piger annus 

Pupillis quos dura premit custodia matrum : 

Sic mihi tarda fluunt ingrataque tempora, quae spem 

Consiliumque morantur agendi gnaviter id quod 

yEque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque, 25 

^Eque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit. 

Restat ut his ego me ipse regam solerque elementis : 

Non possis oculo quantiim contendere Lynceus, 

Non tamen idcirco contemnas lippus inungi ; 

Nec ; quia desperes invicti membra Glyconis, 30 

Nodosa corpus nolis prohibere cheragra. 

Est quadam prodire tenus, si non datur ultra. 

Fervet avaritia miseroque cupidine pectus ? 

Sunt verba et voces qnibus hunc lenire dolorem 

Possis, et magnam morbi deponere partem. 35 

Laudis amore tumes ? sunt certa piacula quse te 

Ter pure lecto poterunt recreare libello. 

Invidus, iracundus, iners, vinosus, amator, 

Nemo adeo ferus est ut non mitescere possit, 

Si modo culturse patientem commodet aurem. 40 

Virtus est vitium fugere ; et sapientia prima 
Stultitia caruisse. Vides, quse maxima credis 
Esse mala, exiguum censum, turpemque repulsam, 
Q,uanto devites animo capitisque labore : 
Impiger extremos curris mercator ad Indos, 45 

Per mare pauperiem fugiens, per saxa, per ignes : 
Ne cures ea quae stulte miraris et optas, 
Discere et audire, et meliori credere non vis ? 
duis circum pagos et circum compita pugnax 
Magna coronari contemnat Olympia, cui spes, £0 


Cui sit conditio dulcis sine pulvere palmae ? 

Vilius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum. 
" O cives, cives, quaerenda pecunia primum est, 
Virtus post nummos." Hsec Janus summus ab imo 
Prodocet : haec recinunt juvenes dictata senesque, 55 
Lsevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. 
Si quadringentis sex septem millia desunt, 
Est animus tibi, sunt mores, et lingua, fidesque ; 
Plebs eris. At pueri ludentes, " Rex eris," aiunt, 
" Si recte facies." Hic murus aeneus esto, 60 

Nil conscire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa. 
Roscia, dic sodes, melior lex, an puerorum est 
Nsenia, quse regnum recte facientibus offert, 
Et maribus Curiis et decantata Camillis ? 
Isne tibi melius suadet, qui, rem facias ; rem, 65 

Si possis, recte-; si non, quocunque modo rem ; 
Ut propius spectes lacrymosa poemata Pupi : 
An qui fortunae te responsare superbae 
Liberum et erectum praesens hortatur et aptat ? 

Q,uod si me populus Romanus forte roget cur 70 

Non, ut porticibus, sic judiciis fruar isdem, 
Nec sequar aut fugiam quae deligit ipse vel odit : 
Olim quod vulpes a3groto cauta leoni 
Respondit, referam : " Q,uia me vestigia terrent, 
Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retrorsum." 75 

Bellua multorum es capitum : nam quid sequar ? aut 

quem ? 
Pars hominum gestit conducere publica : sunt qui 
Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras, 
Excipiantque senes quos in vivaria mittant : 
Multis occulto crescit res fcenore. Verum 80 

Esto, aliis alios rebus studiisque teneri ; 
Iidem eadem possunt horam durare probantes ? 
" Nullus in orbe sinus Baiis prselucet amcenis," 


Si dixit dives, lacus et mare sentit amorem 

Festinantis heri ; cui si vitiosa libido 85 

Fecerit auspicium, cras ferramenta Theanum 

Tolletis, fabri. Lectus genialis in aula est 1 

Nil ait esse prius, melius nil ccelibe vita ; 

Si non est, jurat bene solis esse maritis. 

Q,uo teneam vultus mutantem Protea nodo ? 90 

Q,uid pauper 1 ride : mutat coenacula, lectos, 

Balnea, tonsores ; conducto navigio asque 

Nauseat ac locuples quem ducit priva triremis. 

Si curtatus inaequali tonsore capillos 
Occurri, rides : si forte subucula pexae 95 

Trita subest tunicae, vel si toga dissidet impar, 
Rides. Quid, mea quum pugnat sententia secum ; 
duod petiit, spernit ; repetit quod nuper omisit ; 
iEstuat, et vitae disconvenit ordine toto ; 
Diruit, asdificat, mutat quadrata rotundis ? 100 

Insanire putas solemnia me, rieque rides, 
Nec medici credis, nec curatoris egere 
A prsetore dati, rerum tutela mearum 
Quum sis, et prave sectum stomacheris ob unguem 
De te pendentis, te respicientis amici. 105 

Ad summam, sapiens uno minor est Jove ; dives, 
Liber, honoratus, pulcher, rex denique regum : 
Praecipue sanus, nisi quum pituita molesta est. 




Trojani belli scriptorem, maxime Lolli, 

Dum tu declamas Romae, Praeneste relegi ; 

Q,ui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non, 

Planius ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit. 

Cur ita crediderim, nisi quid te detinet, audi. 5 

Fabula, qua Paridis propter narratur amorem 
Graecia barbariae lento collisa duello, 
Stultorum regum et populorum continet aestus. 
Antenor censet belli praecidere causam. 
Quid Paris ? ut salvus regnet vivatque beatus, 30 

Cogi posse negat. Nestor componere lites 
Inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden : 
Hunc amor, ira quidem communiter urit utrumque. 
Quidquid delirant reges, plecturitur Achivi. 
Seditione, dolis, scelere, atque libidine et ira, 15 

Iliacos intra muros peccatur et extra. 

Rursus, quid virtus et quid sapientia possit, 
Utile proposuit nobis exemplar Ulyssem ; 
Qui, domitor Trojae, multorum providus urbes * 
Et mores hominum inspexit ; latumque per aequor, 20 
Dum sibi, dum sociis reditum parat, aspera multa 
Pertulit, adversis rerum immersabilis undis. 
Sirenum voces et Circae pocula nosti ; 
Quae si cum sociis stultus cupidusque bibisset, 
Sub domina meretrice fuisset turpis et excors, 25 

Vixisset canis immundus, vel amica luto sus. 

Nos numerus sumus, et fruges consumere nati, 
Sponsi Penelopae, nebulones, AlcinoVque 
In cute curanda plus aequo operata juventus ; 
Cui pulchrum fuit in medios dormire dies, et 30 


Ad strepitum citharae cessatum ducere curam. 

Ut jugulent hominem, surgunt de nocte latrones : 

Ut teipsum serves, non expergisceris ? Atqui 

Si noles sanus, curres hydropicus : et, ni 

Posces ante diem librum cum lumine, si non 35 

Intendes animum studiis et rebus honestis ; , 

Invidia vel amore vigil torquebere. Nam cur, 

Quae laedunt oculum, festinas demere ; si quid 

Est animum, differs curandi tempus in annum 1 

Dimidium facti, qui ccepit, habet : sapere aude ; 40 

Incipe : qui recte vivendi prorogat horam, 

Rusticus exspectat dum defluat amnis ; at ille 

Labitur, et labetur in omne volubilis aevum. 

Quaeritur argentum, puerisque beata creandis 
Uxor, et incultae pacantur vomere silvae. 45 

Quod satis est cui contigit, hic nihil amplius optet. 
Non domus et fundus, non aeris acervus et auri 
^Egroto domini deduxit corpore febres, 
Non animo curas. Valeat possessor oportet, 
Si comportatis rebus bene cogitat uti. 50 

Qui cupit aut metuit, juvat illum sic domus et res, 
Ut lippum pictae tabulae, fomenta podagram, 
Auriculas citharae collecta sorde dolentes. 
Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis acescit. 
Sperne voluptates : nocet empta dolore voluptas. 55 

Semper avarus eget ; certum voto pete finem. 
Invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis : 
Invidia Siculi non invenere tyranni 
Majus tormentum. Qui non moderabitur irae, 
Infectum volet esse, dolor quod suaserit et mens, 60 

Dum pcenas odio per vim festinat inulto. 
Ira furor brevis est : animum rege, qui, nisi paret, 
Imperat : hunc fraenis, hunc tu compesce catena. 
Fingit equum tenera docilem cervice magister 


Ire viam qua monstret eques. Venaticus, ex quo 65 

Tempore cervinam pellem latravit in aula, 

Militat in silvis catulus. Nunc adhibe puro 

Pectore verba, puer ; nunc te melioribus offer. 

Quo semel est imbuta recens, servabit odorem 

Testa diu. Quod si cessas, aut strenuus anteis, 70 

Nec tardum opperior, nec prascedentibus insto. 



Juli Flore, quibus terrarum militet oris 
Claudius AugUsti privignus, scire laboro. 
Thracane vos, Hebrusque nivali compede vinctus, 
An freta vicinas inter currentia turres, 
An pingues Asiae campi collesque morantur ? 5 

Quid studiosa cohors operum struit ? Haec quoque curo : 
Quis sibi res gestas Augusti scribere sumit ? 
Bella quis et paces longum diffundit in aevum ? 
Quid Titius, Romana brevi venturus in ora, 
Pindarici fontis qui non expalluit haustus, 10 

Fastidire lacus et rivos ausus apertos ? 
Ut valet ? ut meminit nostri ? fidibusne Latinis 
Thebanos aptare modos studet, auspice Musa ? 
An tragica desaevit et ampullatur in arte ? 
Quid mihi Celsus agit ? monitus, multumque monen- 
dus, 15 

Privatas ut quaerat opes, et tangere vitet 
Scripta Palatinus quascunque recepit Apollo : 
Ne, si forte suas repetitum venerit olim 
Grex avium plumas, moveat cornicula risum, 



Furtivis nudata coloribus. Ipse quid audes ? 20 

Q,uae circumvolitas agilis thyma? non tibi parvum 

Ingenium, non incultum est, nec turpiter hirtum. 

Seu linguam causis acuis, seu civica jura 

Respondere paras, seu condis amabile carmen, 

Prima feres hederse victricis praemia : quod si 25 

Frigida curarum fomenta relinquere posses, 

Q,uo te ccelestis sapientia duceret, ires. 

Hoc opus, hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli, 

Si patriae volumus, si nobis, vivere cari. 

Debes hoc etiam rescribere, si tibi cura3, 30 

Quantse conveniat, Munatius : an male sarta 
Gratia nequidquam coit et rescinditur ? at vos 
Seu calidus sanguis, seu rerum inscitia vexat 
Indomita cervice feros, ubicunque locorum 
Vivitis, indigni fraternum rumpere foedus, 35 

Pascitur in vestrum reditum votiva juvenca. 



Albi, nostrorum sermonum candide judex, 

Quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana ? 

Scribere quod Cassi Parmensis opuscula vincat ? 

An tacitum silvas inter reptare salubres, 

Curantem quidquid dignum sapiente bonoque est ? 5 

Non tu corpus eras sine pectore. Di tibi formam, 

Di tibi divitias dederunt, artemque fruendi. 

Quid voveat dulci nutricula majus alumno, 
Qui sapere et fari possit quae sentiat, et cui 
Gratia, fama, valetudo contingat abunde, 10 



Et mundus victus, non deficiente crumena 1 
Inter spem curamque, timores inter et iras, 

Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum : 

Grata superveniet, quae non sperabitur, hora. 

Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute vises, 15 

Quum ridere voles, Epicuri de grege porcum. 



Si potes Archiacis conviva recumbere lectis, 
Nec modica ccenare times olus omne patella, 
Supremo te sole domi, Torquate, manebo. 
Vina bibes iterum Tauro diffusa, palustres 
lnter Minturnas Sinuessanumque Petrinum. 5 

Sin melius quid habes, arcesse, vel imperium fer. 
Jamdudum splendet focus, et tibi munda supellex. 
Mitte leves spes, et certamina divitiarum, 
Et Moschi causam : cras nato Caesare festus 
Dat veniam somnumque dies ; impune licebit 10 

^Estivam sermone benigno tendere noctem. 
Quo mihi, fortuna si non conceditur uti 1 
Parcus ob hseredis curam nimiumque severus 
Assidet insano. Potare et spargere flores 
Incipiam, patiarque vel inconsultus haberi. 15 

Quid non ebrietas designat 1 operta recludit; 
Spes jubet esse ratas ; in prcelia trudit inertem ; 
Sollicitis animis onus eximit ; addocet artes. 
Foecundi calices quem non fecere disertum 1 
Contracta quem non in paupertate solutum 1 20 

Hsec ego procurare et idoneus imperor, et non 


Invitus ; ne turpe toral, ne sordida mappa 

Corruget nares ; ne non et cantharus et lanx 

Ostendat tibi te ; ne fidos inter amicos 

Sit qui dicta foras eliminet ; ut coeat par 25 

Jungaturque pari. Butram tibi Septiciumque, 

Et nisi ccBna prior, potior conviva, Sabinum 

Detinet, assumam : locus est et pluribus umbris : 

Sed nimis arcta premunt olidae convivia caprae. 

Tu, quotus esse velis, rescribe ; et, rebus omissis, 30 
Atria servantem postico falle clientem. 



Nil admirari prope res est una, Numici, 

Solaque, quae possit facere et servare beatum. 

Hunc solem et stellas et decedentia certis 

Tempora momentis sunt qui formidine nulla 

Imbuti spectent : quid censes munera terrae 1 5 

Quid maris extremos Arabas ditantis et Indos 1 

Ludicra quid, plausus, et amici dona Quiritis 1 

Q,uo spectanda modo, quo sensu credis et ore ? 

Qui timet his adversa, fere miratur eodem, 

Quo cupiens, pacto : pavor est utrobique molestus : 10 

Improvisa simul species exterret utrumque. 

Gaudeat, an doleat ; cupiat, metuatne ; quid ad rem, 

Si, quidquid vidit melius pejusve sua spe, 

Defixis oculis animoque et corpore torpet 1 

Insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus iniqui, 15 

Ultra quam satis est virtutem si petat ipsam. 

I nunc, argentum, et marmor vetus, aeraque, et artes 


Suspice ; cum gemmis Tyrios mirare colores : 

Gaude quod spectant oculi te mille loquentem : 

Gnavus mane forum et vespertinus pete tectum ; 20 

Ne plus frumenti dotalibus emetat agris 

Mutus ; et, indignum, quod sit pejoribus ortus, 

Hic tibi sit potius quam tu mirabilis illi. 

Quidquid sub terra est, in apricum proferet aetas ; 

Defodiet condetque nitentia. Q,uum bene notum 25 

Porticus Agrippse et via te conspexerit Appi, 

Ire tamen restat Numa quo devenit et Ancus. 

Si latus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto, 

Quaere fugam morbi. Vis recte vivere ? quis non ? 

Si virtus hoc una potest dare, fortis omissis 30 

Hoc age deliciis. Virtutem verba putes, ut 

Lucum ligna ? cave ne portus occupet alter, 

Ne Cibyratica," ne Bithyna negotia perdas. 

Mille talenta rotundentur, totidem altera ; porro et 

Tertia succedant, et quae pars quadret acervum. 35 

Scilicet uxorem cum dote, fidemque, et amicos, 

Et genus, et formam, regina pecunia donat : 

Ac bene nummatum decorat Suadela Venusque. 

Mancipiis locuples eget aeris Cappadocum rex : 

Ne fueris hic tu. Chlamydes Lucullus, ut aiunt, 40 

Si posset centum scenae prasbere rogatus, 

" Q,ui possum tot?" ait: "tamen et quaeram, et quot 

Mittam." Post paulo scribit sibi millia quinque 
Esse domi chlamydum ; partem, vel tolleret omnes. 
Exilis domus est, ubi non et multa supersunt, 45 

Et dominum fallunt, et prosunt furibus. Ergo, 
Si res sola potest facere et servare beatum, 
Hoc primus repetas opus, hoc postremus omittas. 
Si fortunatum species et gratia praestat, 
Mercemur servum qui dictet nomina, laevum 50 


Qui fodicet latus, et cogat trans pondera dextram 

Porrigere : " Hic multum in Fabia valet, ille Velina : 

Cuilibet hic fasces dabit ; eripietque curule, 

Cui volet, importunus, ebur : ' Frater,' c Pater,' adde ; 

Ut cuique.est aetas, ita quemque facetus adopta." 55 

Si, bene qui coenat, bene vivit ; lucet, eamus 

Q,uo ducit gula : piscemur, venemur ; ut olim 

Gargilius, qui mane plagas, venabula, servos, 

Differtum transire forum populumque jubebat, 

Unus ut e multis, populo spectante, referret 00 

Emptum mulus aprum. Crudi tumidique lavemur, 

Quid deceat, quid non, obliti, Caerite cera 

Digni, remigium vitiosum Ithacensis Ulyssei, 

Cui potior patria fuit interdicta voluptas. 

Si, Mimnermus uti censet, sine amore jocisque 65 

Nil est jucundum ; vivas in amore jocisque. 

Vive, vale : si quid novisti rectius istis, 
Candidus imperti ; si non, his utere mecum. 



CIuinque dies tibi pollicitus me rure futurum, 
Sextilem totum mendax desideror. Atqui, 
Si me vivere vis, recteque videre valentem, 
duam mihi das aegro, dabis aegrotare timenti, 
Maecenas, veniam ; dum ficus prima calorque 5 

Designatorem decorat lictoribus atris ; 
Dum pueris omnis pater et matercula pallet ; 
Officiosaque sedulitas et opella forensis 
Adducit febres et testamenta resismat. 
Quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris, 10 



Ad mare descendet vates tuus, et sibi parcet, 
Contractusque leget ; te, dulcis amice, reviset 
Cum Zephyris, si concedes, et hirundine prima. 

Non, quo more pyris vesci Calaber jubet hospes, 
Tu me fecisti locupletem. " Vescere, sodes." 15 

" Jam satis est." " At tu quantumvis tolle." " Benigne." 
" Non invisa feres pueris munuscula parvis." 
"Tam teneor dono, quam si dimittar onustus." 
" Ut libet : haec porcis hodie comedenda relinquis." 
Prodigus et stultus donat quae spernit et odit. 20 

Haec seges ingratos tulit, et feret omnibus annis. 
Vir bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus ; 
Nec tamen ignorat quid distent aera lupinis. 
Dignum praestabo me etiam pro laude merentis. 
Quod si me noles usquam discedere, reddes 25 

Forte latus, nigros angusta fronte capillos ; 
Reddes dulce loqui ; reddes ridere decorum. 

Forte per angustam tenuis nitedula rimam 
Repserat in cumeram frumenti ; pastaque rursus 
Ire foras pleno tendebat corpore frustra. 30 

Cui mustela procul, " Si vis," ait, "efFugere isthinc, 
Macra cavum repetes arctum, quem macra subisti." 
Hac ego si compellor imagine, cuncta resigno : 
Nec somnum plebis laudo, satur altilium ; nec 
Otia divitiis Arabum liberrima muto. 35 

Saepe verecundum laudasti ; Rexque Paterque 
Audisti coram ; nec verbo parcius absens : 
Inspice si possum donata reponere laetus. 
Hnud male Telemachus, proles patientis Ulyssei : 
" Non est aptus equis Ithace locus ; ut neque planis 40 
Porrectus spatiis, neque multae prodigus herbae : 
Atride, magis apta tibi tua dona relinquam." 
Parvum parva decent : mihi jam non regia Roma, 
Sed vacuum Tibur placet, aut imbelle Tarentum. 


Strenuus et fortis, causisque Philippus agendis 45 
Clarus, ab officiis octavam circiter horam 
Dum redit, atque foro nimium distare Carinas 
Jam grandis natu queritur, conspexit, ut aiunt, 
Adrasum quendam vasua tonsoris in umbra, 
Cultello proprios purgant^rh leniter ungues. 50 

" Demetri," (puer hic non lssve jussa Philippi 
Accipiebat,) " abi ; quaere et refer, unde domo, quis, 
Cujus fortunae ; quo sit patre, quov^ patrono." 
It, redit, et narrat : Vulteium nomine Menam, 
Praeconem, tenui censu, sine crimine notum ; 55 

Et properare loco, et cessare, et quaerere, et uti, 
Gaudentem parvisque sodalibus et lare certo, 
Et ludis, et, post decisa negotia, Campo. 
" Scitari libet ex ipso quaecunque refers : dic 
Ad ccenam veniat," Non sane credere Mena : 60 

Mirari secum tacitus. Quid multa ? " Benigne," 
Respondet. " Neget ille mihi 1 " " Negat improbus, et te 
Negligit, aut horret." Vulteium mane Philippus 
Vilia vendentem tunicato scruta popello 
Occupat, et salvere jubet prior. Ille Philippo 65 

Excusare laborem et mercenaria vincla, 
duod non mane domum venisset ; denique, quod non 
Providisset eum. " Sic ignovisse putato 
Me tibi, si ccenas hodie mecum." " Ut libet." M Ergo 
Post nonam venies : nunc i, rem strenuus auge." 70 

Ut ventum ad ccenam est, dicenda tacenda locutus, 
Tandem dormitum dimittitur. Hic, ubi saspe 
Occultum visus decurrere piscis ad hamum, 
Mane cliens, et jam certus conviva, jubetur 
Rura suburbana indictis comes ire Latinis. 75 

Impositus mannis arvum ccelumque Sabinum 
Non cessat laudare. Videt, ridetque Philippus : 
Et, sibi dum requiem, dum risus undique quserit, 


Dum septem donat sestertia, mutua septem 

Promittit, persuadet uti mercetur agellum. 80 

Mercatur : ne te longis ambagibus ultra 

Q,uam satis est morer ; ex nitido fit rusticus, atque 

Sulcos et vineta crepat mera, pr^parat ulmos, 

Immoritur studiis, et amore ^nescit habendi. 

Verum ubi oves furto, mo- v oo periere capellae, 85 

Spem mentita seges, bos est enectus arando ; 

Offensus damnis, rcedia de nocte caballum 

Arripit, iratusque Philippi tendit ad aedes. 

Quem simul aspexit scabrum intonsumque Philippus, 

" Durus," ait, " Vultei, nimis attentusque videris 90 

Esse miiii." " Pol, me miserum, patrone, vocares, 

Si velles," inquit, " verum mihi ponere nomen. 

Quod te per Genium, dextramque, deosque Penates 

Obsecro et obtestor, vitse me redde priori." 

Clui semel aspexit quantum dimissa petitis 95 

Praestent, mature redeat, repetatque relicta. 
Metiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede verum est. 



Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere Albinovano, 
Musa rogata, refer, comiti scribseque Neronis. 
Si quaeret quid agam ; dic, multa et pulchra minantem, 
Vivere nec recte, nec suaviter : haud quia grando 
Contuderit vites, oleamve momorderit aestus ; 
Nec quia longinquis armentum segrotet in arvis ; 
Sed quia, mente minus validus quam corpore toto, 
Nil audire velim, nil discere, quod levet Eegrum ; 


Fidis offendar medicis, irascar amicis, 

Cur me funesto properent arcere veterno ; 10 

Quae nocuere sequar ; fugiam quae profore credam ; 

Romae Tibur amem ventosus, Tibure Romam. 

Post haec, ut valeat, quo pacto rem gerat et se, 

Ut placeat juveni, percontare, utque cohorti. 

Si dicet, " Recte " : primum gaudere ; subinde 15 

Praeceptum auriculis hoc instillare memento : 

" Ut tu fortunam, sic nos te, Celse, feremus." 



Septimius, Claudi, nimirum intelligit unus 

duanti me facias : nam, quum rogat, et prece cogit 

Scilicet, ut tibi se laudare et tradere coner, 

Dignum mente domoque legentis honesta Neronis ; 

Munere quum fungi propioris censet amici ; 5 

Q,uid possim videt ac novit me valdius ipso. 

Multa quidem dixi cur excusatus abirem ; 

Sed timui mea ne finxisse minora putarer, 

Dissimulator opis propriae, mihi commodus uni. 

Sic ego, majoris fugiens opprobria culpae, 10 

Frontis ad urbanae descendi praemia. Quod si 

Depositum laudas ob amici jussa pudorem, 

Scribe tui gregis hunc, et fortem crede bonumque. 




Urbis amatorem Fuscum salvere jubemus 

Ruris amatores ; hac in re scilicet una 

Multum dissimiles, ad caetera pene gemelli. 

Fraternis animis, quidquid negat alter, et alter ; 

Annuimus pariter, vetuli notique columbi ; 5 

Tu nidum servas, ego laudo ruris amceni 

Rivos, et musco circumlita saxa, nemusque. 

Quid quaeris 1 vivo, et regno, simul ista reliqui 

Quae vos ad ccelum effertis rumore secundo : 

Utque sacerdotis fugitivus, liba recuso ; 10 

Pane egeo, jam mellitis potiore placentis. 

Vivere iia.tur<fi si ouiiveiiienter oportet, 
Ponendseque domo quaerenda est area primum ; 
Novistine locum potiorem rure beato ? 
Est ubi plus tepeant hiemes 1 ubi gratior aura 15 

Leniat et rabiem Canis, et momenta Leonis, 
Q,uum semel accepit solem furibundus acutum ? 
Est ubi divellat somnos minus invida cura ? 
Deterius Libycis olet aut nitet herba lapillis ? 
Purior in vicis aqua tendit rumpere plumbum, 20 

Quam quse per pronum trepidat cum murmure rivum? 
Nempe inter varias nutritur silva columnas, 
Laudaturque domus longos quae prospicit agros. 
Naturam expelles furca, tamen usque recurret, \ 
Et mala perrumpet furtim fastidia victrix. 25 

Non, qui Sidonio contendere callidus ostro 
Nescit Aquinatem potantia vellera fucum, 
Certius accipiet damnum propiusve medullis, 
Q,uam qui non poterit vero distinguere falsum. 
Quem res plus nimio delectavere secundse, 30 


Mutatae quatient. Si quid mirabere, pones 
Invitus. Fuge magna ; licet sub paupere tecto 
Reges et regum vita praecurrere amicos. 

Cervus equum pugna melior communibus herbis 
Pellebat, donec minor in certamine longo 35 

Imploravit opes hominis, fraenumque recepit : 
Sed, postquam victor violens discessit ab hoste, 
Non equitem dorso, non fraenum depulit ore. 
foic qui, paupenem veritus, potiore metallis 
Libertate caret, dominum vehet improbus, atque 40 

Serviet aeternum, quia parvo nesciet uti. 
Cui non conveniet sua res, ut calceus olim, 
Si pede major erit, subvertet ; si minor, uret. 
Laetus sorte tua vives sapienter, Aristi ; 
Nec me dimittes incastigatum, ubi plura 45 

Cogere quam satis est, ac non cessare, videbor. 
Imperat aut servit collecta pecunia cuique, 
Tortum digna sequi potius, quam ducere, funem. 

Haec tibi dictabam post fanum putre Vacunse, 
Excepto quod non simul esses, caetera laetus. 50 



Quid tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos ? 
Quid concinna Samos ? quid Croesi regia Sardis t 
Smyrna quid, et Colophon ? majora minorave fama ? 
Cunctaque praB Campo et Tiberino flumine sordent ? 
An venit in votum Attalicis ex urbibus una ? 

An Lebedum laudas, odio maris atque viarum ? 

Scis Lebedus quid sit ; Gabiis desertior atque 


Fidenis vicus : tamen illic vivere vellem ; 

Oblitusque meorum, obliviscendus et illis, 

Neptunum procul e terra spectare furentem. — 10 

Sed neque qui Capua Romam petit, imbre lutoque 

Aspersus, volet in caupona vivere : nec, qui 

Frigus collegit, furnos et balnea laudat, 

Ut fortunatam plene praestantia vitam : 

Nec, si te validus jactaverit Auster in alto, J5 

Idcirco navem trans iEgaeum mare vendas. 

Incolumi Rhodos et Mitylene pulchra facit, quod 

Paenula solstitio, campestre nivalibus auris, 

Per brumam Tiberis, Sextili mense caminus. 

Dum licet, et vultum servat Fortuna benignum, 20 

Romae laudetur Samos, et Chios, et Rhodos absens. 

Tu, quamcunque deus tibi fortunaverit horam, 

Grata sume man-u ; neu dulcia dirTer in annum, 

Ut, quocunque loco fueris, vixisse libenter 

Te dicas : nam si ratio et prudentia curas, 25 

Non locus effusi late maris arbiter, aufert ; 

Ccelum, non animum, mutant, qui trans mare currunt. 

Strenua nos exercet inertia : navibus atque 

Quadrigis petimus bene vivere. Quod petis, hic est, 

Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit aequus. 30 



Fructibus Agrippas Siculis, quos colligis, Icci, 
Si recte frueris, non est ut copia major 
Ab Jove donarr possit tibi : tolle querelas ; 
Pauper enim non est, cui rerum suppetit usus. 


Si ventri bene, si lateri est pedibusque tuis, nil 5 

Divitiae poterunt regales addere majus. 

Si forte in medio positorum abstemius herbis 

Vivis et urtica, sic vives protinus, ut te 

Confestim liquidus Fortunae rivus inauret: 

Yel quia naturam mutare pecunia nescit; 10 

Vel quia cuncta putas una virtute minora. 

Miramur si Democriti pecus edit agellos 

Cultaque, dum peregre est animus sine corpore velox ; 

Quum tu, inter scabiem tantam et contagia lucri, 

Nil parvum sapias, et adhuc sublimia cures, 15 

Quae mare compescant causae, quid temperet annum ; 

Stellae sponte sua jussaene vagentur et errent ; 

Quid premat obscurum lunae, quid proferat, orbem ; 
Quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors ; 
Empedocles, an Stertinium deliret acumen ? %q 

Verum, seu pisces, seu porrum et caepe trucidas, 
Utere Pompeio Grospho ; et, si quid petet, ultro 
Defer : nil Grosphus nisi verum orabit et aequum. 
Vilis amicorum est annona, bonis ubi quid deest. 

Ne tamen ignores quo sit Romana loco res : 25 

Cantaber Agrippae, Claudi virtute Neronis 
Armenius cecidit : jus imperiumque Phraates 
Csesaris accepit genibus minor : aurea fruges 
Italiae pleno diffudit Copia cornu. 






Ut proficiscentem docui te saspe diuque, 

Augusto reddes signata volumina, Vini, 

Si validus, si laetus erit, si denique poscet ; 

Ne studio nostri pecces, odiumque Hbellis 

Sedulus importes opera vehemente minister. 

Si te forte meae gravis uret sarcina chartae. 

Abjicito potius, quam quo perferre juberis 

Clitellas ferus impingas, Asinaeque paternum 

Cognomen vertas in risum, et fabula fias. 

Viribus uteris per clivos, flumina, lamas. 10 

Victor propositi simul ac perveneris illuc, 

Sic positum servabis onus, ne forte sub ala 

Fasciculum portes librorum, ut rusticus agnum, 

Ut vinosa glomos furtiva? Pyrrhia lanse, 

Ut cum pileolo soleas conviva tribulis. 15 

Ne vulgo narres te sudavisse ferendo 

Carmina quae possint oculos auresque morari 

Caesaris : oratus multa prece, nitere porro. 

Vade, vale ; cave ne titubes, mandataque frangas» 



Villice silvarum et mihi me reddentis agelli, 
Q,uem tu fastidis, habitatum quinque focis, et 
Quinque bonos solitum Variam dimittere patres ; 
Certemus, spinas animone ego fortius, an tu 


Evellas agro ; et melior sit Horatius, an res. 5 

Me quamvis Lamise pietas et cura moratur, 
Fratrem mcerentis, rapto de fratre dolentis 
Insolabiliter ; tamen isthuc mens animusque 
Fert, et amat spatiis obstantia rumpere claustra. 
Rure ego viventem, tu dicis in urbe, beatum : 10 

Cui placet alterius, sua nimirum est odio sors. 
Stultus uterque locum immeritum causatur inique ; 
In culpa est animus, qui se non effugit unquam. 
Tu mediastinus tacita prece rura petebas, 
Nunc urbem et ludos et balnea villicus optas : 15 

Me constare mihi scis, et discedere tristem, 
Quandocunque trahunt invisa negotia Romam. 
Non eadem miramur ; eo disconvenit inter 
Meque et te : nam, quae deserta et inhospita tesqua 
Credis, amcena vocat mecum qui sentit, et odit ~20 

Quse tu pulchra putas. Fornix tibi et uncta popina 
Incutiunt urbis desiderium, video ; et qudd 
Angulus iste feret piper et thus ocius uva ; 
Nec vicina subest, vinum praebere taberna 
Quae possit tibi ; nec meretrix tibicina, cujus '25 

Ad strepitum salias terrse gravis. Et tamen urges 
Jampridem non tacta ligonibus arva, bovemque 
Disjunctum curas, et strictis frondibus exples : 
Addit opus pigro rivus, si decidit imber, 
Multa moie docendus aprico parcere prato. 30 

Nunc, age, quid nostrum concentum dividat, audi. 
Quem tenues decuere togae nitidique capilli, 
Quem nosti bibulum media de luce Falerni, 
Ccena brevis juvat, et prope rivum somnus in herba : 
Nec lusisse pudet, sed non incidere ludum. 35 

Non isthic obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam 
Limat ; non odio obscuro morsuque venenat. 
Rident vicini glebas et saxa moventem. 


Cura servis urbana diaria rodere mavis ; 

Horum tu in numerum voto ruis. Invidet usum 40 

Lignorum et pecoris tibi calo argutus et horti. 

Optat ephippia bos piger ; optat arare caballus. 

Quam scit uterque, libens, censebo, exerceat artem. 



Quae sit hiems Veliae, quod ccelum, Vala, Salerni, 

Quorum hominum regio, et qualis via : (nam mihi Baias 

Musa supervacuas Antonius, et tamen illis 

Me facit invisum; gelida quum perluor unda 

Per medium frigus : sane myrteta relinqui, 5 

Dictaque cessantem nervis elidere morbum 

Sulphura contemni, vicus gemit, invidus segris 

Qui caput et stomachum supponere fontibus audent 

Clusinis, Gabiosque petunt et frigida rura : 

Mutandus locus est, et diversoria nota 10 

Praeteragendus equus : " Quo tendis ? non mihi CuHias 

Est iter, aut Baias," lreva stomachosus habena 

Dicet eques : sed equis fraenato est auris in ore :} 

Major utrum populum frumenti copia pascat ; 

Collectosne bibant imbres, puteosne perennes 15 

Jugis aquae : (nam vina nihil moror illius orae : 

Rure meo possum quidvis perferre patique ; 

Ad mare quum veni, generosum et lene requiro, 

Quod curas abigat, quod cum spe divite manet 

In venas animumque meum, quod verba ministret. ) 20 

Tractus uter plures lepores, uter educet apros ; 

Utra magis pisces et echinos aequora celent ; 


Pinguis ut inde domum possim Phaeaxque reverti : 
Scribere te nobis, tibi nos accredere, par est. 

Maenius, ut, rebus maternis atque paternis 25 

Fortiter absumptis, urbanus coepit haberi, 
Scurra vagus, non qui certum praesepe teneret, 
Impransus non qui civem dignosceret hoste, 
Quaelibet in quemvis opprobria fingere saevus, 
Pernicies et tempestas barathrumque macelli, 30 

Quidquid quaesierat, ventri donabat avaro. 
Hic, ubi nequitiae fautoribus et timidis nil 
Aut paulum abstulerat, patinas ccenabat omasi, 
Vilis et agninae, tribus ursis quod satis esset ; 
Scilicet ut ventres lamna candente nepotum 35 

Diceret urendos, correctus. Maenius idem 
Quidquid erat nactus praeds majoris, ubi omne 
Verterat in fumum et cinerem, " Non hercule miror," 
Aiebat, " si qui comedunt bona, quum sit obeso 
Nil melius turdo, nil vulva pulchrius ampla." 40 

Nimirum hic ego sum ; nam tuta et parvula laudo, 
Q,uum res deficiunt, satis inter vilia fortis : 
Verum, ubi quid melius contingit et unctius, idem 
Vos sapere et solos aio bene vivere, quorum 
Conspicitur nitidis fundata pecunia villis. 45 



Ne perconteris, fundus meus, optime Quincti, 
Arvo pascat herum, an baccis opulentet olivae, 
Pomisne, an pratis, an amicta vitibus ulmo ; 
Scribetur tibi forma loquaciter et situs agri. 




Continui montes, nisi dissocientur opaca 
Valle ; sed ut veniens dextrum latus aspiciat sol, 
LaBvum decedens curru fugiente vaporet. 
Temperiem laudes. Q,uid, si rubicunda benigne 
Corna vepres et pruna ferunt 1 si quercus et ilex 
Multa fruge pecus, multa dominum juvat umbra ? 10 

Dicas adductum propius frondere Tarentum. 
Fons etiam. rivo dare nomen idoneus, ut nec 
Frigidior Thracam nec purior ambiat Hebrus, 
Infirmo capiti fluit utilis, utilis alvo. 
Hse latebrse dulces, et jam, si credis, amcenae, 15 

Incolumem tibi me praestant septembribus horis. 

Tu recte vivis, si curas esse quod audis : 
Jactamus jampridem omnis te Roma beatum. 
Sed vereor ne cui de te plus quam tibi credas ; 
Neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum ; 20 

Neu, si te populus sanum recteque valentem 
Dictitet, occultam febrem sub tempus edendi 
Dissimules, donec manibus tremor incidat unctis. 
Stultorum incurata pudor malus ulcera celat. 
Si quis bella tibi terra pugnata marique 25 

Dicat, et his verbis vacuas permulceat aures, 
" Tene magis salvum populus velit, an populum tu, 
Servet in ambiguo, qni consulit et tibi et urbi, 
Jupiter ; " Augusti laudes agnoscere possis. 
Q,uum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, 30 

Respondesne tuo, dic sodes, nomine ? — Nempe 
Vir bonus et prudens dici delector. — Ego, ac tu. 
Q,ui dedit hoc hodie, cras, si volet, auferet ; ut, si 
Detulerit fasces indi^no, detrahet idem. 
" Pone, meum est/' inquit. Pono, tristisque recedo. 35 
Idem si clamet furem, neget esse pudicum, 
Contendat laqueo collum pressisse paternum ; 
Mordear opprobriis falsis, mutemve colorem 1 


Falsus honor juvat et mendax infaraia terret 
Quem, nisi mendosum et medicandum ? Vir bonus est 
quis ? 40 

Qui consulta patrum, qui leges juraque servat; 
Quo multa? magnseque secantur judice lites ; 
Quo res sponsore et quo causse teste tenentur. 
Sed videt hunc omnis domus et vicinia tota 
Introrsum turpem, speciosum pelle decora. 45 

" Nec furtum feci, nec fugi," si mihi dicat 
Servus : " Habes pretium, loris non ureris," aio, 
" Non hominem occidi." " Non pasces in cruce corvos." 
" Sum bonus et frugi." Renuit negat atque Sabellus : 
" Cautus enim metuit foveam lupus, accipiterque 50 

Suspectos laqueos, et opertum miluus hamum. 
Oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore ; 
Tu nihil admittes in te formidine pcenae. 
Sit spes fallendi, miscebis sacra profanis. 
Nam de mille fabae modiis quum surripis unum, 55 

Damnum est, non facinus, mihi pacto lenius isto." 
Vir bonus, omne fovum quern spectat et omne tribunal, 
Quandocunque deos vel porco vel bove placat, 
" Jane pater " clare, clarc quum dixit " Apollo " ; 
Labra movet, metuens audiri : " Pulchra Laverna, 60 
Da mihi fallere, da justum sanctumque videri, 
Noctem peccatis et fraudibus objice nubem." 
Qui melior servo, qui liberior sit avarus, 
In triviis fixum quum se demittit ob assem, 
Non video : nam qui cupiet, metuet quoque ; porro, 65 
Qui metuens vivit, liber mihi non erit unquam. 
Perdidit arma, locum virtutis deseruit, qui 
Semper in augenda festinat et obruitur re. 
Vendere quum possis captivum, occidere noli : 
Serviet utiliter : sine pascat durus aretque ; 70 

Naviget ac mediis hiemet mercator in undis ; 


Annonae prosit ; portet frumenta penusque. 

Vir bonus et sapiens audebit dicere : " Pentheu, 
Rector Thebarum, quid me perferre patique 
Indignum coges 1 " " Adimam bona." " Nempe pecas. 
rem, 75 

Lectos, argentum : tollas licet." " In manicis et 
Compedibus ssevo te sub custode tenebo." 
" Ipse deus, simul atque volam, me solvet." Opinor, 
Hoc sentit, " Moriar " ; mors ultima linea rerum est. 



Quamvis, Scseva, satis per te tibi consulis, et scis 

Q,uo tandem pacto deceat majoribus uti, 

Disce, docendus adhuc, quae censet amiculus ; ut si 

Caecus iter monstrare velit : tamen aspice si quid 

Et nos, quod cures proprium fecisse, loquamur. -5 

Si te grata quies et primam somnus in horam 
Delectat ; si te pulvis strepitusque rotarum, 
Si lsedit caupona, Ferentinum ire jubebo : 
Nam neque divitibus contingunt gaudia solis ; 
Nec vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit. 10 

Si prodesse tuis, pauldque benignius ipsum 
Te tractare voles, accedes siccus ad unctum. 
" Si pranderet olus patienter, regibus uti 
Nollet Aristippus." " Si sciret regibus uti, 
Fastidiret olus, qui me notat." Utrius horum 15 

Verba probes et facta, doce ; vel junior audi 
Cur sit Aristippi potior sententia. Namque 
Mordacem Cynicum sic eludebat, ut aiunt : 
" Scurror ego ipse mihi, populo tu ; rectius hoc et - 


Splendidius multo est : equus ut me portet, alat rex, 20 

Officium facio ; tu poscis vilia rerum, 

Dante minor, quamvis fers te nullius egentem." 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res, 

Tentantem niajora, fere prassentibus aequum. 

Contra, quem duplici panno patientia velat, 25 

Mirabor, vitae via si conversa decebit. 

Alter purpureum non exspectabit amictum, 

Quidlibet indutus celeberrima per loca vadet, 

Personamque feret non inconcinnus utramque : 

Alter Mileti textam cane pejus et angue 30 

Vitabit chlamydem ; morietur frigore, si non 

Rettuleris pannurn : refer, et sine vivat ineptus. 

Res gerere et captos ostendere civibus hostes, 
Attingit solium Jovis et coelestia tentat : 
Principibus placuisse viris, non ultima laus est. 35 

Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum. 
Sedit, qui tiinuit ne non succederet ; esto : 
Quid 1 qui pervenit, fecitne viriliter ? Atqui 
Hic est, aut nusquam, quod quaerimus : hic onus horret, 
Ut parvis animis et parvo corpore majus ; 40 

Hic subit et perfert. Aut virtus nomen inane est, 
Aut decus et pretium recte petit experiens vir. 

Coram rege sua de paupertate tacentes 
Plus poscente ferent. Distat, sumasne pudenter, 
An rapias : atqui rerum caput hoc erat, hic fons. 45 


" Indotata mihi soror est, paupercula mater, 

Et fundus nec vendibilis, nec pascere firmus," 

Qui dicit, clamat, " Victum date." Succinit alter : 

" Et mihi dividuo findetur munere quadra." 

Sed tacitus pasci si posset corvus, haberet 50 

Plus dapis, et rixae multo minus, invidiaeque. 

Brundusium comes aut Surrentum ductus amaenum, 
Qui queritur salebras et acerbum frigus et imbres, 


Aut cistam effractam aut subducta viatica plorat, 
Nota refert meretricis acumina, saepe catellam, 55 

Saepe periscelidem raptam sibi flentis ; uti mox 
Nulla fides damnis verisque doloribus adsit. 
Nec semel irrisus triviis attollere curat 
Fracto crure planum ; licet illi plurima manet 
Lacryma ; per sanctum juratus dicat Osirim, 60 

" Credite, non ludo ; crudeles, tollite claudum." 
" Quaere peregrinum," vicinia rauca reclamat. 



Si bene te novi, metues, liberrime Lolli, 

Scurrantis speciem prsebere, professus amicum. 

Ut matrona meretrici dispar erit atque 

Discolor, infido scurrse distabit amicus. 

Est huic diversum vitio vitium prope majus, 5 

Asperitas agrestis et inconcinna gravisque, 

Q,uae se commendat tonsa cute, dentibus atris ; 

Dum vult libertas dici mera, veraque virtus. 

Virtus est medium vitiorum et utrinque reductum. 

Alter in obsequium plus aequo pronus, et imi 10 

Derisor lecti, sic nutum divitis horret, 

Sic iterat voces, et verba cadentia tollit, 

Ut puerum saevo credas dictata magistro 

Reddere, vel partes mimum tractare secundas. 

Alter rixatur de lana saepe caprina, 15 

Propugnat nugis armatus : " Scilicet, ut non 

Sit mihi prima fides, et, vere quod placet, ut non 

Acriter elatrem, pretium aetas altera sordet." 


Ambigitur quid enim 1 Castor sciat an Dolichos plus ; 
Brundusium Minuci melius via ducat, an Appi. 20 

Quem damnosa Venus, quem prseceps alea nudat, 
Gloria quem supra vires et vestit et ungit, 
Quem tenet argenti sitis importuna famesque, 
Quem paupertatis pudor et fuga, dives amicus, 
Saepe decem vitiis instructior, odit et horret : 25 

Aut, si non odit, regit ; ac, veluti pia mater, 
Plus quam se sapere et virtutibus esse priorem 
Vult, et ait prope vera : " Meae (contendere noli) 
Stultitiam patiuntur opes ; tibi parvula res est : 
Arcta decet sanum comitem toga ; desine mecum 30 
Certare." Eutrapelus cuicunque nocere volebat 
Vestimenta dabat pretiosa. Beatus enim jam 
Cum pulchris tunicis sumet nova consilia et spes ; 
Dormiet in lucem ; scorto postponet honestum 
Officium ; nummos alienos pascet ; ad imum 35 

Thrax erit, aut olitoris aget mercede caballum. 

Arcanum neque tu scrutaberis ullius unquam ; 
Commissumque teges, et vino tortus et ira. 
Nec tua laudabis studia, aut aliena reprendes ; 
Nec, quum venari volet ille, poemata panges. 40 

Gratia sic fratrum geminorum, Amphionis atque 
Zethi, dissiluit, donec suspecta severo 
Conticuit lyra. Fraternis cessisse putatur 
Moribus Amphion : tu cede potentis amici 
Lenibus imperiis ; quotiesque educet in agros 45 

JEtolis onerata plagis jumenta canesque, 
Surge, et inhumanse senium depone Camcense, 
Coenes ut pariter pulmenta laboribus empta. 
Romanis solemne viris opus, utile famae, 
Vitaeque et membris ; praesertim quum valeas, et 50 

Vel cursu superare canem, vel viribus aprum, 
Possis : adde, virilia quod speciosius arma 


Non est qui tractet : scis quo clamore coronae 

Pro^lia sustineas campestria : denique saevam 

Militiam puer et Cantabrica bella tulisti 55 

Sub duce qui templis Parthorum signa refigit 

Nunc, et si quid abest, Italis adjudicat armis. 

Ac, ne te retrahas, et inexcusabilis abstes, 

Quamvis nil extra numerum fecisse modumque 

Curas, interdum nugaris rure paterno : 60 

Partitur lintres exercitus ; Actia pugna 

Te duce per pueros hostili more refertur ; 

Adversarius est frater ; lacus, Hadria ; donec 

Alterutrum velox victoria fronde coronet. 

Consentire suis studiis qui crediderit te, 65 

Fautor utroque tuum laudabit pollice ludum. 

Protinus ut moneam, si quid monitoris eges tu, 
Q,uid de quoque- viro, et cui dicas, saepe videto. 
Percunctatorem fugito ; nam garrulus idem est, 
Nec retinent patulae commissa fideliter aures ; 70 

Et semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum. 

Qualem commendes etiam atque etiam aspice ; ne mox 
Incutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem. 
Fallimur, et quondam non dignum tradimus : ergo ; 
Q,uem sua culpa premet, deceptus omitte tueri : 75 

Ut penitus notum, si tentent crimina, serves, 
Tuterisque tuo fidentem praesidio ; qui 
Dente Theonino quum circumroditur, ecquid 
Ad te post paulo ventura pericula sentis ? 
Nam tua res agitur, paries quum proximus ardet ; 80 

Et neglecta solent incendia sumere vires. 

Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amici ; 
Expertus metuit. Tu, dum tua navis in alto est, 
Hoc age ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura. 

Oderunt hilarem tristes, tristemque jocosi ; 85 

Sedatum celeres, agilem gnavumque remissi : 


Potores bibuli mcdia de nocte Falerni 

Oderunt porrecta negantem pocula ; quamvis 

Nocturnos jures te formidare vapores. 

Deme supercilio nubem : plerumque modestus 90 

Occupat obscuri speciem, taciturnus acerbi. 

Inter cuncta leges, et percontabere doctos, 
Q,ua ratione queas traducere leniter aevum ; 
Ne te semper inops agitet vexetque cupido, 
Ne pavor, et rerum mediocriter utilium spes : 95 

Virtutem doctrina paret, naturane donet ; 
Quid minuat curas, quid te tibi reddat amicum ; 
Quid pure tranquillet, honos, an dulce lucellum, 
An secretum iter, et fallentis semita vitae. 

Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, 100 

duem Mandela bibit, rugosus frigore pagus, 
Q,uid sentire putas 1 quid credis, amice, precari ? 
" Sit mihi quod nunc est, etiam minus : et mihi vivam 
duod superest aevi, si quid superesse volunt di : 
Sit bona librorum et provisae frugis in annum 105 

Copia ; neu fluitem dubiae spe pendulus horae. 
Sed satis est orare Jovem quae donat et aufert : 
Det vitam, det opes ; aequum mi animum ipse parabo." 




Prisco si credis, Maecenas docte, Cratino, 
Nulla placere diu nec vivere carmina possunt, 
Q,uae scribuntur aquae potoribus : ut male sanos 
Adscripsit Liber Satyris Faunisque poetas, 
Vina fere dulces oluerunt mane Camcenae. 



Laudibus arguitur vini vinosus Homerus: 
Ennius ipse pater nunquam, nisi potus, ad arma 
Prosiluit dicenda. " Forum putealque Libonis 
Mandabo siccis, adimam cantare severis." 

Hoc simul edixit, non cessavere poetae 10 

Nocturno certare mero, putere diurno. 
Quid, si quis vultu torvo ferus et pede nudo 
Exiguaeque togae simulet textore Catonem, 
Virtutemne repraesentet moresque Catonis ? 
Rupit Iarbitam Timagenis aemula lingua, 15 

Dum studet urbanus, tenditque disertus haberi. 
Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabiie : quod si 
Pallerem casu, biberent exsangue cuminum. 
O imitatores, servum pecus, ut mihi saepe 
Bilem, saepe jocum, vestri movere tumultus ! 20 

Libera per vacuum posui vestigia princeps ; 
Non aliena meo pressi pede. Qui sibi fidit, 
Dux regit examen. Parios ego primus iambos 
Ostendi Latio, numeros animosque sequutus 
Archilochi, non res et agentia verba Lycamben. 25 

Ac, ne me foliis ideo brevioribus ornes 
Q,uod timui mutare modos et carminis artem, 
Temperat Archilochi Musam pede mascula Sappho, 
Temperat Alcaeus : sed rebus et ordine dispar; 
Nec socerum quaerit, quem versibus oblinat atris ; 30 
Nec sponsae laqueum famoso carmine nectit. 
Hunc ego, non alio dictum prius ore, Latinis 
Vulgavi fidicen : juvat immemorata ferentem 
Ingenuis oculisque legi, manibusque teneri. 

Scire velis mea cur ingratus opuscula lector 35 

Laudet ametque domi, premat extra limen iniquus ? 
Non ego ventosae plebis suffragia venor 
Impensis coenarum et tritae munere vestis ; 
Non ego, nobilium scriptorum auditor et ultor, 


Grammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita dignor : 40 

Hinc illae lacrymae. Spissis indigna theatris 

Scripta pudet recitare, et nugis addere pondus, 

Si dixi : " Rides," ait, " et Jovis auribus ista 

Servas : fidis enim manare poetica mella 

Te solum, tibi pulcher." Ad haec ego naribus uti 45 

Formido : et, luctantis acuto ne secer ungui, 

" Displicet iste locus," clamo, et diludia posco. 

Ludus enim genuit trepidum certamen et iram, 

Ira truces inimicitias et funebre bellum. 



Vertumnum Janumque, liber, spectare videris ; 

Scilicet ut prostes Sosiorum pumice mundus. 

Odisti claves et grata sigilla pudico : 

Paucis ostendi gemis, et communia laudas, 

Non ita nutritus. Fuge quo descendere gestis : %*> 

Non erit emisso reditus tibi. " Quid miser egi ? 

Quid volui ? " dices, ubi quid te laeserit. Et scis 

In breve te cogi, plenus quum languet amator. 

Q,uod si non odio peccantis desipit augur, 

Carus eris Romoe, donec te deserat aetas. 10 

Contrectatus ubi manibus sordescere vulgi 

Cceperis, aut tineas pasces taciturnus inertes, 

Aut fugies Uticam, aut vinctus mitteris Ilerdam. 

Ridebit monitor non exauditus ; ut ille 

Qui male parentem in rupes protrusit asellum 15 

Iratus: quis enim invitum servare laboret ? 

Hoc quoque te manet, ut pueros elementa docentem 


Occupet extremis in vicis balba senectus. 

duum tibi sol tepidus plures admoverit aures, 

Me libertino natum patre, et in tenui re 20 

Majores pennas nido extendisse, loqueris ; 

Ut, quantum generi demas, virtutibus addas : 

Me primis Urbis belli placuisse domique, 

Corporis exigui, praecanum, solibus aptum, 

Irasci celerem, tamen ut placabilis essem. 25 

Forte meum si quis te percontabitur sevum, 

Me quater undenos sciat implevisse Decembres, 

Collegam Lepidum quo duxit Lollius anno. 





Q,uum tot sustineas et tanta negotia solus, 
Res Italas armis tuteris, moribus ornes, 
Legibus emendes, in publica commoda peccem, 
Si longo sermone morer tua tempora, Caesar. 

Romulus, et Liber pater, et cum Castore Pollux, 5 
Post ingentia facta, deorum in templa recepti, 
Dum terras hominumque colunt genus, aspera bella 
Componunt, agros assignant, oppida condunt, 
Ploravere suis non respondere favorem 
Speratum meritis. Diram qui contudit hydram, 10 

Notaque fatali portenta labore subegit, 
Comperit invidiam supremo fine domari. 
Urit enim fulgore suo, qui praegravat artes 
Infra se positas : exstinctus amabitur idem. 
Praesenti tibi maturos largimur honores, 15 

Jurandasque tuum per nomen ponimus aras, 
Nil oriturum alias, nil ortum tale fatentes. 


Sed tuus hic populus, sapiens et justus in uno, 

Te nostris ducibus, te Graiis anteferendo, 

Csetera nequaquam simili ratione modoque 20 

iEstimat ; et, nisi quse terris semota suisque 

Temporibus defuncta videt, fastidit et odit : 

Sic fautor veterum, ut tabulas peccare vetantes, 

Quas bis quinque viri sanxerunt, foedera regum 

Vel Gabiis vel cum rigidis aequata Sabinis, 25 

Pontificum libros, annosa volumina vatum, 

Dictitet Albano Musas in monte locutas. 

Si, quia Graecorum sunt antiquissima quaeque 
Scripta vel optima, Romani pensantur eadem 
Scriptores trutina, non est quod multa loquamur : 30 

Nil intra est oleani, nil extra est in nuce, duri. 
Venimus ad summum fortunae : pingimus atque 
Psallimus et luctamur Achivis doctius unctis. 
Si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit, 
Scire velim pretium chartis quotus arroget annus. 35 
Scriptor abhinc annos centum qui decidit, inter 
Perfectos veteresque referri debet, an inter 
Viles atque novos 1 excludat jurgia finis. — 
Est vetus atque probus, centum qui perficit annos. — 
Quid, qui deperiit minor uno mense, vel anno, 40 

Inter quos referendus erit 1 veteresne poetas, 
An quos et praesens et postera respuet aetas 1 — 
Iste quidem veteres inter ponetur honeste, 
Q,ui vel mense brevi vel toto est junior anno. — 
Utor permisso, caudseque pilos ut equinae 45 

Paulatim vello, et demo unum, demo etiam unum ; 
Dum cadat, elusus ratione ruentis acervi, 
dui redit ad fastos, et virtutem aestimat annis, 
Miraturque nihil nisi quod Libitina sacravit. 

Ennius, et sapiens et fortis, et alter Homerus, 50 

Ut critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur 


Quo promissa cadant et somnia Pythagorea. 

Naevius in manibus non est, et mentibus haeret 

Pene recens, adeo sancturn est vetus omne poema. 

Ambigitur quoties uter utro sit prior, aufert 55 

Pacuvius docti famam senis, Actius alti ; 

Dicitur Afrani toga convenisse Menandro; 

Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi ; 

Vincere Caecilius gravitate, Terentius arte. 

Hos ediscit, et hos arcto stipata theatro 60 

Spectat Roma potens ; habet hos nurneratque poetas 

Ad nostruin tempus Livi scriptoris ab aevo. 

Interdum vulgus rectum videt ; est ubi peccat. 

Si veteres ita miratur laudatque poetas, 

Ut niliil anteferat, nihil illis comparet, errat : 65 

Si quaedam nimis antique, si pleraque dure 

Dicere cedit eos, ignave multa fatetur, 

Et sapit, et mecum facit, et Jove judicat aequo. 

Non equidem insector, delendave carmina Livi 

Esse reor, memini quae plagosum mihi parvo 70 

Orbilium dictare ; sed emendata videri, 

Pulchraque, et exactis minimum distantia, miror. 

Inter quae verbum emicuit si forte decorum, et 

Si versus paulo concinnior unus et alter, 

Injuste totum ducit venditque poema. 75 

Indignor quidquam reprehendi, non quia crasse 

Compositum illepideve putetur, sed quia nuper ; 

Nec veniam antiquis, sed honorem et praemia posci. 

Recte necne crocum floresque perambulet Attae 

Fabula si dubitem, clament periisse pudorem 80 

Cuncti pene patres, ea quum reprehendere coner 

duae gravis ^Esopus, quae doctus Roscius egit : 

Vel quia nil rectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, ducunt; 

Vel quia turpe putant parere minoribus, et, quae 

Imberbi didicere, senes perdenda fateri. 85 


Jam Saliare Numee carmen qui laudat, et illud 

Quod mecum ignorat solus vult scire videri, 

Ingeniis non ille favet plauditque sepultis, 

Nostra sed impugnat, nos nostraque lividus odit. 

Q,uod si tam Graiis novitas invisa fuisset 90 

Quam nobis, quid nunc esset vetus ? aut quid haberet 

Quod legeret tereretque viritim publicus usus 1 

Ut primum positis nugari Graecia bellis 
Coepit, et in vitium fortuna labier aequa, 
Nunc athletarum studiis, nunc arsit equorum ; 95 

Marmoris aut eboris fabros aut aeris amavit ; 
Suspendit picta vultum mentemque tabella ; 
Nunc tibicinibus, nunc est gavisa tragoedis : 
Sub nutrice puella velut si luderet infans, 
Quod cupide petiit, mature plena reliquit. 100 

Quid placet aurodio est, quod non mutabile credas 1 
Hoc paces habuere bona^ ventique secundi. 

Romae dulce diu fuit et solemne reclusa 
Mane domo vigilare, clienti promere jura, 
Cautos nominibus rectis expendere nummos, 105 

Majores audire, minori dicere per quse 
Crescere res posset, minui damnosa libido. 
Mutavit mentem populus levis, et calet uno 
Scribendi studio : puerique patresque severi 
Fronde comas vincti ccenant et carmina dictant. 1 10 
Ipse ego, qui nullos me affirmo scribere versus, 
Invenior Parthis mendacior ; et, prius orto 
Sole, vigil calamum et chartas et scrinia posco. 
Navem agere ignarus navis timet ; abrotonum aegro 
Non audet, nisi qui didicit, dare ; quod medicorum est, 
Promittunt medici ; tractant fabrilia fabri : 116 

Scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim. 

Hic error tamen et levis hsec insania, quantas 
Virtutes habeat, sic collige : Vatis avarus 


Non temere est animus ; versus amat, hoc studet unum ; 

Detrimenta, fugas servorum, incendia ridet ; 121 

Non fraudem socio puerove incogitat ullam 

Pupillo ; vivit siliquis et pane secundo. 

Militise quanquam piger et malus, utilis urbi. 

Si das hoc, parvis quoque rebus magna juvari : 125 

Os tenerum pueri balbumque poeta figurat ; 

Torquet ab obscoenis jam nunc sermonibus aurem ; 

Mox etiam pectus prseceptis format amicis, 

Asperitatis et invidiae corrector et irse ; 

Recte facta refert ; orientia tempora notis 130 

Instruit exemplis ; inopem solatur et aegrum. 

Castis cum pueris ignara puella mariti 

Disceret unde preces, vatem ni Musa dedisset 1 

Poscit opem chorus, et praesentia numina sentit ; 

Coelestes implorat aquas docta prece blandus ; 135 

Avertit morbos, metuenda pericula pellit ; 

Impetrat et pacem, et locupletem frugibus annum. 
Carmine di superi placantur, carmine Manes. 

Agricolse prisci, fortes, parvoque beati, 
Condita post frumenta, levantes tempore festo 140 

Corpus, et ipsum animum spe finis dura ferentem, 
Cum sociis operum, pueris, et conjuge fida, 
Tellurem porco, Silvanum lacte piabant, 
Floribus et vino Genium memorem brevis aevi. 
Fescennina per hunc inventa licentia morem 145 

Versibus alternis opprobria rustica fudit ; 
Libertasque recurrentes accepta per annos 
Lusit amabiliter, donec jam saevus apertam 
In rabiem verti coepit jocus, et per honestas 
Ire domos impune minax : doluere cruento 150 

Dente lacessiti ; fuit intactis quoque cura 
Conditione super communi : quin etiam lex 
Poenaque lata, malo quse nollet carmine quenquam 


Describi. Vertere modum, formidine fustis, 

Ad bene dicendum delectandumque redacti. 155 

Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit, et artes 
Intulit agresti Latio. Sic horridus ille 
Defluxit nurnerus Saturnius ; et grave virus 
Munditiae pepulere : sed in longum tamen sevum 
Manserunt hodieque manent vestigia ruris. 160 

Serus enim Graecis admovit acumina chartis ; 
Et, post Punica bella quietus, quaerere ccepit 
Quid Sophocles et Thespis et ^Eschylus utile ferrent. 
Tentavit quoque rem si digne vertere posset ; 
Et placuit sibi, natura sublimis et acer : 165 

Nam spirat tragicum satis, et feliciter audet ; 
Sed turpem putat inscite metuitque lituram. 

Creditur, ex medio quia res arcessit, habere 
Sudoris minimu-m, sed habet Comcedia tanto 
Plus oneris, quanto veniae minus. Aspice Plautus 170 
Q,uo pacto partes tutetur amantis ephebi, 
Ut patris attenti, lenonis ut insidiosi : 
Quantus sit Dossennus edacibus in parasitis; 
Quam non astricto percurrat pulpita socco. 
Gestit enim nummum in loculos demittere, post hoc 175 
Securus cadat an recto stet fabula talo. 

Quem tulit ad scenam ventoso Gloria curru, 
Exanimat lentus spectator, sedulus inflat. 
Sic leve, sic parvum est, animum quod laudis avarum 
Subruit ac reficit. Valeat res ludicra, si me 180 

Palma negata macrum, donata reducit opimum. 

Saepe etiam audacem fugat hoc, terretque poetam. 
Quod numero plures, virtute et honore minores, 
Indocti stolidique, et depugnare parati 
Si discordet eques, media inter carmina poFcunt 185 
Aut ursum, aut pugiles: his nam plebecula gaudet. 
Verum equiti quoque jam migravit ab aure voluptas 


Omnis ad incertos oculos et gaudia vana. 

Quatuor aut plures aulaea premuntur in horas, 

Dum fugiunt equitum turmae peditumque catervae ; 190 

Mox trahitur manibus regum fortuna retortis ; 

Esseda festinant, pilenta, petorrita, naves ; 

Captivum portatur ebur, captiva Corinthus. 

Si foret in terris, rideret Democritus, seu 

Diversum confusa genus panthera camelo, 195 

Sive elephas albus vulgi converteret ora : 

Spectaret populum ludis attentius ipsis, 

Ut sibi prasbentem mimo spectacula plura. 

Scriptores autem narrare putaret asello 

Fabellam surdo : nam quse pervincere voces 200 

Evaluere sonum referunt quem nostra theatra 1 

Garganum mugire putes nemus, aut mare Tuscum : 

Tanto cum strepitu ludi spectantur et artes 

Divitiaeque peregrinae ; quibus oblitus actor 

Quum stetit in scena, concurrit dextera laevae. 205 

Dixit adhuc aliquid ? — Nil sane. — Quid placet ergo ? — 

Lana Tarentino violas imitata veneno. 

Ac ne forte putes me, quae facere ipse recusem, 
duum recte tractent alii, laudare maligne ; 
Ille pe: extentum funem mihi posse videtur 210 

Ire poeta, meum qui pectus inaniter angit, 
Irritat, mulcet, falsis terroribus implet, 
Ut magus, et mcdo me Thebis, modo ponit Athenis. 

Verum age, et his qui se lectori credere malunt, 
Cluam spectatoris fastidia ferre superbi, 215 

Curam redde brevem, si munus Apolline dignum 
Vis complere libris, et vatibus addere calcar, 
Ut studio majore petant Helicona virentem. 

Multa quidem nobis facimus mala saepe poetae 
(Ut vineta egomet caedam mea), quum tibi librum 220 
Sollicito damus, aut fesso ; quum laedimur unum 


Si quis amicorum est ausus reprendere versum ; « 

Quum loca jam recitata revolvimus irrevocati ; 

Quum lamentamur non apparere labores 

Nostros et tenui deducta poemata filo ; 225 

Quum speramus eo rem venturam, ut, simul atque 

Carmina rescieris nos fingere, commodus ultro 

Arcessas, et egere vetes, et scribere cogas. 

Sed tamen est operae pretium cognoscere quales 

^Edituos habeat belli spectata domique 230 

Virtus, indigno non committenda poetae. 

Gratus Alexandro regi Magno fuit ille 

Choerilus, incultis qui versibus et male natis 

Rettulit acceptos, regale numisma, Philippos. 

Sed, veluti tractata notam labemque remittunt 235 

Atramenta, fere scriptores carmine fcedo 

Splendida facta linunt. Idem rex ille, poema 

Q,ui tam ridiculum tam care prodigus emit, 

Edicto vetuit ne quis se, praeter Apellen, 

Pingeret, aut alius Lysippo duceret aera 240 

Fortis Alexandri vultum simulantia. Q,uod si 

Judicium subtile videndis artibus illud 

Ad libros et ad haec Musarum dona vocares, 

Boeotum in crasso jurares aere natum. 

At neque dedecorant tua de se judicia atque 245 

Munera, quae multa dantis cum laude tulerunt 

Dilecti tibi Virgilius Variusque poetae : 

Nec magis expressi vultus per aenea signa 

Quam per vatis opus mores animique virorum 

Clarorum apparent. Nec sermones ego mallem 250 

Repentes per humum, quam res componere gestas, 

Terrarumque situs et flumina dicere, et arces 

Montibus impositas, et barbara regna, tuisque 

Auspiciis totum confecta duella per orbem, 

Claustraque custodem pacis cohibentia Janum, 255 


Et formidatam Parthis te principe Romam ; 

Si, quantum cuperem, possem quoque : sed neque par- 

Carmen majestas recipit tua, nec meus audet 
Rem tentare pudor, quam vires ferre recusent. 
Sedulitas autem, stulte quem diligit, urget, 260 

Praecipue quum se numeris commendat et arte : 
Discit enim citius meminitque libentius illud 
Quod quis deridet, quam quod probat et veneratur. 
Nil moror officium quod me gravat : ac neque ficto 
In pejus vultu proponi cereus usquam, 265 

Nec prave factis decorari versibus opto ; 
Ne rubeam pingui donatus munere, et una 
Cum scriptore meo, capsa porrectus aperta, 
Deferar in vicum vendentem thus et odores, 
Et piper, et quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis. 270 



Flore, bono claroque fidelis amice Neroni, 
Si quis forte velit puerum tibi vendere, natum 
Tibure vel Gabiis, et tecum sic agat : " Hic, et 
Candidus et talos a vertice pulcher ad imos, 
Fiet eritque tuus nummorum millibus octo, 5 

Verna ministeriis ad nutus aptus heriles, 
Litterulis Grascis imbutus, idoneus arti 
Cuilibet ; argilla quidvis imitaberis uda : 
Quin etiam canet indoctum, sed dulce, bibenti. 
Multa fidem promissa levant, ubi plenius acquo 10 



Laudat venales, qui vult extrudere, merces. 

Res urget me nulla, meo sura pauper in aere : 

Nemo hoc mangonum faceret tibi : non temere a me 

Quivis ferret idem : semel hic cessavit, et, ut fit, 

In scalis latuit metuens pendentis habenae. 15 

Des nummos, excepta nihil te si fuga laedat." 

Ille ferat pretium, pcenae securus, opinor. 

Prudens emisti vitiosum ; dicta tibi est lex : 

Insequeris tamen hunc, et lite moraris iniqua. 

Dixi me pigrum proficiscenti tibi, dixi 20 

Talibus officiis prope mancum ; ne mea saevus 
Jurgares ad te quod epistola nulla veniret. 
Quid tum profeci, mecum facientia jura 
Si tamen attentas ? Quereris super hoc etiam, quod 
Exspectata tibi non mittam carmina mendax. 25 

Luculli miles~collecta viatica multis 
JErumnis, lassus dum noctu stertit, ad assem 
Perdiderat : post hoc vehemens lupus, et sibi et hosti 
Iratus pariter, jejunis dentibus acer, 
Praesidium regale loco dejecit, ut aiunt, 30 

Summe munito, et multarum divite rerum. 
Clarus ob id factum, donis ornatur honestis ; 
Accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummum. 
Forte sub hoc tempus castellum evertere praetor 
Nescio quod cupiens, hortari ccspit eundem 35 

Verbis quae timido quoque possent addere mentem : 
" I, bone, quo virtus tua te vocat ; i pede fausto, 
Grandia laturus meritorum praemia : quid stas 1 " 
Post haec ille catus, quantumvis rusticus, " Ibit, 
Ibit eo quo vis, qui zonam perdidit," inquit. 40 

Romse nutriri mihi contigit, atque doceri 
Iratus Graiis quantum nocuisset Achilles : 
Adjecere bona3 paulo plus artis Athenae ; 
Scilicet ut possem curvo dignoscere rectum, 


Atque inter silvas Academi quaerere verum. 45 

Dura sed emovere loco me tempora grato ; 

Civilisque rudem belli tulit sestus in arma, 

Caesaris Augusti non responsura lacertis. 

Unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi, 

Decisis humilem pennis, inopemque paterni 50 

Et laris et fundi, paupertas impulit audax 

Ut versus facerem : sed quod non desit habentem 

Quae poterunt unquam satis expurgare cicutae, 

Ni melius dormire putem quam scribere versus ? 

Singula de nobis anni praedantur euntes; 55 

Eripuere jocos, venerem, convivia, ludum ; 
Tendunt extorquere poemata : quid faciam vis ? 
Denique non omnes eadem mirantur amantque : 
Carmine tu gaudes ; hic delectatur iambis ; 
Ille Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro. 60 

Tres mihi convivae prope dissentire videntur, 
Poscentes vario multum diversa palaio : 
Q,uid dem ? quid non dem ? renuis tu quod jubet al- 

ter ; 
Q,uod petis, id sane est invisum acidumque duobus. 

Praeter caetera, me Romaene poemata censes 65 

Scribere posse inter tot curas totque labores ? 
Hic sponsum vocat, hic auditum scripta, relictis 
Omnibus ofBciis : cubat hic in colle Quirini, 
Hic extremo in Aventino ; visendus uterque. 
Intervalla vides humane commoda. — Verum 70 

Purae sunt plateae, nihil ut meditantibus obstet. — 
Festinat calidus mulis gerulisque redemptor ; 
Torquet nunc lapidem, nunc ingens machina tignum; 
Tristia robustis luctantur funera plaustris ; 
Hac rabiosa fugit canis, hac lutulenta ruit sus : 75 

I nunc, et versus tecum meditare canoros. 
Scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus et fugit urbes, 


Rite cliens Bacchi somno gaudentis et umbra. : 

Tu me inter strepitus nocturnos atque diurnos 

Vis canere, et contracta sequi vestigia vatum 1 80 

Ingenium, sibi quod vacuas desumpsit Athenas, 

Et studiis annos septem dedit, insenuitque 

Libris et curis, statua taciturnius exit 

Plerumque, et risu populum quatit : hic ego, rerum 

Fluctibus iu mediis et tempestatibus urbis, 85 

Verba lyrae motura sonum connectere digner 1 

Frater erat Romse consulti rhetor, ut alter 
Alterius sermone meros audiret honores ; 
Gracchus ut hic iiJi foret, huic ut Mucius ille. 
Q,ui minus argutos vexat furor iste poetas ? 90 

Carmina compono. hic elegos : mirabile visu, 
Caelatumque novem Musis opus. Aspice primum 
Quanto cum fastu, quanto molimine circum- 
spectemus vacuam Romanis vatibus aedem. 
Mox etiam, si forte vacas, pequerP!, et procul audi 95 

duid ferat et quare sibi nectat uterque coronam. 
Caedimur, et totidem plagis consumimus hostem, 
Lento Samnites ad lumina prima duello. 
Discedo Alceeus puncto illius ; ille meo quis? 
Quis, nisi Callimachus? si plus adposcere visus, 100 

Fit Mimnermus, et optivo cognomine crescit. 
Multa fero, ut placem genus irritabile vatum, 
Q,uum scribo et supplex populi suffragia capto : 
Idem, finitis studiis et mente recepta, 
Obturem patulas impunt' legentibus aures. 105 

Ridentur mala qui componunt carmina : verum 
Gaudent scribentes, et se venerantur, et ultro, 
Si taceas, laudant, quidquid scripsere, beati. 
At, qui legitimum cupiet fecisse poema, 
Cum tabulis animum censoris sumet honesti; 110 

Audebit quaecunque parum splendoris habebunt, 


Et sine pondere erunt, et honore indigna ferentur, 

Verba movere loco, quamvis invita recedant, 

Et versentur adhuc intra penetralia Vestoe. 

Obscurata diu populo bonus eruet, atque 115 

Proferet in lucem speciosa vocabula rerum, 

Q,uae, priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethegis, 

Nunc situs informis premit et deserta vetustas : 

Adsciscet nova, quse genitor produxerit usus. 

Vehemens et liquidus, puroque simillimus amni, 120 

Fundet opes, Latiumque beabit divite lingua. 

Luxuriantia compescet, nimis aspera sano 

Levabit cultu, virtute carentia tollet : 

Ludentis speciem dabit, et torquebitur, ut qui 

Nunc Satyrum, nunc agrestem Cyclopa movetur. 125 

Prastulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri, 
Dum mea delectent mala me, vel denique fallant, 
Quam sapere, et ringi. Fuit haud ignobilis Argis, 
Qui se credebat miros audire tragoedos, 
In vacuo lcetus sessor plausorque theatro ; 130 

Caetera qui vitae servaret munia recto 
More ; bonus sane vicinus, amabilis hospes, 
Comis in uxorem ; posset qui ignoscere servis, 
Et signo laeso non insanire lagenae; 

Posset qui rupem et puteum vitare patentem. 135 

Hic ubi, cognatorum opibus curisque refectus, 
Expulit elleboro morbum bilemque meraco, 
Et redit ad sese : " Pol, me occidistis, amici, 
Non servastis," ait, " cui sic extorta voluptas, 
Et demptus per vim mentis gratissimus error." 140 

Nimirum sapere est abjectis utile nugis, 
Et tempestivum pueris concedere ludum ; 
Ac non verba sequi fidibus modulanda Latinis, 
Sed verae numerosque modosque ediscere vitae. 
Quocirca mecum loquor haec, tacitusque recordor : 145 



" Si tibi nulla sitim finiret copia lymphae, 

Narrares medicis : quod quanto plura parasti, 

Tanto plura cupis, nulline faterier audes 1 

Si vulnus tibi monstrata radice vel herba 

Non fieret levius, fugeres, radice vel herba 150 

Proficiente nihil, curarier 1 Audieras, cui 

Rem di donarent, illi decedere pravam 

Stultitiam ; et, quum sis nihilo sapientior ex quo 

Plenior es, tamen uteris monitoribus isdem 1 

At si divitiae prudentem reddere possent, 155 

Si cupidum timidumque miniis te ; nempe ruberes, 

Viveret in terris te si quis avarior uno. 

" Si proprium est quod quis libra mercatus et aere est, 
dusedam, si credis consultis, mancipat usus ; 
Q,ui te pascit ager, tuus est ; et villicus Orbi, 160 

Q,uum segetes dccat, tibi mox frumenta daturas, 
Te dominum sentit. Das nummos ; accipis uvam, 
Pullos, ova, cadum temeti : nernpe modo isto 
Paulatim mercaris agrum, fortasse trecentis, 
Aut etiam supra, nummorum millibus emptum. 165 

Quid refert, vivas numerato nuper, an olim ? 
Emptor Aricini quondam Veientis et arvi 
Emptum ccenat olus, quamvis aliter putat ; emptis 
Sub noctem gelidam lignis calefactat aenum : 
Sed vocat usque suum, qua populus adsita certis 170 

Limitibus vicina refugit jurgia ; tanquam 
Sit proprium quidquam, puncto quod mobilis horae, 
Nunc prece, nunc pretio, nunc vi, nunc sorte suprema, 
Permutet dominos et cedat in altera jura. 
Sic, quia perpetuus nulli datur usus, et hseres 175 

Haeredem alterius, velut unda supervenit undam, 
duid vici prosunt, aut horrea ? quidve Calabris 
Saltibus adjecti Lucani, si metit Orcus 
Grandia cum parvis, non exorabilis auro 1 



Gemmas, marmor, ebur, Tyrrhena sigilla, tabellas, 
Argentum, vestes Gaetulo murice tinctas, 181 

Sunt qui non habeant ; est qui non curat habere. 
Cur alter fratrum cessare et ludere et ungi 
Prseferat Herodis palmetis pinguibus ; alter, 
Dives et importunus, ad umbram lucis ab ortu 185 

Silvestrem flammis et ferro mitiget agrum ; 
Scit Genius, natale comes qui temperat astrum, 
Naturae deus humanae, mortalis in unum- 
quodque caput, vultu mutabilis, albus et ater. 

" Utar, et ex modico, quantum res poscet, acervo 190 
Tollam ; nec metuam quid de me judicet hseres, 
Quod non plura datis invenerit : et tamen idem 
Scire volam quantum simplex hilarisque nepoti 
Discrepet, et quantum discordet parcus avaro. 
Distat enim, spargas tua prodigus, an neque sump- 
tum 195 

Invitus facias, neque plura parare labores ; 
Ac potius, puer ut festis Quinquatribus olim, 
Exiguo gratoque fruaris tempore rapti*n. 

" Pauperies immunda procul procul absit : ego, utriim 
Nave ferar magna an parva, ferar unus et idem. 200 

Non agimur tuinidis velis Aquilone secundo ; 
Non tamen adversis aetatem ducimus Austris ; 
Viribus, ingenio, specie, virtute, loco, re, 
Extremi primorum, extremis usque priores. 

" Non es avarus : abi. Quid ? caetera jam simul isto 
Cum vitio fugere ? caret tibi pectus inani 206 

Ambitione ? caret mortis formidine, et ira ? 
Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, 
Nocturnos lemures portentaque Thessala rides ? 
Natales grate numeras ? ignoscis amicis ? 210 

Lenior et melior fis accedente senecta ? 
duid te exempta juvat spinis de pluribus una? 


Vivere si recte nescis, decede peritis. f\ 



' I 



Lusisti satis, edisti satis atque bibisti : 

Tempus abire tibi est, ne potum largius asquo 215 

Rideat et pulset lasciva decentiiis eetas." 

. < 



Humano capiti cervicem pictor equinam 

Jungere si velit, et varias inducere plumas, 

Undique collatis membris, ut turpiter atruin 

Desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne, 

Spectatum admissi risum teneatis, amici 1 

Credite, Pisones, isti tabulse fore librum 

Persimilem, cujus, velut aegri somnia, vanas 

r lngentur species ; ut nec pes, nec caput uni 

Redtiutur formse. — Pictoribus atque poetis 

Quidlibet audendi semper fuit aequa potestas. — 10 

Scimus, et hanc veniam petimusque damusque vicissim ; 

Sed non ut placidis coeant immitia ; non ut 

Serpentes avibus geminentur, tigribus agni. 

Inceptis gravibus plerumque et magna professis 
Purpureus, late qui splendeat, unus et alter 15 

Assuitur pannus ; quum lucus et ara Dianas, 
Et properantis aquse per amoenos ambitus agros, 
Aut flimen Rhenum, aut pluvius describitur arcus : 
Sed nunc non erat his locus. Et fortasse cupressum 


* i 
Scis simulare : quid hoc, si fractis enatat exspes 20 

Navibus, aere dato qui pingitur ? Amphora ccEpit 

Institui ; currente rota cur urceus exit ? 

Denique sit, quod vis, simplex duntaxat et unum. 

Maxima pars vatum, pater, et juvenes patre digni, 
Decipimur specie recti : brevis esse laboro, 25 

Obscurus fio : secmrrtem levia nervi 
Deficiunt animique : professus grandia turget : 
Serpit humi tutus nimium timidusque procellae. 
Q,ui variare cupit rem prodigialiter unam, 
Delphinum silvis appingit, rluctibus aprum. A : 30 

In vitium ducit culpoe f .ret arte. 

^Emilium circa ludum faber iinus et unsfues 
Exprimet et molles imitabitur a?re capillos ; 
j^ Unfelix operis summa, quia ponere totum 

Nesciet : hunc~ego me, si quid componere curem, 35 
Non magis esse velim, quam pravo vivere naso, 
Spectandum nigris oculis, nigroque cnpillo. 

Surriite materiaia vestris, qui scribitis, axmam 
Viribus; et versate diu quid ferre recusent, 
Q,uid valeant humeri : cui lecta potenter erit res, 40 

\ Nec facundia deseret hunc, nec lucidus ordo. 

Ordinis ha:c virtus erit et venus, aut ego fallor, 
Ut jam nunc dicat, jam nunc debentia dici 
Pleraque differat, et proesens iu tempus omittat. 

In verbis etiam tenuis cautusque serendis, 45 

Hoc amet, hoc spernat promissi carminis auctor. 
Dixeris egregie, notum si calrraa verbum 

Reddiderit junctura novum. Si forte necesse est 

Indiciis mpnstrare reccntibus nbdita rerum, 

Fingere cinctulis non exaudita Cethegis 5(* 

Continget : dabiturque licentia suinpta pudenter : 

Et nova fictaque nuper habebunt verba ndem, si 

Graeco fonte cadant, parce detorta. Q,uid autem 



Csecilio Plautoque dabit Romanus ademptum 
Virgilio Varioque 1 ego cur, acquirere pauca 55 

Si possum, invideor, qVfum lingua Catonis ct Enni 
Sermonem patrium ditaveiit, et nova rerum 
Nomina protulerit ? Licuit semperque licebit 
feignatum prassente nota producere nomen 
\ Ut silva? foliis pronos imutantur in annos, 60 

Prima cadunt ; ita verborum vetus interit mtas, 
Et juvenum ritu florent modo nata, vigentque. 
Debemur morti nos nostraque ; sive receptus 
Terra Neptunus classes Aquilonibus arcet, 
Regis opus ; sterilisque diu palus, aptaque remis, 65 

Vicinas urbes alit et grave sentit aratrum ; 
Seu cursum mutavit iniquum frugibus amnis, 
Doctus iter, melius. Mortalia facta peribunt ; " 
Nedum sermonum stet honos, et gratia vivax. 
Multa renaseenfur qua? jam cecidere, cadentque 70 

Q,uaD nunc sunt in honore, vocabula, si volct usus, 
^Quem peftes arbitrium est et jus et norma loquendi.' 

Res gesta^ regumque ducumque, et tristia bella, 
Q,uo scribi possent numero monstravit Homerus. 

Versibus impariter junctis querimonia prknum, 75 

Post etiam inclusa est voti sententia compos. 

uis tamen exiguos elegos emisent auctor 
Grammatici certant, et adhuc sub judice lis est. 

Arcbilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo : 
Hunc socci cepere pedem grandesque cothurni, 80 

Alternis nptum sermonibus, et populares 
Vincentem strepifus, et natum rebus agendis. 

Musa dedit fidibus divos puerosque deorum, 
Et pugilem victorem, et equum certamine prirnum, 
Et juvenum curas, et libera vina referre. 85 

Descriptas servare vices operumque colores, 
Cur ego, si nequeo ignoroque, poeta salutor ? 


Cur nescire, pudens prave, quam discere malo 1 
Versibus exponi tragicis res comica non vult : 
Indignatur item privatis, ac prope socco 90 

Dignis, carminibus narrari ccena Thyestae. 
Singula quaeque locum teneant sortita decenter. 
Interdum tamen et vocem Comcedia tollit ; 
Iratusque Chremes tumido delitigat ore. 
Et tragicus plerumque dolet sermone pedestri : 95 

Telephus et Peleus quum pauper et exsul, uterque 
Projicit ampullas et sesquipedalia verba, 
Si curat cor spectantis tetigisse querela. 

Non satis est pulchra esse poemata ; dulcia sunto, 
Et quocunque volent animum auditoris agunto. 100 

Ut ridentibus arrident, ita flentibus adflent 
Humani vultus : si vis me flere, dolendum est 
Primum ipsi tibi ; tunc tua me infortunia loedent, 
Telephe, vel Peleu : male si mandata loqueris, 
Aut dormitabo, aut ridebo. I Tristia mcestum 105 

Vultum verba decent ; iratum, plena minarum ; 


Ludentem, lasciva ; severum, seria dictu. 
Format enim natura prius nos intus ad omnem 
Fortunarum habitum ; juvat, aut impellit ad iram, 
Aut ad humum mcerore gravi deducit, et angit; 110 

Post efTert animi motus interprete lingua. 
Si dicentis erunt fortunis absona dicta, 
Romani tollent equites peditesque cachinnum. 
Intererit multum Davusne loquatur, an heros ; 
Maturusne senex, an adhuc florente juventa 115 

Fervidus ; an matrona potens, an sedula nutrix ; 
Mercatome vagus, cultorne virentis agelli ; 
Colchus, an Assyrius ; Thebis riutritus, an Argis. 
Aut famam sequere, aut sibi convenientia finge, 
Scriptor. Honoratum si forte reponis Achillem, 120 
Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer, 

^r ARS P0E7ICA. 241 

Jura neget sibi nata, nihil non arroget arrnis : 
Sit Medea ferox invictaque, flebilis Ino, 
Perfidus Ixion, Io vaga, tristis Orestes. 

Si quid inexpertum scena) committis, et audes 125 
Personam formare novam, servetur ad imum 
dualis ab incepto processerit, et sibi constet. 
Difficile est proprie communia dicere : tuque 
Rectius Iliacum carmen deducis in actus, 
Q,uam si proferres ignota indictaque primus. 130 

Publica materies privati juris erit, si 
Nec circa vilem patulumque moraberis orbem ; 
Nec verbum verbo curabis reddere, fidus 
Interpres ; nec desilies imitator in arctum, 
Unde pedem proferre pudor vetet, aut operis lex. 135 

Nec sic incipies, ut scriptor cyclicus olim : 
" Fortunam Pnami cantabo et nobile bellum." 
Q,uid dignum tanto feret hic promissor hiatu ? 
Partununt moates, nascetur ridiculus mus. 
Quanto rectiiis hic qui nil molitur inepte ! 140 

" Dic mihi, Musa, virum, captse post tempora TrojaB, 
Q,ui mores hominum multorum vidit et urbes. !> 
Non fumum ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare lucem 
Cogitat, ut spec,iosa dehinc miracula promat,'r^ 
Antiphaten Scyllamque et cum Cyclope Charybdin ; 145 
Nec reditum Diomedis ab interitu Meleasm, 
Nec gemino bellum Trojanum orditur ab ovo. 
Seniper ad evenlum festinat ; et in medias res, 
Non secus ac notas, auditorem rapit ; et, quas 
Desperat tractata nitescere posse, relinquit ; 150 

Atque ita mentitur, sic veris falsa remiscet, 
Primo ne medium, medio ne discrepet imum. 

Tu, quid ego et populus mecum desideret, audi : 
Si plausoris eges au' eea manentis, et usque 
Sessuri, donec cantor, " Vos plaudite," dicat, 155 



iEtatis cujusque notandi sunt tibi mores, 

Mobilibusque decor naturis dandus et annis. 

Reddere qui voces jam scit puer, et pede certo 

Signat humum, gestit paribus colludere, et iram 

Colligit ac ponit temere, et mutatur in horas. 160 

Imberbus juvenis, tandem custode remoto, 

Gaudet equis canibusque et aprici gramine Campi ; 

Cereus in vitium flecti, monitoribus asper, 

Utilium tardus provisor, prodigus seris, 

Sublimis, cupidusque et amata relinquere pernix. 165 

Conversis studiis, setas animusque virilis 

duaerit opes et amicitias,'inservit honori, 

Commisisse cavet quod mox mutare laboret. 

Multa senem circumveniunt incommoda ; vel quod 

Qugerit, et inventis miser abstinet ac timet uti ; 170 

Vel quod res omnes timide gelideque ministrat, 

Dilator, spe longus, iners, avidusque futuri, 

Difficilis, querulus, laudator tenlporis acti 

Se puero, censor castigatorque minorum. 

Multa ferunt anni venientes commoda secum ; 175 

Multa recedentes adimunt. Ne forte seniles 

Mandentur juveni partes, pueroque viriles, 

Semper in adjunctis aevoque morabimur aptis. 

Aut agitur res in scenis, aut acta refertur : 
Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem, 180 

Q,uam quse sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et quaa 
Ipse sibi tradit spectator. Non tamen intus 
Digna geri promes in scenam ; multaque tolles 
Ex oculis, quae mox narret facundia praesens : 
Ne pueros coram populo Medea trucidet ; 185 

Aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus ; 
Aut in avem Progne vertatur, Cadmus in anguem. 
Quodcunque ostendis mihi sic, incr^dulus odi. 

Neve minor, neu sit quinto produ^tior actu 


Fabula, quae posci vult et spectata reponi : 390 

Nec deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus . ' 
Inciderit: nec quarta loqui persona laboret. / ^/ 

Actoris partes chorus officiumque virile 
Defendat ; neu quid medios intercinat actus, 
duod non proposito conducat et hoereat apte : 195 

Ille bonis faveatque, et consilietur amicis ; 
Et regat iratos, et amet pacare tumentes ; 
Ille dapes laudet mensae brevis ; ille salubrem 
Justitiam, legesque, et apertis otia portis ; 
Ille tegat commissa, deosque precetur et oret, 200 

Ut redeat miseris, abeat fortuna superbis. 

Tibia non, ut nunc, orichalco vincta, tubseque 
jEmula, sed tenuis simplexque foramine pauco, 
Adspirare et adesse choris erat utilis, atque 
Nondum spissa nimis compiere sedilia flatu, 205 

Q,\ib sane populus numerabilis, utpote parvus, 
Et fruori castusque verecundusque coibat. 
Postquam coepit agros extendere victor, et urbem 
Latior amplecti murus, vinoque diurno 
Placari Genius festis impune diebus, 210 

Accessit numerisque modisque licentia major. 
Indoctus quid enim saperet, liberque laborum, 
Rusticus urbano confusus, turpis honesto 1 
Sic priscae motumque et luxuriam addidit arti 
Tibicen, traxitque vagus per pulpita vestem. 215 

Sic etiam fidibus voces crevere severis, 
Et tulit eloquium insolitum facundia praeceps ; 
Utiliumque sagax rerum, et divina futuri, 
Sortilegis non discrepuit sententia Delphis. 

Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob. hircum, 220 
Mox etiam agrestes Satyros nudavit, et asper 
Incolumi gravitate jocum tentavit, eo quod 
Ulecebris erat et grata novitate morandus 


Spectator, functusque sacris, et potus, et exlex. 

Verum ita risores, ita commendare dicaces 225 

Conveniet Satyros, ita vertere seria ludo, 

Ne quicunque deus, quicunque adhibebitur heros, 

Regali conspectus in auro nuper et ostro, 

Migret in obscuras humili sermone tabernas ; 

Aut, dum vitat humum, nubes et inania captet. 230 

Effutire leves indigna Tragoedia versus, 

Ut festis matrona moveri jussa diebus, 

Intererit Satyris paulum pudibunda protervis. 

Non ego inornata et dominantia nomina solum 

Verbaque, Pisones, Satyrorum scriptor amabo ; 235 

Nec sic enitar tragico differre colori, 

Ut nihil intersit Davusne loquatur, et audax 

Pythias emuncto, lucrata Simone talentum, 

An custos famulusque dei Silenus alumni. 

Ex noto fictum carmen sequar, ut sibi quivis 240 

Speret idem ; sudet multum frustraque laboret 

Ausus idem : tantum series juncturaque pollet, 

Tantum de medio sumptis accedit honoris. 

Silvis deducti caveant, me judice, Fauni 

Ne, velut innati triviis ac pene forenses, 245 

Aut nimium teneris juvenentur versibus unquam, 

Aut immunda crepent ignominiosaque dicta : 

Offenduntur enim, quibus est equus et pater et res ; 

Nec, si quid fricti ciceris probat et nucis emptor, 

^Equis accipiunt animis donantve corona. 250 

Syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur Iambus ; 
Pes citus ; unde etiam trimetris accrescere jussit 
Nomen Iambeis, quum senos redderet ictus, 
Primus ad extremum similis sibi : non ita pridem, 
'Tardior ut paulo graviorque veniret ad aures, 255 

Spondeos stabiles in jura paterna recepit 
Commodus et patiens ; non ut de sede secunda 


Cederet aut quarta socialiter. Hic et in Acci 

Nobilibus trimetris apparet rarus, et Enni. 

In scenam missos magno cum pondere versus, 260 

Aut operss celeris nimium curaque carentis, 

Aut ignoratae premit artis crimine turpi. 

Non quivis videt immodulata poemata judex ; 

Et data Romanis venia est indigna poetis. 

Idcircone vager, scribamque licenter, ut omnes 265 

Visuros peccata putem mea, tutus, et intra 

Spem veniae cautus 1 Vitavi denique culpam, 

Non laudem merui. Vos exemplaria Graeca 

Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna. 

At vestri proavi Plautinos et numeros et 270 

Laudavere sales, nimium patienter utrumque, 

Ne dicam stulte, mirati ; si modo ego et vos 

Scimus inurbanum lepido seponere dicto, 

Legitimumque sonum digitis callemus, et aure. 

Ignotum Tragicae genus invenisse Camcenae 275 

Dicitur, et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis, 
Quae canerent agerentque peruncti faecibus ora. 
Post hunc, personse pallseque repertor honestae, 
iEschylus, et modicis instravit pulpita tignis, 
Et docuit magnumque loqui nitique cothurno. 280 

Successit vetus his Comcedia, non sine multa 
Laude ; sed in vitium libertas excidit et vim 
Dignam lege regi : lex est accepta, chorusque 
Turpiter obticuit, sublato jure nocendi.y 
" ^Nil intentatum nostri liquere poetse : 285 

Nec mihimum meruere decus, vestigia Graeca 
Ausi deserere et celebrare domestica facta, 
Vel qui praetextas, vel qui docuere togatas. 
Nec virtute foret clarisve potentius armis, 
Q,uam lingua, Latium, si non offenderet unum- 290 

«quemque poetarum lim33 labor et mora. Vos, o 


Pompilius sanguis, carinen reprehendite quod non 
Multa dies et multa litufa cOercuit, atque 
Praesectum decies non castigavit ad unguem." 

Ingenium misera quia fortunatius arte 295 

Credit, et excludit sanos Helicone poetas, 
Democritus, bona pars non ungues ponere curat, 
Non barbam, secreta petit loca, bamea vitat. 
Nanciscetur enim pretium nomenque poetae, 
Si tribus Anticyris caput insanabile nunquam 300 

Tonsori Licino commiserit. O ego laevus, 
Qui purgor bilem sub verni temporis horam ! 
Non alius faceret meliora poemata : verum 
Nil tanti est. Ergd fungar vice cotis, acutum 
Reddere quse ferrum valet, exsors ipsa secandi : 305 

Munus et officium, nil scribens ipse, docebo ; 
Unde parentur opes ; quid alat formetque poetam ; 
Quid deceat, quid non ; quo virtus, quo ferat error. 

Scribendi recte sapere est et principium et fons. 
Rem tibi Socraticae poterunt ostendere chartae : 310 

Verbaque provisam rem non invita sequentur. 
Q,ui didicit patriae quid debeat, et quid amicis, 
Q,uo sit amore parens, quo frater amandus, et hospes, 
Quod sit conscripti, quod judicis officium, quae 
Partes in bellum missi ducis ; ille profecto 315 

Reddere^personse scit convenientia cuique. 
Respicere exemplar vitae morumque jubebo 
Doctum imitatorem, et veras hinc ducere voces. 
Interdum speciosa locis morataque recte 
Fabula, nullius veneris, sine pondere et arte, 3*20 

Valdius oblectat populum meliusque moratur, 
Q,uam versus inopes rerum, nugaeque canorae. / 

Graiis ingenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo 
Musa loqui, praeter laudem nullius avaris : 
Romani pueri longis rationibus assem 3:25 


Discunt in partes centum diducere. " Dicat 

Filius Albini, si de quincunce remota est 

Uncia, quid superat ? " " Poteras dixisse, Triens." " Eu ! 

Rem poteris servare tuam. Redit uncia, quid fit? M 

" Semis." An, haec animos aerugo et cura peculi 330 

Quum semel imbuerit, speramus carmina fingi 

Posse linenda cedro, et levi servanda cupresso ? 

Aut prodesse volunt, aut delectare, poetae, •' 
Aut simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitae. 
Quidquid praecipies, esto brevis ; ut cito dicta 335 

Percipiant animi dociles teneantque fideles : 
Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat. 
Ficta voluptatis causa sint proxima veris : 
Nec, quodcunque volet, poscat sibi fabula credi ; 
Neu pransae Lamiae yivum puerum extrahat alvcwT^ 340 
Centuriae seniorum agitant expertia frugis ; ^ 

Celsi praetereunt austera poemata Rhamnes : 
Omne tulit p^unctum, qui miscuit utile dulci, 
Lectorem delectando pariterque monendo. 
Hic meret aera liber Sosiis ; hic et mare transit, 345 
Et longum noto scriptori prbrogat aevum. 

Sunt delicta tamen quibus ignovisse velimus : 
Nam neque chorda sonum reddit quem vult manus et 

Poscentique gravem persaepe remittit acutum ; 
Nec semper feriet quodcunque minabitur arcus. 350 

Verum, ubi plura nitent in carmine, non ego paucis 
Offendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit, 
Aut humana parum cavit natura. — Q,uid ergo est ? — 
Ut scriptor si peccat idem librarius usque, • 
Q,uamvis est monitus, venia caret ; et citharcedus 355 
Ridetur, chorda qui semper oberrat eadem : 
Sic mihi, qui multum cessat, fit Choerilus ille, 
duem bis terque bonum cum risu miror ; et idem 


Indignor, quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. / 
Verum operi longo fas est obrepere somnum. 360 

Ut pictura, poesis ; erit quse, si propius stes, \ 

Te capiet magis, et quaedam, si longius abstes. 
Haec amat obscurum ; volet haec sub luce videri, 
Judicis argutum quee non formidat acumen : 
Hsec placuit semel, haec decies repetita placebit. 365 

O major juvenum, quamvis et voce paterna 
Fingeris ad rectum, et per te sapis, hoc tibi dictum 
Tolle memor : certis medium et tolerabile rebus 
Recte concedi. Consultus juris, et actor 
Causarum mediocris, abest virtute diserti 370 

Messalae, nec scit quantum Cascellius Aulus ; 
Sed tamen in pretio est : mediocribus esse poetis 
Non homines, non di, non concessere columnae. 
"Ut gratas inter mensas symphonia discors, 
Et crassum unguentum, et Sardo cum melle papaver 
Offendunt, poterat duci quia coena sine istis ; 376 

Sic animis natum inventumque poema juvandis, 
\ Si paulum a summo discessit, vergit ad imum. 

Ludere qui nescit, campestribus abstinet armis, 
In<k)ctusque pilae diseive trochive quiescit, 380 

Ne spissae risum tollant impune coronae : 
Clui nesjcit, versu^/ tamen audet fingere ! — duidni 1 
Liber et ingenuus, prsesertim census equestrem 
Summam nummorum, vitioque remotus ab omni. — 
Tu nihil invita dices faciesve Minerva ; 385 

Id tibi judicium est, ea mens : si quid tamen olim 
Scripseris, in Metii descendat judicis aures, 
Et patris, et nostras ; nonumque prematur in annum. 
Membranis intus positis, delere licebit 
-Qjaod non edideris ; nescit vox missa reverti. 390 

Silvestres fcomines sacer interpresque deorum 
Caedibus et victu fedo deterruit Orpheus ; 


Dictus ob hoc lenire tigres rabidosque leones : 

Dictus et Amphion, Thebanae conditor arcis, 

Saxa movere sono testudinis, et prece blanda 395 

Ducere quo vellet. Fuit hsec sapientia quondam, 

Publica privatis secernere. sacra profanis, 

Concubitu prohibere vago, dare jura maritis, 

Oppida moliri, leges incidere ligno. 

Sic honor et nomen divinis vatibus atque 400 

Carminibus venit. Post hos insignis Homerus 

Tyrtasusque mares animos in Martia bella 

Versibus exacuit ; dictas per carmina sortes ; 

Et vitae monstraia via est ; et gratia regum 

Pieriis tentata modis ; ludusque repertus, 405 

Et longorum operum finis : ne forte pudori 

Sit tibi Musa lyrae solers, et cantor Apollo. 

Natura fieret iaudabile carmen, an arte, 
Q,ua3situm est. Ego nec studium sine divite vena, 
Nec rude quid possit video ingenium : alterius sic 410 
Altera poscit opem res, et conjurat amice. / 
Q,ui studet optatam cursu contingere metam, 
Multa tulit fecitque puer ; sudavit et alsit ; 
Abstinuit Venere et vino : qui Pythia cantat 
Tibicen, didicit prius, extimuitque magistrum. 415 

Nec satis est dixisse : " Ego mira pofmata pango : 
Occupet extremum scabies ; mihi turpe reiinqui est, 
Et, quod non didici, sane nescire fateri." 

Ut pra3co ad merces turbam qui cogit emendas, 
Assentatores jubet ad lucrum ire poeta 420 

Dives agris, dives positis in foenore nummis. 
Si vero est unctum qui recte ponere possit, 
Et spondere levi pro paupere, et eripere atris 
Litibus implicitum, mirabor si sciet inter- 
noscere mendacem verumque beatus amicum. 425 

Tu, seu donaris, seu quid donare velis cui, 


Nolito ad versus tibi factos ducere plenum 

Laetitise ; clamabit enim, " Pulchre ! bene ! recte ! " 

Pallescet super his ; etiam stillabit amicis 

Ex oculis rorem ; saliet, tundet pede terram. 430 

Ut, qui conducti plorant in funere, dicunt 

Et faciunt prope plura dolentibus ex animo ; sic 

Derisor vero plus laudatore movetur. * 

Reges dicuntur multis urgere culullis, 

Et torquere mero, quem perspexisse laborent, 435 

An sit amicitia dignus : si carmina condes, 

Nunquam te fallant animi sub vulpe latentes. 

Quinctilio si quid recitares, " Corrige, sodes, 
Hoc," aiebat, " et hoc." Melius te posse negares, 
Bis terque expertum frustra ; delere jubebat, 440 

Et male tornatos incudi reddere versus. 
Si defendere delictum, quam vertere, malles, 
Nullum ultra verbum, aut operam sumebat inanem, 
Quin sine rivali teque et tua solus amares. 
Vir bonus et prudens versus reprehendet inertes, 445 
Culpabit duros, incomptis allinet atrum 
Transverso calamo signum, ambitiosa recidet 
Ornamenta, parum claris lucem dare coget, 
Arguet ambigue dictum, mutanda notabit : 
Fiet Aristarchus ; non dicet, " Cur ego amicum 450 

Offendam in nugis 1 " Hss nugse seria ducent 
In mala derisum semel exceptumque sinistre. 
- Ut mala quem scabies aut morbus regius urget, 
Aut fanaticus error, et iracunda Diana ; ** 
Vesanum tetigisse timent fugiuntque poetam, 455 

Qui sapiunt ; agitant pueri, incautique sequuntur. 
Hic, dum sublimes versus ructatur, et errat, 
Si veluti merulis intentus decidit auceps 
In puteum foveamve, licet, " Succurrite," longum 
Clamet, " Io cives ! " non sit qui tollere curet. 460 


Si curet quis opem ferre et demittere funem, 

" Qui scis an prudens huc se dejecerit, atque 

Servari nolit 1 " dicam ; Siculique poetae 

Narrabo interitum : " deus immortalis haberi 

Dum cupit Empedocles, ardentem frigidus iEtnam 465 

Insiluit. Sit jus, liceatque perire poetis : 

Invitum qui servat, idem facit occidenti : 

Nec semel hoc fecit : nec, si retractus erit, jarn 

Fiet homo, et ponet famosae mortis amorem. 

Nec satis apparet cur versus factitet ; utriim 470 

Minxerit in patrios cineres, an triste bidental 

Moverit incestus : certe furit, ac, velut ursus 

Objectos caveae valuit si frangere clathros, 

Indoctum doctumque fugat recitator acerbus ; 

Quem vero arripuit, tenet, occiditque legendo, 475 

Non missura cutem, nisi plena cruoris, hirudo." 



Horace uses twenty different kinds of Measure, or varie- 
ties of Metre. These are combined in si?deen different 
ways, forming of course sixteen different Strophes, or 
Stanzas.* In order to know to which of these combina- 
tions any ode belongs, we have only to find the first words 
of that ode in the following Alphabetical Index ; and against 
them is placed the number of the combination to which 
it belongs, and according to which it must be scanned. 
For instance ; suppose it were desired to know the kind of 
verse contained in the first Ode of the first Book ; look in 
the Alphabetical Index on page 254, and find in that the 
first words, Mcecenas atavis ; and against them stands VII. 
No. VII, then, of the Combinations on page 25G, informs you 
that the verse is Asclepiadean ; and shows you how it may 
be scanned. In the same way the method of scanning 
every ode in Horace may be known, by finding the first 
words of it in the Index, and referring to the number against 
it, in the Combinations. 

* A Strophe or Stanza includes as many lines as are necessary to 
show all the different kinds of measure in an ode. It is called Strophe, 
which in Greek literally means a turning, hecause at the end of it, you 
tum back to the same kind of verse with which you began. 





iEli, vetusto 
^Equam memento 
Altera jam teritur 
Angustam amice 
At, o deorum . 

Audivere, Lyce 
Bacchum in remotis 
Beatus ille 
Ccelo supinas 
Coelo tonantem 
Cur me querelis 
Delicta majorum 
Descende coelo 
Dianam tenerae 
Diffugere nives 
Dive, quem proles 
Divis orte bcnis 
Donarem pateras . 
Eheu ! fugaces 
Est mihi nonum 
Et thure et iidibus 
Exegi monumentum 
Faune, Nympharum 
Festo quid potiiis die 
Herculis ritu 
Horrida tempestas 
Ibis Liburnis 
IcCi beatis 
Ille et nefasto . 
Impios parrae 
Inclusam Danaen 
Intactis opulentior 
Integer vitae 
Jam jam efficaci 
Jam pauca aratro 
Jam satis terris 
Jam veris comites 
Justum ac tenacem 
Laudabunt alii . 
Lupis et agnis 
Lydia, dic per omnes 
Maecenas atavis 
Mala soluta 
Mariiis ccelebs 
Mercuri, facunde 
Mercuri, nam te 
Montium custos 
Motum ex Metello 
Musis amicus 
Natis in usum 

fo. I 

Ne forte credas 

. No.I 


Nolis longa ferae . 

. V 


Non ebur, neque aureum 

. XVI 


Non semper imbres 

. I 


Non usitata 



Nullam, Vare, sacra 

. IX 


Nullus argento 



Nunc est bibendum 

. I 


crudelis adhuc 

. IX 


diva, gratum 

. I 


fons Bandusiae 

. VI 


matre pulchra . 

. I 


nata mecum . 



navis, referent . 

. VI 


s«pe mecum 


. II 

Venus, regina . 

. II 


Odi profanum 



Otium divos 

. II 


Parcus deorum 


. II 

Parentis olim 

. IV 


Pastor quum traheret 



Persicos odi, puer 

. J[I 


Phcebe, silvarumque 


. III 

Phcebus volentem 

. I 


Pindarum quisquis 



Poscimur, si quid . 

. II 


Qupe curaPatrum 


. I 

Qualem ministrum 

. I 


Quando repostum 


. 11 

Quantum distet ab Inach 

3 . III 


Quem tu, Melpomene 


. III 

Quem virum aut heroa . 

. II 


Quid bellicosus 


. X 

Quid dedicatum 

. I 


Quid immerentes 


. II 

Quis desiderio 

. V 


Qu6 me, Bacche 

. III 

. I 

Qu6, quo scelesti ruitis 

. *IV 


Rectius vives 


. IV 

Scriberis Vaiio 

. V 


Septimi, Gades .• 



Sic te diva potens 

. III 


Solvitur acris hiems . 

. XV 

. II 

Te maris et terrae . 



Tu ne qusesieris 

. IX 

. II 

Tyrrhena regum 

. I 


Velox amcenum 


. I 

Vides ut alta . . 

. I 


Vile potabis 


. I 

Vixi choreis 

. I 



No. I. The stanza of four lines. The first two are 
greatcr Alcaic, measured thus : a spondee or iambus, an 
iambus with a caesura, then two dactyles ; as, 

Vldes ut alta stet nive candidum. 


The third line is Archilochian, measured thus : the first 
and third feet are spondees or iambi ; the second and fourth, 
iambi, with a csesura remaining ; as, 

Silvse laborantes geluque. 

The fourth line is lesser Alcaic, measured by two dactyles 
and two trochees ; as, 

Fluurina constlterlnt aciito. 


This is called the Horatian stanza, because Horace dc- 
lighted in it above all others. More than one third of his 
odes are in this stanza. 

No. II. The stanza of four lines. The first three lines 
are Sapphic, measured by a trochee, spondee, dactyle, and 
then two trochees ; as, 

Jam satls terrls nlvis atque dlrae. 

.11 II 

The fourth line is Adonic, consisting of a dactyle and spon- 
dee ; as, 

Terruit urbem. 

No. III. The stanza of two lines. The first is Glyconic, 
measured by a spondee, choriambus, and pyrrhichius ; as, 

Slc te dlva potens Cypri. 

I I 

Or thus ; Slc te dlva potens Cvprl. 


The second is Asclepiadean, consisting of a spondee, two 
choriambi, and a pyrrhichius ; as, 

Slc fratres Helenae lucida sldera. 

Or thus ; Slc fratres Helenas lucida sldera. 



No. IV. The stanza of two lines. The first has six 
iambi, the second has four. But sometiraes a spondee, 
dactyle, anapsest, or tribrachys, is admitted into the odd 
places ; that is, in the first, third, and fifth. A tribrachys 
is also found in the even places. The first nine Epodes are 
in this stanza. 

No. V. The stanza of four lines ; three Asclepiads and 
one Glyconic. See No. III. 

No. VI. The stanza of four lines. The first two are 
Asclepiadean, the third is Pherecratian, consisting of a 
spondee, dactyle, and spondee ; as, 

Grato Pyrrha siib antro. 

I I 

The fourth line is Glyconic, No. III. 

No. VII. The stanza of one line. Asclepiadean ; mea- 
sured by a spondee, two choriambi, and a pyrrhichius ; as, 

Maecenas atavls edlte regibus. 

I l I 

Or more easily, by a spondee, a dactyle, and a caesura, 
and then two dactyles ; thus, 

Mcecenas atavls edite reglbus. 


No. VIII. The stanza of two lines. A hcxameter, anc 
the last four feet of a hexameter ; as, 

Laudabtint alil claram Rhodon aut Mitylenen. 


Aut Ephesum bimarisve Corlnthl. 

I I i 

No. IX. The stanza of one line, measured by a spondee, 
three choriambi, and a pyrrhichius ; as, 

Tu ne quaesierls sclre nefas quem mihi quem tibi. 

No. X. The stanza of one line, containing six iambi, or 
other feet, in the odd places. 


No. XI. The stanza of tvvo lines. The first is measured 

by a choriambus and a bacchlus ; the second, by three 

choriambi and a bacchius. 

Lydia Jlc per omnes, 

Te Deos oro Sybarin cur properes amando. 


Observe, however, in the second line, that the first choriam- 
bus is imperfect, having its third syllable long instead of 

No. XII. The stanza of two lines ; the first line hexameter, 
the second containing six iambi, admitting other feet in the 
odd places. 

No. XIII. The stanza of two lines ; the first a hexame- 
ter, the second having tvvo dactyles and a caesura ; as, 

Arboribusque comse. 

No. XIV. The stanza of three lines. The first is a hex- 
ameter ; the second has four iambi, admitting spondees in 
the odd places ; and the third line has tvvo dactyles and a 
csesura, as in the preceding No. 

No. XV. The stanza of tvvo lines. The first line con- 
tains seven feet, of vvhich the first four are either dactyles 
or spondees ; the last three are trochees ; as, 

Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni. 

The second line has five iambi and a remaining syllable, 
admitting spondees as before ; as, 

Trahuntque slccas machinse carlnas. 

I l I l I 

No. XVI. The stanza of tvvo lines. The flrst has three 
iambi, preceded by a long syllable ; as, 

Non ebur nequ' aureum. 


The second has five iambi and a csesura, admitting 
spondees in the odd places. 




This ode was written by Horace, after the completion of his 
works, as a dedication of them to Msecenas, his patron and 
friend. The poet describes with much felicity the different 
views of men with respect to happiness ; and pourtrays some of 
their ruling passions. In conelusion he compliments Msece- 
nas on his taste for the fine arts, and his love of learning, 
by intimating that he shall not consider his own claims to rank 
with the Lyric poets established, without the sanction of his 

1. Atavis edite regibus : l descended of royal ancestors.' 
Msecenas, so long distinguished as the favourite of Augustus, 
and still more so for the protection and encouragement which 
he afforded to men of learning and of genius, was descended 
from the ancient kings of Etruria or Tuscany. To him, says 
Mr. Sanadon, the present world is in a great measure indebted 
for all the wit and learning of the Augustan age ; and even at 
this day the name of Msecenas is a title not unworthy of persons 
of the noblest character, who know, like him, how to animate 
the spirit of emulation among writers by their favour and gene- 

2. O ct prctsidium : With much propriety Horace addresses 
him as his guardian and delightful horour ; since Msecenas not 
only procured his pardon from Augustus, for fighting against 
him with Brutus and the republicans at Philippi, but even 
broughthim into peculiar favour with that illustrious personage. 

6. Dominos : this word must be referred to deos ; and is not 
the object ofevehit, as some have eupposed, applying it to the 

7. Hunc: sc.juvat; i. e. one ambitious of political distinction. 

8. Tergeminis tollere honoribus : ' to raise him to the highest 
honours.' The word tergeminis is probably used in reference 
to the highest grades of ornce among the Romans, viz. the 
iEdileship, the Praetorship, and the Consulship. 

9. lllum : sc. juvat ; i. e. another, whose ruling passion is 

10. Quidquid . . . areis : l all the grain that is collected from 
Lybian threshing-floors.' Lybia was a part of Africa particu- 
larly fertile in grain. 

ODES. BOOK I. 259 

12. Attalicis conditionibus : ■ by the wealth of Attalus ; ' he 
was king of Pergamus, and immensely rich. Having no chil- 
dren, he made the commonwealth of Rome his heir. 

13. Nunquam dimoveas : 'you can never induce.' — Trabe 
Cyprid : ' in a vessel of Cyprus.' This epithet is used because 
Cyprus was at that time so distinguished for its commerce. 

14. Myrtoum : The Myrtoan sea is a part of the iEgean, so 
called from the island Myrtus. 

20. Solido . . . die : i. e. to break in upon the hours of the day 
usually devoted to labour, and indulge in drinking at his ease.. 

25. Sub Jove frigido : by remaining all night 'in the cold air' 
the huntsman shows the strength of his ruling passion. 

29. J\le : Wakefield and some others think that the whole 
tenour of the ode requires Te in this place, as referring to the 
poefs patron Moecenas, and have substituted that word : but the 
manuscripts do not authorize this change. The meaning pro- 
bably is, the ivy crowns, bestoived as the rexcard of learned men 
(or of successful poets), delight me above all ihings. 

34. Lesboiim : Horace calls the lyre ' Lesbian,' because Al- 
caBus, the most eminent of the lyric poets, and some others, be- 
longed to Lesbos, 

For an explanation of the kind of verse used in this and the 
subsequent odes, the student is referred to the metrical key. 


The early commentators were no doubt in an error in sup- 
posing this ode to have been written in compliment to Octavius 
upon tlie prodigies, which appeared soon after the assassination 
of his uncle Julius Caesar. For at that time Horace was at 
Athens, and he afterwards espoused the cause of Brutus ; and 
it is hardly probable while enlisted under his banners that the 
poet would have addressed a prayer for the preservhtion of Oc- 
tavius, or invoked vengeance upon hi3 own party. 

The following historical facts, mentioned by Dion Cassius, 
explain several passages in the ode, and give a much more 
natural occasion for writing it. 

Octavius received the surname of Augustus on the 17th of 
January in the year of Rome 727 ; and on the night following 
there was a very uncommon inundation of the Tiber. A short 
time before this, Octavius had addressed the Senate, and inti- 
mated his intention of resigning the supreme power. He said 
his object in assuming it was to avenge the death of Caesar, and 
to free Rome from the calamities under which it was suffering. 
The poet therefore avails himself of these incidents to ad- 
dress Augustus, as the tutelary divinity of Rome ; and after 
complimenting him very delicately under the character of Mer- 
cury, exhorts him to cherish the blessings of peace at home, 
and to defend the Roman people frora foreign foes. 



6. Scecuhun Pyrrhce : Pyrrha was the wife of Deucalion, king 
of Thessaly, in whose time the Deluge came. Pyrrha may well 
be thought to have complained of k strange prodigies,' which 
tlie Romans were apprehensive were about to be renewed. 

13. Flavum . . . undis : The Tiber iscalled 'yellow' from the 
colour of the sand which it blended with its waters when agi- 
tated.— Retortis : ' being driven back.' The Tiber flows mto 
the Tuscan sea, which, being driven up by a violent tempest 
against the current of the river already swollen by rains and 
snow, seemed to flow backward.— Littore Etrusco : ' from the 
shore of the Tuscan sea.' 

15. Monumenta regis : i. e. the monument of Numa Fom- 

pilius. . . . „. 

17. llioe : the construction is, dum amms uxorius jactat llias, 
nimium querenti, se fore ultorem necis Csesaris et vaguslabi- 
tur ripd sinistrd, Jove non probante. Iha, called also Rhea 
Silvia, was the mother of Romulus. She was thrown by Amu- 
lius into the Tiber, or rather into the Anio, near where lt emp- 
ties into the Tiber, which is therefore called her husband, and 
made to avenge her wrongs. Ilia may be said to have carned 
her complaints concerning the death of Csesar too far ; smce 
they brought such destruction upon Rome ; which Jupiter, as 
its tutelary divinity, did not approve. p 

Doering considers nimium an adjective agreemg with ulto- 
rem ; " nimium non ad querenti, sed ad ultorem referendum esse 
puto ; nimius enim fuit ultor Tiberis, sive modum in ulciscendo 
uxons suae dolore excessit, dum tantam ruinam Romae sedificns 
moliebatur." This certainly appears very consistent. 

Rome was chiefly built on the left or Eastern bank ot the li- 
ber, sinistrd ripd, which, being somewhat lower than the other, 
was peculiarly exposed to the inundation. 

23 Vitio parenium : i. e. the youth would be few m number 
in consequenfee of the civil wars in which their fathers en- 

^27 'Miniis audientem : Vesta was displeased with the Ro- 
mans', on account of the death of Csesarand of the civil wars in 
which they engaged. 

36. Auctor : i. e. Mars, who, as the father of Romulus, was 
considered the founderofthe Roman nation. _ 

41. Mutatd juvenemjlgurd : i. e. having assumed the torm ot 
the youthful Augustus. 

42. Ales . . . fikte Maios : Mercury. 


Horace and Virgil were closely united by the bonds of affec- 
tion and friendship, as well as by similarity of taste and kindred 

^This^ode was written on the embarkation of Virgil for 
Athens, where he expected to meet the Emperor, on his return 

ODES. BOOK I. 261 

from Asia. Virgil had intended to accompany Augustus in 
his Eastern expedition ; but was prevented by ill health. He 
hovvever met him at Athens, but he was soon after taken ill at 
Megara, and brougbt back to Italy at his own request, and 
landed at Brundusium ; where he died a few days after. So 
that this was in fact Horace's farewell address to his friend. 
He expresses great interest and feeling on the occasion; and 
even goes so far as to execrate the invention of ships, and to 
call the art of navigation impious, as violating the intention of 
the gods. 

2. Fratres Helenai : Castor and Pollux, sons of Leda. 

3. Ventorum . . . pater : i. e. iEolus, whom Homer represents 
as confining the winds in a bag, and Virgil as confining them 
in a cave. 

4. Iapyga : The Idpyx was a westerly wind, and the most 
favourable for those sailing from Ital.y to Athens. So called 
from Iapyges, the inhabitants of Apulia, from which this wind 
blew towards Athens. 

14. Hyadas : The Hyddes are a constellation at the head of 
the Bull, commonly known by the name of the Seven Stars. 
They are called tristes, because their rising and setting are 
frequently attended with rain. 

18. JSlonstra natantia : ' the hideous monsters of the deep 
swimming around him.' The ancients feared above all things 
a death which deprived them of a burial ; as in that case they 
were not permitted to pass the Styx and be at rest, for a hun- 
dred years. 

20. Acroceraunia : from ilxgov, ' the summit,' and xiguwog, ' thun- 
der ' ; a high promontory in Epirus, between the Hadriatic and 
tlie Ionian sea, whose summit was often struck with thunder : 
called infames, because Augustus came near being shipwrecked 

26. Nrfas : l O impious ! ' This pointing was adopted by Didot 
to avoid the flatness of joining vetitum with nefas, in the usual 

27. Iapeti genus : i. e. Prometheus. See Class. Dict. 

32. Semoti . . . gradum : ' and the necessity of death, before 
slow and at a distance, quickened its step.' 


In the first part of this ode the poet describes the joy and 
beauty of returning spring. He proceeds to exhort his friend 
Sextius to seize the pleasures that offer themselves, and accord- 
ing to the philosophy of the Epicureans, he reminds him of the 
shortness of ]ife, as a motive for enjoying present gratifications. 

5. Cytherea choros ducit Venus : this refers to the feasts of 
Venus, which were celebrated by young women with dances 
and hymns in honour of the goddess. They began on the first 

262 NOTES. 

of April at the rising of the moon, imminente lund, and continued 
three nights successively. 

11. Immolare : So deeply were the ancient heathens im- 
pressed with the idea of the goodness of some overruling power, 
manifested in the return of the seasons, that they offered stated 
sacrifices in gratitude for this proof of continued care. 

18. JVon regna . . . talis : ' you will not choose a king of 
the feast by a cast of the dice.' This refers to the practice of 
choosing some one to preside over them at their feasts, whom 
they were all bound to obey, and obliged to drink as he direct- 
ed. This person was styled ' king ' ; and was chosen by throwing 
the dice, which had on their different sides the figures of 
Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, Venus, and Diana. He who first 
threw a Venus presided. 


Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a distinguished general, 
and so much esteemed by Augustus, that he gave him his 
daughter Julia in marriage. Agrippa wished his achievements 
to be celebrated by Horace, who, while he excuses himself 
from the more laborious and responsible task of writing a for- 
mal poem, ingeniously pays him the most flattering compliment. 
He intimates that Agrippa's martial glory deserves the strains 
of a loftier genius than his own ; that his was the lyric muse, 
and fit only for light or trifling subjects ; but that Varius, gifted 
with the sublimest inspirations of the epic muse, would sing his 
praises in strains worthy of the subject. 

Most commentatois have thought this ode merely an excuse 
of Horace for not doing that which he had no disposition to 
do. But the fulness of the praises bestowed renders this 
conjecture superfluous. It is probably only an instance, among 
many, of his artfully performing what he pretends to decline 

2. Mxonii carminis aliti : ' that bird of Homeric strains.' 
Aliti refers to Vario, in the dative case, used instead of the ab- 
lative ; as neque cernitur ulli, for ab ullo. Virg. iEn. I. 440. 
Homer belonged to Smyrna, a city of Maaonia, or Lydia. 

7. Duplicis : ' crafty, double-dealing.' This epithet is very 
aptly applied to Ulysses. The genitive Ulyssei comes from 
Ulysseus, tbe ancient form. 

8. JVec . . . domum : i. e. nor the cruel murders committed by 
the family of Pelops, which have furnished so fruitful a subject 
for the tragic muse of Sophocles. 


L. Munatius Plancus, a gentleman of fortune and of consular 
dignity, had joined the republican party with Brutus and Cas- 

ODES. BOOK I. 263 

sius i ; but after the defeat of his party at Philippi he joined Au- 
gustus He was cordially received, and treated with great 
frS b /. A ugustus; but being afterwards induced by the 
fnends of Antony to believe, that with the aid of Cleopatra the 
repubhcans might still be successful, he went over to^Antony! 
He found, however, that things were less favourable than thev 
had been represented, and returned again to the ruling party. 
After this he was not very cordially received by Au<4tus 
And feelmg that he did not stand well at court, he retfred to 
his country seat at Tibur. Here, probably, under some appre- 
hensions for his safety Plancus became melancholy and £. 
py. Horace, his fnend, writes this ode to him ; offerin ff suc h 
reasons as his ingenuity suggested, to induce him to abandon 
h s ,11 bochngs and become cheerful. A social glass with his 

chol ' ^ 78 ' mUCh t0Wards remov W his melan- 

InLtf 1 » U n U ? Um °P us . est: <whos e only employment is.'- 
lntacta? Palladis arces : ,. e. Athens. 

7. Undique decerptam : i. e. '-gathered from any quarter.' But 
th,s ,s not very satisfactory Doering and some^ other read 
Indtque which removes the difficulty felt by all commentators 
Ihat is, they spend their time in celebrating- Athens, a*id in 

thenc? ^ *** the ° Uve Wreaths g ath ^ed from 

^f^/T?^ i h ° norem J r Ar - os and MycenaB are said to be 
celebrated ',,, honor of Juno,' because she was particularly 
worshipped m these cties. ^ 

10. Patiens : This epithet is applied to Lacedeemon in allu- 

Sed andto e t V he ri r V ° f *FPr l ° Which * S inhabitants ^ 
mittea, ana to the ngour of lts laws 

11. Percussit: <has charmed.' The poet means to sav 
after al, none of these places have so much delighted me as 
your de hghtful residence at Tibur, near the fountain of l\ hu l 
nea; where the cascades, the groves, the melody of birds and 
a pure atmosphere, unite their charms. ' 

21; Teucer . . fugeret : • when Teucer fled from his native 
Salamis and from his father.' Telamon, king of Salamis sent 
h,s two sons Teucer and Ajax, to the Trojan war, undTr 'an iS 
mnction that ne,ther should return without his brother Wh en 
Teucer returned, after the death of Ajax, he was banished bv hS 
father and went to Cyprus, where he 'built another Salamis 
The poet here remmds Plancus, that Teucer did not aTow 
himselftobedepressed, although banished from his home and 
country ; and that he, therefore, should call some of hisTriends 
about h,m, and regain his elasticity of spirit. 

father.' ^™ parenU "' ' f ° rtune ' more kind than ™Y 

shwi^TTtl 1 ^ W ° uld build a new Sala ^is, which 
name" o^llTe^ t0 "^" ft "^' t0 which the 

264 NOTES. 


In this ode, addressed to Lydia, a female of great beauty, but 
of worthless character, Horace draws the picture of a youth 
who has become the victim of a deep and destructive passion. 

2. Sybarin . . . perdere : ' why are you hastening to destroy 
Sybaris by cherishing his guilty passion ? ' 

Sybaris, a youtli of fortune and of ingenuous character, hav- 
ingyielded to the allurements of sensuality, had abandoned his 
manly exercises and his former companions, and was hastening 
to destruction by that fatal infatuation which has led more 
youths to perdition than the whole catalogue of other vices. 

G. Lupatis: the Romans had a kind of curb bits called/rceni 
lupati, from their resemblance to the uneven teeth of a wolf, 

8. OUvum : the ancients anointed their bodies with oil before 
commencing their gymnastic exercises. 

10. Livida : i. e. bruised by wearing heavy armour. 

14. Filium . . . Thetidis : Achilles. Thetis, the mother of 
Achilles, was warned by an oracle, that, if he went to the siege 
of Troy with the ofher Grecian princes, he would be slain there. 
To prevent him from going, she caused him to be clad in female 
attire, and sent to the court of Lycomedes, that he might pass 
for one of his daughters and escape discovery. But as another 
oracle had declared that Troy could never be taken without 
Achilles, Ulysses was sent in quest of him, and had the art to 
discover him by placing a splendid sword among some female 
ornaments exhibited before the daughters of Lycomedes, which 
was instantly seized by Achilles. 

16. Cultus : his dress : i. e. a boy's dress. 


It would seem, from the tenour of this ode, that something had 
happened to disturb and depress the mind of Thaliarchus ; and 
that Horace, probably at this time on a visit to him at his coun- 
try seat, near mount Soracte in Tuscany, about twenty-six 
miles from Rome, wrote it to enliven his friend. 

It is highly coloured with our poefs Epicurean principles, and 
especially enforces his favourite doctrine, that man should not 
trouble himself about futurity, and that all he has to do is to 
make the most of present enjoyments, and to leave the rest to 
the gods. 

Some have supposed Thaliarchus to be a fictitious name ; and 
that the whole is an imitation of an ode of Alcseus. 

8. Diotd : this was an earthen vessel, containing about nine 
gallons, with two ears, or handles, by which it was carried.— 
Sabind: i. e. in-which Sabine wine has been put. 


14. Quewi . . . appone : ' every day which fortune shall be- 
stow, set down to your gain.' — Quemcunque is divided by Tmesis. 
16. Puer: 4 while young.' 

18. Campus, et arece : i. e. the Campus Martius, and other 
open places, as courts and squares, in which the young of both 
sexes used to meet for play. 

19. Lenesque . . . susurri: i. e. the soft whispers oflovers, who 
met at^these scenes of youthful recreation. 


This is a hymn to Mercury, supposed to have been written for 
one of his festivals. There seems to be nothing remarkable in 
it, except its peculia* elegance of expression, and its great 
sweetness and harmony of numbers. It is devoted to the praises 
of Mercury, and repeats his titles, and exalts his services. He 
is represented as fashioning the first race of men, and culti- 
vating their understandings by the study of the arts and sci- 
ences ; while he forms their bodies to grace and strength by the 
exercises of the palcestra. 

1. JYepos Atlantis : Mercury was the son of Jupiter and Maia, 
the daughter of Atlas. 

2. Recentum : i. e. rude and uncultivated in the early ages. 
6. Lyroe, parentem : Mercury is said to have invented the 

lyre from accidentally finding a tortoise-shell on a beach, with 
nothing of the body remaining but a few sinews, stretched 
across the shell. These produced a sound as the wind swept 
through them, and conveyed the idea which gave birth to the 
Lyre, called testudo from this circumstance. Lyric poets are 
also called viri JSlercuriales, as if under the peculiar guardian- 
ship of Mercury. 

11. Viduus pharetrd : i. e. a long time ago, when you were 
but a boy, and Apollo was terrifying you with his threats, to 
make you restore the cows you had mischievously conveyed 
away ; he perceived you had stolen his quiver also, and burst 
into a laugh. 

13. Atridas . . .fefellit: Homersays thatPriam went through 
the Grecian camp, with his presents for the redemption of the 
body of his son Hector, unseen by the sentinels and every other 
person, till he arrived at the tent of Achilles. 

14. llio : The Latins used llium in the neuter gender, and 
Jlios, in the feminine. 


Leuconoe" is probably a fictitious name, under which some 

favourite of the poet is addressed. He entreats her to avoid the 

foolish and wicked custom, which at that time prevailed at Rome, 

of consulting astrologers to know the future ; and endeavours to 


266 NOTES. 

show, that true wisdom consists in doing our duty and enjoying 
present blessings, without troubling ourselves about what is 
beyond our power to know. 

1. Tu ne qucesieris : ' do not attempt to discover.' < 

2. Nec Babylonios . . . numeros : ' nor try the Babylonian 
numbers.' The Chaldeans were famous for their skill in mathe- 
matics, and particularly in astronomy. And some of them pre- 
tended that they could foretell, by their knowledg-e of the stars, 
the fortunes of any one, the time of whose nativity was given 
them. Their influence became so baneful and mischievous, that 
they were banished from Italy by a formal decree. 

They had a set of tables for casting nativities, which Horace 
terms Babylonios tentare numeros. 

5. Qwce . . . Tyrrhenum : ' which now dashes the waves of 
the Tuscan sea against the rocky shores.' By pumicibus we 
may understand the rocks corroded and worn away, so as to re- 
semble pumice stones. — Debilitat : ' weakens, or exhausts the fu- 
ry of,' by dashing against the rocks. 

6. Liques : The ancients used to filtrate their wine, to ren- 
der it more pure and delicate. 

7. Reseces : ' forbear to indulge.' 


This ode has been called by some a hymn to Jupiter. The 
principal object, however, seems to have been the exaltation of 
Augustus, which is most effectually accomplished, though indi- 
rectly, by blending his praises with those of the gods and of 
deified heroes. 

Dion, Book XV, says, that, after the victory at Actium, in 
which Cleopatra, Mark Antony, and the Egvptian fleet were 
defeated, it was decreed by the senate, that mention of Augus- 
tus should be made in their solemn hymns, as well as of 
the immortal gods. This may account for the peculiarity of 
this ode. 

4. lmago : i. e. echo, the 'image' of the voice. 

7. Unde : ' from which mountain.' — vocalem: 'while sing- 

13. Quid priiis . . . laudibus : ' what shall I celebrate before 
the wonted praises of Jupiter, parent of all?' 

16. Horis : ' seasons.' 

18. Simile aut secundum : ' equal or second in glory.' 

19. Proximos : although no one should hold the second 
or third place, yet whoever filled the fourth place would 
be next to him who held the first. So Pallas, however 
far removed from Jove, holds precedence of the other di- 

S2. Virgo : Diana, the huntress. 
26. Hunc : Castor. — Illum : Pollux. 
31. Voluere: i. e. Castor and Pollux. 

ODES. BOOK I. 267 

38. Superante Pceno : i. e. when Hannibal, the Carthaginian, 
was victorious at Cannae. 

41. Hunc . . . utilem : ' this Fabricius, and Curius Dentatus, 
with hair uncombed, a valiant warrior.' Curius disdained the 
refinements of polished society, as marks of effeminacy. 

43. JJpto . . . cum lare : ' with a house proportioned to his 
farm.' It was a common remark of Curius, that he was a bad 
citizen, who was not contented with seven acres of land. 

46. Marcelli : this was probably that Marcellus who was five 
times consul, and who first taught the Romans that Hannibal 
was not invincible. The poefs meaning is, that the glory of 
the ancient Marcellus, far from being tarnished by the lapse of 
time, gains new lustre in one of his descendants (i. e. the 
nephew of Augustus), and, as a young shoot from an old stock, 
it rises by insensible degrees to its full strength and proportions. 

47. Julium sidus : This undoubtedly refers to the young 
Marcellus, then scarce seventeen years old, whose bright and 
opening virtues already reflected glory on the Julian family ; 
and not, as some have supposed, to Julius Csesar. This young 
Marcellus, it will be recollected, was the son of Octavia, the 
sister of Augustus, who had adopted him as his successor; and 
the youth to whom Virgil applied those beautiful and touching 
lines in ^En. vi. 882, 886. Doering thus explains it : " inter 
omnes, sc. alios Romanorum juvenes. Juliurn sidus : juvenis 
Marcellus, sideris instar virtutum suarum splendore gentem 
suam Juliam illustrans, spes ac decus gentis Juliss." 

50. Tibi cura . . . regnes : ' to you, O Jove, has the guidance 
of great Augustus been committed by the fates : so reign, I 
beseech you, that his empire may be second to yours.' That 
is, as expressed in verses 57 and 58, may you rule in heaven 
and he upon the earth. 

55. Subjectos Orientis oro& : * dwelling in the extreme borders 
of the East.' 

56. Seras et Indos : ' the Serse and Indians,' the- most remote 
nations of Asia. 


When the Romans, after all their sufferings and privations 
by the civil wars, were nevertheless concerting measures for a 
renewal of them, Horace addresses them, or rather the com- 
monwealth, under the figure of a vessel, which, although shat- 
tered and dismantled, was preparing to trust itself again to 
an unknown and dangerous sea. The allegory is continued 
with much force and beauty throughout the ode, by which he 
endeavours to dissuade his fellow citizens from their dangerous 
enterprise, and to induce them to make sure of the blessings of 
peace which were offered under the government of Augustus. 

1. Novijluctus : i. e. ' new waves ' of civil dissension. 

268 NOTES. 

3. Portum: this harbour means the peace offered by Augus- 

4. JVudvm remigio latus : the force of the republican party 
was greatly diminished by the loss of several of the principal 
leaders ; they had been defeated at Philippi ; Sextus Pompeius 
had fled ; and others vvere despondent. 

9. Lintea : i. e. the sails, vvhich were rent. 

10. Di : i. e. the tutelary gods, whose images were usually 
placed on the stern of the ship, he says, had forsaken her. 
Their images were broken and washed away. 

11. Pontica pinus : the pine from Pontus was most esteemed 
for ship-building. 

17. JYuper sollicitum . . . levis : i. e. may you, who were but re- 
cently an object of great anxiety to me, when in danger of being 
lost, now that you are saved from wreck, an object of tender 
concern and care, avoid the seas flovving among the shining 
Cyclades. These islands are termed nitentes, from the white 
marble, which rendered them very conspicuous and beautiful. 
They are about fifty in number, and so near together as to ren- 
der the navigation among them extremely dangerous ; and are 
therefore to be avoided. 


It is supposed that Horace addressed this ode to Marlc 
Antony, at the time he was ensnared by the love of Cleopatra,. 
and was meditating an expedition vvith her against Italy, that 
he might make her mistress of the Roman empire, to dissuade 
him from that desperate enteiprise. Torrentius says, that he 
saw an ancient manuscript, in which the title of this ode was. 
Ad AUxandrum Paridem. And there is little doubt but a pa- 
rallel is here intended betvveen Paris and Antony ; each of 
whom embarked for his ovvn countrj^ vvith a foreign queen, to 
the ruin of himself and those connected with him. 

1. Pastor : Paris, in consequence of his mother's dream, that 
he would be the destruction of Troy and of Priam's house, was 
sent avvay as soon as he was born, and committed to a shepherd 
on mount Ida, to be brought up to that mode of life, in igno- 
rance of his parentage. After he was received and acknow- 
ledged at court, he was frequently called Pasior Dardanus, 
'the Trojan Shepherd.' 

2. Perfidus : Paris vvas a visitor at the palace of Menelaus, at 
the time he committed the treacherous and infamous violation 
of hospitality, which gained him this epithet. 

5. Mald . . . avi : ' with inauspicious omen.' The Romans 
frequently took their omens from birds. 

7. Conjurata : the Grecian princes assembled vvith their forces 
at Aulis, vvhere they bound themselves by an oath not to re- 
turn till they had destroyed the kingdom of Priara, and avenged 
the insult offered to their nation. 



"21. Laertiaden: Ulysses. 

26. JYon auriga piger : « a spirited driver,' when occasion 

32. JYon hoc . . . tum : i. e. quite different from what you 
boasted to your beauteous Helen. 

33. Iracunda . . . Achillei : i. e. the quarrel of Achilles 
with Agamemnon will, for a while, defer the fatal day for Troy 
and the Trojan ladies. Females are mentioned as particularly 
objects of pity in the sacking of a city. Achillei from the old 


Palinodia signifies a ' recantation,' or the retracting of what 
has been said. It seems, our poet, having been supplanted by 
a more successful competitor for the favour of Tyndaris, the 
daughter of Gratidia, wrote an abusive and scurrilous ode to her. 
He now wishes to retract what he had done, and to reinstate 
nimselfin the favour of Tyndaris, to whom he was much at- 
tached. He pleads, as bis excuse, the influence of irresistible 
passion, and denies ever having indulged the feelings expressed 
m his former ode. 

I. Matre pulchrd : The former ode is said to have beeun 
thus : fo 

O matre turpi filia turpior ! 
^ 2. Quem . . . Hadriano : q U em cunque is divided by Tmesis. 
You will destroy, in any way you please, mv slanderous Iam- 
bics, whether you see fit to throw them into the fire, or the Ha- 
dnatic sea.' 

5. Dindymene: i. e. Cybele, so called from Dindymus, or 
Dmdymis, a mountain in Phrygia consecrated to her service 
and worship. 

II. Tremendo . . . tumultu : <with his dread thunderbolts J 
13. Fcrtur Prometheus . . . desectam. : i. e. Prometheus, when 

on account of the failure of his materials, which were exhausted 
in makmg other ammals, he was compelled to blend in the first 
formed man a particle (undique desectam) taken from every other 
animal, is said also to have placed in our breast somethino- f 
the fury of the raging lion. & 

Therefore, the poet would argue, he may justly hope for par- 
don for an act proceeding from an infirmity of human nature. 

17. Thyesten : the dreadful effects of passion may be learned 
from the story of Thyestes. See Class. Dict. 

22. Pectoris . . .fervor: « furious anger.' 

25. JYunc ego . . . tristia : how far Horace succeeded in re- 
gaimng the favour of Tyndaris, we learn from the followino- 
ode to her. ° 


270 NOTES. 


Horace having reinstated himself in the favour of Tyndaris, 
invites her to his country seat, where he ofFers her retirement 
and a cool retreat from the heat of dog-days. 

I. Lucreiilem mutat Lycceo Faunus : by Hypallage for mutat 
Lycceum Lucretili. Horace's country seat was near the foot 
of mount Lucretllis, which, he says, Faunus finds so plea- 
sant that he often forsakes his Arcadian mountain Lycaeus, 
and comes to visit it. He considers himself under the protec- 
tion of that god, who defends his goats from the extremes of the 

4. Usque : i. e. semper ; ' always.' 

7. Olentis uxores mariti : i. e. the she-goats. 

10. Utcunque : ' as often as.' — Fistuld : i. e. with the ' pipe ' of 

II. Usticce cubantis : 'of sloping Usticse,' a hill near Lu- 

18. Fide Teid : i. e. on the lyre of Anacreon, or in the style of 
Anacreon, whose native city was Teos. 

19. Dices . . . Circen : ' You shall sing of Penelope and the 
fair Circe, both in love with the same man.' The meaning of 
vitream is the same in this place as carulea, or marina, referring 
probably to the transparency and beauty of glass, or sea-water. 
Circe is called by Homer the sea-coloured nymph. 

22. Duces : i. e. largiiis bibes ; 'shall drink freely.' — Seme- 
leius Thyoneus : Thyoneus is a name of Bacchus, son of Se- 
mele ; intimatirg that there would be no quarrelling over their 
glasses, as there had been once by his rival, which caused 
Tyndaris to dismiss him. 

24. Protervos : ' rude, wanton rakes.' 


Commentators are in doubt what Varus is addressed in 
this ode. But it is generally supposed to be Q,uinctilius Varus, 
the general, and not the poet of Cremona, of the same name, 
whose death is so deeply lamented by our poet in the twentieth 
ode of this book. 

Horace exhorts him to plant the vine first of all, on his 
grounds at Tibur, where he was engaged in planting trees. 

3. Siccis : ' to the temperate.' 

6. Quis non te potiiis : sc. laudat. 

8. Centaurea . . . rixa ; this refers to a tradition, that Piri- 
thoiis, king of the Laplthae, a people of Thessaly, invited the 
Centaurs \o his wedding feast ; and when the parties became 
heated with wine. the Centaurs insulted the wives of the Lapi- 
thse, and a quarrel ensued, in which they were slain by the 

ODES. BOOK I. 271 

9. Sithoniis : the Sithonians vvere a people of Thrace, put 
here for the Thracians generally. — JVon levis : * hostile.' The 
Thracians being very intemperate, and committing all man- 
ner of crimes in their seasons of excess, Bacchus is said to 
have been hostile to them for abusing his gifts. 

10. Quumfas . . . avidi : the construction is, Quum illi avidi 
libidinum discernunt fas atque nefas exiguo fne. 

12. JVec variis . . . rapiam : ' nor will I expose to view thy 
secrets covered with various leaves.' 

There were certain articles sacred to Bacchus kept secret in 
a chest or basket, which was covered with vine-leaves. This 
was brought out of the temple, and carried about during the 
celebration of his orgies. 

13. Tene : ' restrain.' 


It seems that Msecenas had intimated to Horace his intention 
of making him a visit at his country-seat at Tibur, in the Sa- 
bine territory, about twenty or twenty-five miles from Rome. 

The poet intends to give his illustrious friend a welcome to 
his house, but to prevent any disappointment in one accustomed 
to the choice wines and other luxuries of the court at Rome, he 
tells him he will find but plain fare. 

1. Vile . . . Sabinum : ' cheap Sabine wine.' 

2. Grazcd . . . ptausus : ' which I sealed in a Grecian jar the 
very day on which you received such applause in the theatre.' 
— Testd: the Romans, when most careful topreserve theirwine, 
and to correct its crudity, put it into earthen jars, which 
were at first imported from Greece. — Levi : from lino ; when 
the casks were filled, they were sealed or closed up with pitch 
or wax. Although the Sabine wine was by no means worthy of 
so much care and expense, yet, as on the occasion referred to, 
Maecenas, on making his appearance at the theatre for the 
first time after a severe illness, had been received with accla- 
mations and shouts of joy, Horace had preserved the date in 
this way ; and now pays a very delicate compliment to his pa- 
tron by alluding to that circumstance. 

5. Paterni fuminis : the Tiber flows from Etruria, where 
the ancestors of Maecenas dwelt. 

8. Imago : ' the echo.' 

9. Prcelo . . . Caleno : ' by a Calenian wine-press.' The best 
presses were made at Cales. The sense seems to be this ; ' You 
will drink the choice Caecubian wine, at home if you please, or 
where it is to be had ; but I have neither Falcrnian nor For- 
mian wine.' Some suppose this to be a hint for Maecenas to 
bring some wine with him, better than was to be found at Tibur. 

272 NOTES. 


This is a hymn of praise and thanksgiving to Apollo and 
Diana, to be sung by a choir of twenty-seven young men, and 
another choir of the same number of young virgins, on a day 
consecrated to the worship of these tutelary divinities. The 
poet seems to take the part of a priest of Apollo, and to dictate 
to each choir what to sing. 

1. Tenerce . . . virgines : the choir of virgins is first exhorted 
to sing the praises of Diana. 

2. Inionsum . . . Cynthium : then the choir of young men is 
exhorted to sing the praises of Apollo. 

3. Latonamque . . . Jovi : ' Sing too Latona, the mother of 
both, supremely loved by almighty Jove.' 

5. Lcetam : sc. Dianam ; ' delighting in.' 

9. Tempe : to this delightful vale Apollo retired afler he slew 
the serpent Python. 

11. Insignemque . . . lyrd : ' and the shoulder of Apollo, 
graced with his quiver and the lyre received from his brother.' 
Mercury, the inventor of the lyre, presented it to Apollo. 

13. Hic : Apollo ; motus vestrd prece aget bellum, &.c. 


In this elegant and beautiful ode, Horace describes to his 
friend Fuscus, the rhetorician, the advantages of uprightness 
of character and purity of life. These are the best defence, and 
affbrd the greatest security a man can have. 

1. Inttger . . . purus : l a man of upright life, and free from 

5. Syrtes . . . astuosas : the poet does not here speak of the 
marine Syrtes, but the sandy deserts of Africa ; where the scorch- 
ing heat of the sun renders the region at times impassable. 
JEstuosas may refer to the heat of the sands, from ozstus ; or 
to the fluctuating nature of the quicksands, which are driven 
about by the wind in billows, like water. The word Syrles 
comes from av^ uv, ' to drag, or sweep along.' 

7. Fabulosus : the river Hydaspes is so called from the fabu- 
lous reports of its washing gold and gems along with its water. 

8. Lambit : for alluit. 

15. JuboB tellus : Mauritania, which was subject to Juba. 

17. Pigris . . . campis : he first speaks of the frigid zone, then 
of the torrid. 

22. Terrd domibus negatd: the ancients entertained the opin- 
ion, that the torrid zone was uninhabitable, on account of the 
heat, which errour modern experience has corrected. 

ODES. BOOK I. 273 


Q,uinctilius Varus, a distinguished poet of Cremona, was the 
intimate and mutual friend of Horace and Virgil; but perhaps 
endeared to no one more than to the latter. He died in the 
seven hundred and twenty-ninth year of Rome. The death of 
Varus was most deeply felt by Virgil, to whom this ode is ad- 
dressed by way of condolence. 

2. PrcBcipe . . . Melpomene : ' O Melpomene, teach me mourn- 
ful strains.' Horace, with much propriety, invokes the Muse 
of Tragedy to aid him in the tribute he is about to pay to 
the worth of their lamented friend ; for whom no measure of 
grief seemed to be excessive. 

11. N071 ita . . . deos : i. e. you request the gods to restore you 
Quinctilius, who was not given you on the condition that he 
was not to be taken away. 

13. Qubd si . . .Jidem : ' but though more sweetly than Thra- 
cian Orpheus, you tune the lyre listened to by trees.' 

14. Arboribus ; in the dative case, as, neque cernitur ulli : 
Adam's Lat. Gram. R. xxviii. Obs. 2. 

17. Non lenis . . . recludere : ' not easily induced by prayers 
to open the path back into life again.' " Fata recludere, h. e. 
viam ex Orco in vitam redituris occlusam recludere" Doering. 


Lucius iElius Lamia, a poet of considerable reputation, and a 
friend of Horace, had in the civil dissensions joined the repub- 
licans. After the downfall of his party, he became despondent, 
and thought the commonwealth was going to ruin. It seems to 
be the design of this ode to raise the drooping spirits of Lamia, 
and to divert his thoughts to poetry and literature. 

1. Musis amicus : i. e. if the Muses do but smile on me, I 
shall banish all fear and melancholy. 

3. Quis . . . securus : ' wholly indifferent by whom the king- 
of the frozen regions, under the north pole, may be feared, or 
what may terrify Teridates.' — Teridaten : In the year of Rome 
719, the Parthians expelled their king Phraates for his cruelty, 
and placed Teridates on his throne. But about five years after, 
Phraates was restored to his dominions by the assistance of the 
Parthians. Teridates fled to Augustus, and carried witli him 
the son of Phraates. A few years after, Phraates sent an em- 
bassy to Rome, with an offer of restoring the Roman Eagles, 
which had been taken at the defeat of Crassus, if Augustus 
would restore his son and Teridates to him. While this negocia- 
tion was pending, this ode was written. What cause Teridates 
had for being alarmed we can imagine. The son was restored, 
but Tiridates was not given up. 

274 NOTES. 

6. O . . . Pimplei dulcis : ' O sweet Muse.' Pimplci, the 
vocative case from Pimpleis. Pimpla is a mountain in Mace- 
donia with a fountain of the same name, sacred to the Muses, 
who are therefore sometimes called Pimpleldes. 

10. Hunc . . . sorores : ' him it becomes you and your sister 
Muses to consecrate to immortality on new harps, and in Les- 
bian numbers.' " Fidibus novis, carmine novo; h. e. lyrico, quale 
nemo apud Romanos ante Horatium cecinit." Doering. 


Mr. Sanadon says, that Horace was at an entertainment 
where a dispute began to inflame some of the company already 
heated with wine. Instead of attempting to restore peace by 
grave advice and sober reasoning, he gaily proposed to drown 
all disputes in a bumper ; which having succeeded, he wrote a 
few lines on the occasion. 

5. Vino et lucernis . . . discrepat : * how strangely abhorrent is 
the Persian sword from wine and candles : ' i. e. the festive 
board, for the Romans usually had their entertainments by 

8. Cubito . . jpresso : this alludes to the custom of reclining 
on couches at table. 


The occasion of this ode is not known; although it has been 
the subject of various conjectures. It is a dialogue, represented 
as having taken place between a mariner and the shade of Ar- 
chytas, a celebrated mathematician and philosopher of Taren- 

Archytas had been shipwrecked on the coast of Apulia ; and 
the poet represents a mariner, who had accidentally found his 
body, driven ashore by the waves, as thus exclaiming- : ' And 
could not you escape death, Archytas ! How small a space 
you cover, who could measure the heavens, the earth, and the 
sea ! ' The address of the mariner occupies the first six verses ; 
and the reply continues through the ode. 

1. Te maris . . . munera : the construction is, Archytas, parva 
munera exigui pulveris cohibent te mensorem maris et terra 
arenctque carentis numero, prope Matinum littus. 

2. Cohibent : ' receive, confine.' Commentators differ as to 
the meaning of this word. Bentley and Doering consider it as 
here given ; viz. ' a small quantity of earth is sufficient for you 
now, who lately stretched your mind over the vast expanse of 
heaven, the wide extended ocean, and the land.' But Dacier, 
Gesner, and others think the meaning to be this : ' the trifling 
favour of a little dust to cover your body detains you from the 
Elysian fields ;' alluding to the prevailing belief that the soul 



could not pass the Styx under a hundred years, if the body 
were not buried. To this, refcrence is at the conclusion 
of the ode, where the mariner is entreated to render this little 
service, of throwing earth upon the body, which was of so much 
consequence to the soul. 

7. Occidit : The shade of Archytas here replies to this effect : 
<Do not be surprised, mariner, that I have shared the common 
lot of humamty ; for Tantalus died, though he was admitted to 
thesociety of the gods ; and Titbonus, Pythagoras,' &c. Ar- 
chytas seems to console himself by the reflection, that others so 
much greater that himself had submitted to the same necessity. 
30. Panthoiden: the son of Panthous was Euphorbus, who 
was slain at the Trojan war by Menelaus. Pythagoras, to estab- 
hsli his doctrine of the transmigration of souls, declared, among- 
other proofs, that he was himself at the Trojan war, centuries 
before. m the person of this Euphorbus ; and says he recognised, 
m the Temple of Juno, the shield which he wore when he was 
Euphorbus ; which being taken down, refixo, was found to have 
the marks which he had described, as on his shield. 

14. Judice . . . verique : < And in my opinion he was no ordi- 
nary observer of nature and of 'truth.' 

20. Proserpina : this refers to a belief among the ancients, 
that Proserpine attended on persons about to die, and cut from 
their heads a lock of hair, as an ofTering to the infernal deities ; 
and that they could not die till this service was performed. 

25. Sic, guodcunque : the meaning is, If vou do this, I hope that, 
whatever dangers the tempest may threaten you with, when 
navigatmg the Italian sea, may fall upon the Venusian woods. 
30. Mghgis . . . commitlere : ■ are you indifferent about com- 
mitting a cnme to be atoned for by your innocent descendants.' 
The ancients believed that the gods were enraged ao-ainst 
any one who, having found a dead body, should leave ft un- 
buried ; and that they punished both him and his posterity. 

34. Teque piacula nulla resolvent : ' and no atonino- sacrifices 
shall free you from punishment.' 

36. Curras: sc. ut; 'for you to hasten on.' 


Augustus sent an army a^ainst the Arabians in the year of 
Rome 729, under ^Elius Gallus. The expedition was unsuc- 
cessful, on account of a sickness which prevailed in the army. 

Iccius, a man of retired and literary habits, voluntarily ioined 
the expedition. Horace, with a good deal of pleasantry, ridi- 
cules Iccius for leaving the ease and quiet of philosophical pur- 
suits to encounter the dangers and fatigues of war, while he 
supposes him to meditate some mighty proofs of his valour. 

1. Beatis...gazis: Strabo says, that Augustus made war 
upon the babaeans, a people of Arabia Felix, on account of their 

276 NOTES. 

wealth. He had heard that they were rich in gold, silver, and 

3. Non antt devictis : as if the weight of the war rested on 
this new made soldier ; and as if our philosopher was about to 
subdue, in his first campaign, the Sabasan kings, ' never yet van- 
quished ! ' 

5. Nectis catenas : as if Iccius was about to bring home his 
captives in chains. The Romans often carried chains for their 
prisoners with them, when going to war. 

7. Puer quis ex auld : i. e. puer regius. Horace facetiously 
ihtimates, that Iccius will select from his captive princes and 
princesses some to attend upon his person. 

10. Qiiis neget ■■ the meaning is, Who can deny that rivers 
may again ascend the steep mountains, and that the Tiber 
may run back to its fountain, when a man in your enviable con- 
dition shall prefer the hardships of war to a quiet and studious 

14. Pano3ti : Panoetius was an eminent Stoic philosopher of 
Rhodes. — Socraticam et domum .- i. e. the sect or school of 
Socrates, Plato, Xenophon, and other academicians. 


Glycera, a lady of great beauty, and a friend of Horace, 
being about to give an entertainment at her house, had in- 
vited him to attend it. We may suppose Horace, with his 
answer, to have sent this little neat and beautiful invocation to 
the goddess of beauty, requesting her to smile on the scene. 

4. JEdem ■■ It was customary with the Romans to bave a part 
of their mansion fitted up as a kind of chapel, in which were 
kept the images of their household gods, to whom at feasts 
they orTered libations. 

7. Juventas Jlercuriusque •• i. e. youth and eloquence. 


Augustus built a temple to Apollo within his palace on mount 
Palatine ; and when it was consecrated, most of the eminent 
poets of the age wrote something upon the occasion. It is sup- 
posed that Horace wrote this ode for that solernn ceremony, at 
the request of the emperor. 

1. Quid . . . vates • 'what does the poet ask of Apollo, to 
whom this day a temple is dedicated ? ' — Vates, i. e. ego poeta. 
He repeats the question, ' what does he pray for ? ' to give 
force to the interrogation. Because he is not about to ask for 
those things which are usually most desired. 

6. Mordet : ' washes.' The Liris divides Latium from Cam- 

9. Calend : not Calenam. The best implements for the vine 
yard were manufactured at Cales. See Ode XVII. 9. note. 

ODES. BOOK I. 277 

10. Dives .^ . . impund .- the construction is, et dives mercator, 
carus dis ipsis, quippe ter et quater anno impunh revisens Atlan- 
ticum cequor, exsiccet vina aureis culullis, reparata Syrd merce. 

17. Frui paratis . . . mente : 'grant, O son of Latona, I pray 
you, that I may enjoy the blessings already acquired, both in 
health and with a mind unimpaired.' — Paratis, i. e. what I 
nowpossess. — Latoe : voc. of Latoils. The same sentiment as in 
Juvenal x, 356 ; Orandum est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano. 


It seems that, on some occasion of more than ordinary im- 
portance, Horace was requested to write ; whether by Augus- 
tus, Msecenas, or some other person, it does not appear. But 
the poet addresses his lyre in a manner calculated to show that 
he feels the responsibility of the undertaking-. 

I. Poscimur: 'our efForts are demandecl ;' i. e. I am put in 
requisition, my services are required ; and if when at ease I 
have ever sung with you any thing deserving to live for a year 
or more — come now, O my lyre, first tuned by Lesbian Alceeus, 
and prompt a Latin song in your wonted measure. 

3. Latinum : meaning that the same lyre had before respond- 
ed in Greek. 

6. Qui ferox bello : Alcseus was no less distinguished as a 
general, than as a poet. Horace evidently aspires to the same 
rank as a lyric poet, among the Romans, that Alcseus held 
among the Greeks. 

II. Lycum: Lycus was a beautiful youth, beloved and cele- 
brated by Alcaeus. 

15. Mihi . . . rite vocanti : l be propitious to me whenever, 
with a proper spirit, I invoke thine aid.' — Cunque ; for quando- 


Horace was a lover of pleasure, and had early imbibed the 
doctrines of Epicurus, which favoured his propensities. But in 
this ode he acknowledges his error inliving, as he had, a life of 
sensuality,^ and in neglecting the duties of religion and the 
worship of the gods. Some have doubted his slncerity. Be 
that as it may, he rejects the folly of the Epicureans, who deny 
an overruling power, and account for all the phenomena of na- 
ture independently of any such power. 

2. Insanientis . . . erro . ' while imbued with the principles 
of mad philosophy I wander from the way.' 

5. JVamque Diespiter : the poet gives a reason for disbeliev- 
ing the Epicureans: I lately heard Jove thundering in a se- 
rene and cloudless sky whereas thunder usually, plericmque, 

27 S NOTES. 

proceeds from natural causes, and takes place vvhenthe heavens 
are enveloped in clouds and sulphurous exhalations. 
14. Hinc : ' from one.' — Jipicem t * the diadem.' 

16. Hic- { on another.' 


ln the year of Rome 726, Augustus enrolled two armies, in- 
tending to lead one of them in person against the Britons, and 
to scnd the other under iElius Galius into Arabia. Horace, 
ever ready to express his gratitude and good will towards his 
friend and patron, wrote this address to Fortune ; invoking her 
aid towards a favourable result of these expeditions. 

When Augustus was actually on his march, intending to pass 
through France, and transport his army over to Britain, he was 
met by an embassy from Britain, which accepted the terms he 
proposed. He therefore gave up the expedition. 

1. Antium : this was a city of Italy, the capital of the Vol- 
scians. It had a commodious harbour, and was a place of con- 
siderable importance. There was, in this city, a temple to For- 
tune, famous for the splendid gifts with which it was enriched, 
as weil as for the lots cast there, and the responses of its 
oracle. Fortune is therefore said to govern it. 

2. Preesens : i. e. ready and able. 

12. Metuunt t ' reverence ; do homage to.' 

13. Injurioso . . . frangat : ' that thou mayest not with violent 
foot cast down the yet standing pillar of state ; and that a 
thronging multitude may not excite the quiet citizens by crying, 
" To arms, To arms," and thus overthrow the government.' 

17. Sceva JYecessitas : This description is highly coloured: 
' Stern Necessity always precedes thee, bearing in her brazen 
hand spikes and wedges.' The wedges were not to be used in 
splitting, but in making more compact ; and the parts i so 
compressed, when of wood, were to be secured by the long 
nails ; when of stone, by iron hooks, let in and fastened with 
melted lead, liquidum plumbum. The uncus is not intended, 
as supposed by some, for an instrument of punishment. 

22. JVec comitem abnegat ■■ sc. se. 

23. Utcunque mutatd . . . veste : ' however much you change 
your dress.' We may suppose prosperous fortune to be clad 
splendidly, and adverse fortune meanly. 

29. Serves : i. e. may you attend Csesar on his march against 
thc Britons, and also the cxpedition about to be sent into the 

33. Cicatricum . . .fratrum : i. e. may we be ashamed of the 
evils we have brought on ourselves by the civil wars, and dread 
a repetition of them. 

ODES. BOOK I. 279 


Plotius Numida had been three years with Auo-ustus, en- 
gaged m a war in Spain. On his return he was received with 
demonstrations of joy and thanksgiving by his friend Horace ■ 
who, on tlns happy occasion, assembled the friends of Plotius' 
and among them /Elius Lamia, a school-feliow of Pktius, and 
dearly beloved by him. This celebration was attended with 
sacrifices, songs, and dances. 

2. Placare : * to propitiate.' This word may with propriety 
be used, although Plotius had returned in safety ; since his 
fnends were stdl bound to the performance of their vows ; and 
would have reason to fear the resentment of the gods if this 
should be neglected. 

5. Multa : sc. dividit oscula. 

8. JVon alio rege : it was customary among the Romans to 
call the tutor or governor of a nobleman's children rex, or king. 
Plotms and Lamia had not only past their boyhood together un- 
der the same tutor, but had assumed the manlv gown, too-a vi- 
nlis, at the same time. ° 

9. Mutata : i. e. the toga proetexta, which was bordered with 
purple, was laid aside for the toga virilis, which was of pure 
white, and assumed at the age of seventeen years. This chan°-e 
of the toga was attended with some solemnity, and usuallv be- 
fore the lmages of the Lares. 

10. Cressd ; fortunate and happy days were marked with 
cnalk, or a white stone ; and uulucky days with u, black mark 
or a black stone. These were added up at the end of the year 

l\MoreminSaliuvi: for Saliorum; < afler the manner of 
the Saln. These were the twelve priests of Mars. See Lem- 

13. Damalis: this was a woman of light character, notorious 
tor her love of wine. 

14. Bassum: Bassus was a companion of Plotius, and a 
hard dnnker. ' 


The death of Cleopatra put an end to the war between Au- 
gustus and Antony. This is one of several odes which Horace 
wrote on that occasion. The character and tragical end of 
Cleopatra are stnkingly represented. Her passions are in vio- 
lent motion ; her ambition is intoxication ; her love is madness : 
and her courage is despair. The soul of the poet seems kin- 
dled with unusual fire. 

2 Saliaribus . . dapibus : The feasts of the Salii were of the 
most splendid and costly kind. The poet here probably means 
to say that it is proper to prepare a lectisternium ; which was a 



feast at which the gods were invited to attend, and for whom 
the couches were spread, and their images placed on them 
around the altars. They were the most sumptuous entertain- 
ments that could be made. 

7. Dementes ruinas : by Hypallage, for demens regina. 

13. Vix una . . . navis : It is said that Cleopatra, soon after the 
battle at Actium commenced, fled with sixty vessels ; and that 
shortly aler Antony followed her in the flag ship {navis prado- 
ria). His flcet, however, after he had gone, made so despe- 
rate a resistance, that Augustus was compelled to send for fire 
from his camp to destroy it. The una navis probably refers to 
Antony's ship. . . 

14. JSIareotico r the Mareotic wine was a choice and exqmsite 
wine, so called from the lake Mareotis, near which it was pro- 


15. Veros timores : veros may be significantly opposed to the 
vain fear with which she fled before there was any cause of 

flight. . 

16. Volantem remis adurgens : ' pursuing with his fleet her 


21. Fatale monstrum : i. e. Cleopatra ; whom Augustus wish- 
ed to take prisonef, that she might be led in chains to grace 
his triumph.— Generosiiis r ' in a more honourable manner.' 

23. JYec latentes . . . oras : ' nor did she retire with her fleet 
to secret coasts,' i. e. that she might escape death. 

25. Jacentem . . . regiam .- i. e. her kingdom fallen and lost 
for ever to her. The palace is put for the kingdom ; for she did 
not sce her paiace in ruins literally. 

26. Asperas : i. e. exasperated, as well as venomous. Plu- 
tarch says, she provoked the asp by pricking it, that it might 
sting her with greater fury. 

30. Savis Libumis : i. e. This high-spinted woman disdam- 
ing forsooth to be carried to Rome as a private person in the 
Liburnian gallies to grace a haughty triumph. 

The Liburnian gallies were very swift vessels, formerly used 
by the Liburnian pirates. They were of great service to 
Augustus in the battle of Actium, and with them he pursued 
Cleopatra to Alexandria. 


In this little piece, addressed to his servant boy, Horace 
means to discountenance the growing taste for luxury and ex- 

3. Mitte sectari . ' cease to inquire.' 

5. Simplici . . . allabores : ' you need not try for any thing 
nvVe than plain myrtle.' 



Asinius Pollio, a soldier, a statesman, and a scholar, had 
also distinguished himself as a Tragic writer ; and had raised the 
reputation of the Roman stage nearly to an equality witli that 
of Athens. But Pollio was engaged in a work better deeerving 
his whole strength and attention. This was a history of the 
civil wars, in which he had already advanced considerably, 
when Horace, apprehensive that the applause which Pollio re- 
ceived from the stage might interrupt a history so interesting to 
the republic, wrote this ode to urge him to persevere. And at 
the same time he exhorts Poilio not to be diverted from this 
object, he reminds him how delicate and dangerous a task he 
had undertaken. 

1. Motum ex Metello .- the construction is, O Pollio, tractas 
civicum motum ex consule Metello, causasque helli, &c. 

It was during the consulship of Metellus and Lucius Afra- 
nius, that Csesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed that confede- 
racy, commonly known by the name of the First Triumvirate. 
The poet says, You treat of the civil commotions which took 
place, beginning from the consulship of Metellus. 

3. Gravesque . . . amicitias : i. e. the coalition of the Trium- 
viri, so destructive to the liberty of the commonwealth. 

6. Periculosoz : this might well be called ' a work full of dan- 
gerous hazard,' since the fidelity of the historian must be pre- 
served, without offending Augustus, or disobliging many families 
that had been deeply engaged in the civil war, by opening 
afresh wounds that were now nearly healed. 

9. Musa tragozdicz desit theatris .• i. e. you ought for a tiine 
to relinquish your favourite pursuit, and abstain from writing 
tragedies, till you have put the finishing hand to a work of so 
much importance as that in which you are engaged. 

10. Mox . . . cothurno : 'hereafter, when you shall have di- 
gested and arranged the events in your history, you shall re- 
sume the noble employment of writing tragedy with true Athe- 
nian dignity.' 

The cothurnuSy or buskin, was frequently put for tragedy, 
which had at that time reached a greater degree of excel- 
lence at Athens than at any other place. 

From the expression, publicas res or-Hndris, many have sup- 
posed Pollio was consul at the time this ode was written, and 
that this sentence had reference to the management of publir 

282 NOTES. 

business. But this was not the fact. For Pollio lived in retire- 
ment, and wrote the history many years after his consuiship 

17. Jam nunc . . . strepunt : the poet here compliments Pollio 
on his talents as a writer ; and fancies himself in the midst of 
the scenes the historian is describing, and exclaims, ' Already 
you make my ears ring with the threatening blast of the horns, 
and the shrill notes of the clarion.' 

24. Prceter . . . Catonis : a beautiful tribute to the unyielding 
virtue of that stern republican : intimating that Caesar found it 
easier to subdue the whole world, than the inflexible spirit of 

25. Juno . . . JugurthcR .- here the poet with his usual ad- 
dress, that he may avoid every thing which may be unwel- 
come to Augustus, instead of allowing the ambition of Csesar to 
have caused the civil war, ascribes it to fate ; and says that 
ibrmerly Juno and the other divinities friendly to Africa had 
retired from that region powerless, and without avenging its 
wrongs, because opposed by the fates, but that they finally of- 
fered the descendants of the victors, as an atoning sacrifice to 
the manes of Jugurtha. 

31. Auditumque~Medis .• i. e. had reached even the Medes, or 
rather the Parthians ; the most deadly enemies of the Romans. 

37. Sed ne . . . Ncenire : ' but stop, my muse, do not quit my 
sportive strains to perform the melancholy ofrices of the Cean 
Namia.' She was the goddess of mourning and melancholy, 
who inspired the affecting airs of Simomdes of Ceos, one of the 


Caius Crispus Sallust, to whom this ode is addressed, was 
the son of the sister of the distinguished historian of the same 
name. He was a gentleman of equestrian rank and splendid 
fortune. He stood high at court, being a particular favourite 
of Augustus. But he was rational in his views of happiness, 
and wished to increase neither his rank nor his fortune. 

The poet intends to compliment him on the liberal and noble 
use he made of his fortune and his opportunity of diffusing hap- 
piness ; and shows that a proper use of riches is the only way 
to make them a blessing. 

1. Nutlus . . . Crispe Sallusti .• instead of abdito, some read 
abditce, and make this construction, O Crispe Sallusti, inimice 
lamncB abditce in terris ab avaris hominibus, nullus color est ar- 
gento. Otherwise nisi may connect splendeat with inimice. — 
Color ; ' splendour, brightness.' — Lamnce^ for lamince : i. e. plates 
of gold and silver. 

5. Proculeius : this was a Roman knight, held in so high 
esteem by Augustus, that he for a time thought of giving him 


liis daughter in marriage. His brothers, Licinius and Teren- 
tius, lost their estates for having joined the party of Pompey. 
But Proculeius shared his fortune with them ; and afterwards 
made their peace with Augustus — hence animi paterni in fra- 
tres. Ode VII. of this Book, is addressed to Licinius. 

10. Remotis Gadibus : * to distant Cadiz.' 

11. Uterque Poznus : i. e. Carthage in Africa, and Carthage 
in Spain, taken by Scipio in the second Punic war. 

17. Phraates : for an account of Phraates, king of the Par- 
thians, see Book I. Ode XXI. 3. note. He is said to have put to 
death his father, his brother, and his eldest son. 

18. Dissidens plebi : ' dissenting from the crowd.' i. e. phi- 
losophy judges differently respecting happiness, frorn what the 
multitude does. 

19. Populumque . . . vocibus • ' and teaches the vulgar not to 
use false names : ' i. e. to give up their false ideas ofhuman 

23. Oculo irretorto i ' with eye undazzled.' 


Dellius was a man of fickle and inconstant character, who is 
said to have changed sides four times during the civil wars, 
When this ode was written he seems to have been in a state of 
dejection, on account of the condition of his affairs. The poet 
exhorts him to preserve equanimity of temper under all circum- 
stances ; since the shortness of life renders it of comparatively 
little importance whether a man be rich or poor. But a reason- 
able and innocent enjoyment of one's possessions is the truest 

7. Bedris •■ for beaveris .■ i. e. or whether you shall have re- 
galed yourself. 

8. lnteriore notd Falerni ■■ ' with the more choice Falernian.' 
Interiore : put away more carefully to be brought out only on 
rare occasions. 

15. Sororum . . . trium : the names of the Fates were Clotho, 
Lachesis, and Atropos. 

17. Cedes coemptis saltibus ■• i. e. you will bid adieu to the 
delightful groves you have purchased at great expense. 

19. Exstructis in altum .• 'heaped high.' 

23. Sub divo moreris : i. e. whether you may live in this 
world. Sub divo usually means in the open air : here it means 
in this world. Moreris, from moror, mordri. 

26. Urna : the ancients pretended that the names of all per- 
sons living were cast into an urn, which was continually re- 
volving, and that as each one's lot or name came out, that one 
died. The a in urna is long by csesura. Some have pointed 
this verse differently, and make urna in the ablative. 

28. Cymba : \. e. in the boat of Charon. 

284 NOTES. 


This ode is an expression of friendship to Septimius, a Roman 
knight of high standing. He was a poet and a soldier. He 
had been a school-fellow, a long tried and intimate friend of 
Horace, who here tells him, that, as they had passed the best 
of their days together in toils and dangers, he now wishes to 
retire with him, and to spend the evening of life in tranquillity, 
either at his own seat at Tibur, or with Septimius at Ta- 

I. Aditure .- ' ready to go with me ' (if necessary) ' to Cadiz,' 
the farthest part of Spain, ' and against the Cantabrian, not yet 
subdued,' &c. Almost all commentators are agreed that this is 
the sense ; as we say, I am ready to go with you any where : 
and not that the poet actually anticipated any expedition of the 
kind here mentioned. 

5. Tibur . . . colono .- ' Tibur, founded by an Argive colonist.' 
Tiburnus, Catillus, and Cora, three brothers from Argos, settled 
a colony there. 

7. Lasso : sc. mihi. 

10. Pellitis ovibus : the sheep of Tarentum, near which the 
river Galsesus rlowed, had wool of so fine a quality, that they 
were covered with skins to preserve it from injury. 

II. Laconi . . . Phalanto : ' by Lacedemonian Phalantus.' 
Laco, or Lacon, gen. Laconis, adj. 

14. Ubi non . . . Venafro : ' vvhere the honey does not yield 
to that of Hymettus, and the olives vie with those of Venafrum.* 
Hymettus is a mountain in Attica abounding in the finest 
honey. Venafrum is a city in Campania eminent for oil. 

18. Aulon . . . avis : the ccnstruction is, et aulon amicus fer- 
tili Baccho minimwn invidet Falernis uvis : Aulon is a hill near 


There has been some doubt who the Pompey here addressed 
was ; some have supposed it to be Pompeius Varus. But it is 
pretty generally believed to have been Pompeius Grosphus. 
He was an early friend and companion of our poet, and was 
with him at the battle of Philippi. He also continued in opposi- 
tion to Augustus afterwards. But when the peace was con- 
cluded between Sextus Pompey and the Triumvirate, a general 
amnesty was granted to all Pompey's party. Grosphus, taking 
advantage of this, returned to his friends ; on which occasion 
Horace addressed +his ode to him, by way of congratulation, 
which naturally turns on their common dangers and suiferings 
in former days. 

1. O sa>pe . . . sodaliwn : the construction is, O Pompei, prime 


meorum sodalium, scepb deducte mecumin ultimum tempus (pericu- 
lum), quis redonavit te Quiritem dis patriis, Italoque cozlo ? 

3. Quiritem : l as a Roman citizen.' During the time that the 
friends of Pompey continued in opposition to Augustus, after he 
was invested with legal authority, they were considered as 
outlaws : by the recent amnesty they were restored to their 
rights as Roman citizens. 

8. Malobathro Syrio : The malobathrum was a costly oint- 
ment brought from Malabar in India, by the Syrian merchants, 
by whom the Romans were furnished with it. Hence the epi- 
thet Syrian. 

10. Relictd . . . parmuld : the poet has been applauded for 
this ingenuous confession of his own cowardice, which might 
not otherwise have been remembered. 

13. Mercurius : he ascribes his escape to Mercuiy, as the 
guardian of literary men. 

15. Te rursus . . . resorbens : after the battle at Philippi Horace 
gave up all hope of the success of his party, and obtained pardon ; 
while his friend Grosphus fled to the younger Pompey, as has 
been already observed, and continued in hostility to Augustus. 

17. Dapem: l the sacrifice.' 

19. Sub lauro med: i. e. under the protection of Msecenas. 
25. Quem Venus . . . bibendi : ' whom will Venus appoint king 

of the feast?' i. e. by a throw of the dice. See Book I. Ode 
IV. 18. note. 

27. Edonis: l than the Thracians ; ' who are much addicted 
to hard drinking. See Book T. OdQ XVI. o. uot,e. 


T. Valgius Rufus was a poet of some eminence. Having lost 
his son Mystes, he gave himself up to grief, and spent his time 
in writing elegies, and in other expressions of sorrow. 

Horace endeavours to dissuade him from this course of con- 
duct, by saying that it was contrary to nature, where storms 
and winter do not always reign ; and that others had been af- 
flicted in a similar manner, who yet did not sink under their be- 
reavements. Besides, he might better employ his talents in 
celebrating the praises of Augustus. 

9. Tu semper . . . ademptum : ' but you constantly pursue with 
mournful elegies your lost Mystes.' 

13. Ter cevofunctus . . . senex : i. e. the aged Nestor, who lived 
thrice the age of man. His son Antilochus was slain by Mem- 
non at the siege of Troy. 

16. Troilon : Troilus, the son of Priam and Hecuba, was slain 
by Achilles. 

17. Desine . . . querelarum : an imitation of the Greeks, as, 
xrtyi yoav, ohv^fim. See Lat. Gram. R. XVI. Obs. 1. 

20. JYiphaten : Niphates is a part of Mount Taurus, between 

286 NOTES. 

Mesopotamia and Armenia ; it is also the name of a river that 
flows from it. 

21. Medum Jiumen : i. e. the Euphrates ; which, the poet 
says, now rolls its waters with less pride, since its country was 
conquered, and the Scythians, or Geloni, ride within the limits 
prescribed by the Romans. 


Licinius Varro Murena, the brother of Proculeius Varro Mu- 
rena, mentioned in Ode II. 5. of this Book, for his parental af- 
fection ar.d generosity towards his brothers, was a young man 
of a restless, ardent, and ambitious spirit. Horace, knowing his 
character, and wishing to preserve him from the evils to which 
his fearless and aspiring views exposed him, addressed this ode 
to him, containing much sound wisdom, and some excellent 
rules and maxims for life. But Licinius could not be governed 
by them. Having been detected in forming a conspiracy 
against Augustus, he suffered the fatal consequences of his 
rashness. For all the interest which his brother Proculeius and 
Mascenas, who married his sister Terentia, were able to exert, 
could not save him. 

13. Sperat infestis .- sc. rebus ; ' in adversity hopes.' 
17. Non . . . sic erit ; ' if things go wrong now, it will not be 
so hereafter.' 


Quinctius Hirpinus was a man of great wealth, and of an 
anxious and timid character. He made himself unhappy by 
dreading changes and civil commotions, which might endanger 
his possessions. Horace offers to him, in this beautiful ode, 
the same kind of consolation which he frequently gives to oth- 
ers in trouble. He exhorts them not to be anxious about futuri- 
ty ; since life is too short to have any portion of it wasted in 
unavailing anxieties. Old age and infirmities will soon deprive 
them of the power of enjoying the blessings they possess. He 
recommends, therefore, that they should make the most of 
present enjoyments, without troubling their thoughts about the 
things beyond their reach or control. 

I. Cantaber, et Scythes . . . cogitet: i. e. what plans the war- 
like Cantabrian and Scythian may be forming. 

9. JYon semper idemjioribus : few things are less durable than 
the flowers of spring, or more changeable than the moon ; and 
yet these are images of human life, most strikingly true and im- 

II. Minorem : i. e. unable to comprehend. 

17. Evius : Bacchus. 

18. Quis puer . . . lymphd : * what servant boy will cool the 


wine in the fountain, from which this stream of water flows, 
that runs by us ? ' Commentators are divided as to the meaning 
of this passage ; some suppose it means, to have the water 
mingled with the wine ; and others, that it was to be cooled by 
lmmersing in cold water the vessel containing it. 


Horace, being requested by Msecenas to celebrate the victo- 
ries of Ca?sar in an epic poem, replies that he is unfit for so 
high and responsible a work ; and that his lyre is adapted to 
light and sportive subjects only. He says that Mscenas can 
do much more justice to the subject by writing a history of 
these achievements in prose. 

1. JYolis : the drift of this introduction is this : Inasmuch as 
you would hardly desire a light and trifling poet to attempt a 
descnption of the Numantian war, or the Carthaginian wars or 
the battle of the Centaurs with the Laplthae ; so you would 'not 
have me presume to celebratethe achievements of great Csesar 
when I am only fit to write love ditties. Doering, 

3. Mollibus . . . modis : ' to the soft measures.' 

5. Lapithas . . . HyUum : the Lapithce were a oeople of 

- Ihessaly. The quarrel between them and the Centaurs is said 

to have been begun by the Centaur Hylams, who, having drunk 

too mucn wme, laid hands on Hippodamia. See Book I. Ode 

XVI. 8. note. 

7. Telluris juvenes : i. e. the giants, sons of earth, who made 
war agamst Jupiter.— Unde periculum . . . veteris : « on account 
ot the danger from whom the shining palace of old Saturn trem- 
bJed. — Unde : i. e. a quibus. 
9. Pedestribus . . . historiis : ' in a prose history.' 
11. Ductaper vias: 'led in triumph through thestreets.' 
1& Me dulces . . . oculos : the construction is, Musa voluit 
me dicere dulces cantus Licyjnnia, voluit me dicere ocuhs fuU 
gentes lucidum: ' my muse would rather I should celebrate the 
sweet yoice of Licymnia,' &c. It is generally supposed that 
lerentia is meant by Licymnia, and that the ode was written 
about the time that Msecenas married that lady ; the word 
domma is often used to signify one dearly beloved. 
15. Mutuis . . . amoribus : ' with mutual attachment.' 
19. Ludentem nitidis virginibus .- 'when dancing with the 
chaste and beautiful virgins.' It is evident from this, that Te- 
rentia was not yet married ; or she would not have been ad- 
mitted among the virgins, who celebrated the sacred rites of 

21. JYum tu... domos : ' would you take in exchange for a lock 
ot Licymma's hair all that rich Achaemenes possessed, or the 
treasures of the king of fertile Phrygia, or the wealthv man^ 
sions ot the Arabs ? ' Achsemenes was king of Persia.— Myp~ 
domas : Midas was king of Mygdonia, a part of Phrygia. 

288 NOTES. 


Horace, having narrowly escaped with his life, from the fall 
of a tree whilst he was walking on his farm, breaks out with 
dreadful imprecations upon the tree and the person who plant- 
ed it. 

He is naturally led to reflect on the dangers to which we 
are at all times exposed, and against which it is impossible to 
be sufficiently guarded. His thoughts are turned to the world 
of spirits, to which he came so near being sent unawares. And 
by way of compliment to lyric poetry, he represents the shades, 
and even Cerberus and the Furies, as overpowered by the mu- 
sic of Sappho and Alcseus. 

1. llle . . . pagi .- the construction is, Quicunque primum po- 
suit te, O arbos, ille et posuit te nefasto die, et sacrilegd manu 
produxit te in perniciem nepotum, opprobriumque pagi. This 
passage has cost commentators much trouble. They are gene- 
rally of opinion, that there is something wrong or imperfect in 
theconstruetion of it. But it may be construed as above with- 
out much violence or inconsistency. 

3. Produxit .■ ' trained up.' 

7. JVoctumo ■' ' in the night ; ' for nocte, or nocturno tempore. 

8. Colcha : ' Colchian.' Colchos was a region of Asia, near 
to Pontus, and abounding in the strongest poisons. 

14. In horas .- ' hourly.' 

17. Miles -. i. e. the Roman soldier. The Parthians were 
most dangerous when pursued, as they discharged their arrows 
behind them with great effect. 

21. Quhm pene . . . vidimus : ' how nearly I came to seeing 
the dusky realms of Proserpine : ' furvce is used for furva, which 
is evidently the meaning. 

25. Puellis de popularibus .• * concerning the maidens of her 

26. Pleniiis : ' in loftier strains.' 

29. Utrumque : each, both Alcseus and Sappho. 

30. Sed magis . . . vulgus .- ' but the crowd, pressing each 
other's shoulders, listen with more willing ear to. accounts of 
battles and of banished tyrants.' 

34. Bellua centiceps : the monster Cerberus. See Class. Dict. 

37. Pelopis parens : Tantalus. See Class. Dict. 

38. Orion ■■ he was a famous hunter. 


The shortness of life and the inevitable event of death are 
very feelingly set forth in this ode. But the argument and the 
inference are, as usual with our poet, employed to enforce the 
doctrine of a refined Epicureanism. Had the light of revelation 


been shed on his mind, he would not have considered the short- 
ness of life as a reason only for enjoying it as it passed ; which 
Is indeed good philosophy ; but he would have urged the ne- 
cessity also of forming the character for a higher and a nobler 

Who the person was, that is here addressed by the name of 
Posthiimus (or Postiimus, as some say it should be written), 
has not been ascertained. But it appears to have been a friend 
whom Horace considered too parsimonious, and advises to a 
more liberal enjoyment of his fortune. 

5. JVon, si . . . enavigandd : the construction is, Non afFeret 
moram, amice, si quotquot dies eunt, ptaces illacrymabilem Pluto- 
na trecenis tauris ; Plutona qui compescit ter amplum Geryonen 
Tityonque tristi undd, scilicet enavigandd omnibus quicunque 
xescimur munere ttrrce. 

23. Tnvisas .- ' forbidding,' 'mournful.' The cypress was sacred 
to Pluto and Proserpine, and it was usually placed on the fune- 
ral pile with the dead body. It was also placed before the door 
where there was any one dead within. 

24. Brevem .• ' short-lived.' 

28. Pontificum potiore ccenis .- 'more delicious than that used 
at the suppers of the pontiffs.' 


In this ode Horace contrasts the magnificence of the Ro- 
mans of his time, in their buildings, plantations, gardens, and 
pleasure grounds, with the frugality of their ancestors ; who 
considered the public edifices, and the temples of the gods, the 
noblest monuments of real grandeur, as well as of piety. 

1. Jam: 'shortly,' ' soon.' — Regice moles .- ' the princely edi- 

4. Stagna .- ' fish-ponds.' By these the poet probably means 
large portions of salt water inclosed from the sea by artificial 
piers and dykes. — Platanus .- the plane tree was planted for 
ornament only : whereas the elm was considered very useful 
for the vines to run upon. 

6. Et omnis . . . narium : ' and the whole tribe of sweet-scent- 
ed flowers.' 

8. Fertilibus . . . priori : ' which were formerly profitable to 
their owner.' 

9. Tum : 'soon'; i. e. the laurel will be made to grow so 
thick, for the comfort of those walking, that the rays of the sun 
will be excluded from the ground. 

13. Privatus . . . brevis : ' then private fortunes were smal].' 
— lllis : sc. auspiciis or temporibus. 

14. JYulla . . . Arcton : i. e. no piazza of private individuals 
was so constructed as to intercept the cool north vvind, and 
keep it from others. 

17. Fortuitum . . . cespitem : ' any land distributed by lot.' 

290 NOTES. 


This ode appears to have been written with a view to diverf 
the mind of Pompeius Grosphus from some anxieties that 
were at the time disturbing his peace, and to direct it to 
the study of that true tranquillity which springs from well regu- 
lated passions, and is wholly independent of external circum- 

3. Certa •* i. e. as sure and visible guides to the mariners. 

7. JVbn . . . venale : ' not to be purchased with precious stones y 
nor costly purple.' 

11. Laqueata . . . volantes: 'which fly about the gilded ceil- 
ings of the rich.' 

14. Salinum : the salt-cellar is here put for any household 
furniture ; meaning, the man whose unambitious mind is satis- 
fied with the moderate and frugal mode of living practised by 
his ancestors. 

17. Quid . . . multa : ' why do we, vigorous for so short a 
time only, aim at so many objects ? ' 

19. Mxdamus: the sense here is very obvious, but the lan- 
guage is so peculiar as to lead to the conclusion that there is 
some mistake in the text. Dr. Bentley and Wakefield have 
proposed the following reading : Sole mutamus pairid ? Quis 
exsul, &c. which Doering has adopted. 

30. Minuit: ' wasted,' or dried up. See Class. Dict. 

35. Te bis . . . lance : ' garments twice dyed in African pur- 
ple clothe you.' Purple was brought from Meninx, an African 
island, as well as from Tyre. 


Msecenas being sick, apprehended that his dissolution was at 
hand. This fear he repeatedly expressed in his complaints to 
Horace, who in this ode intreats him to forbear using such dis- 
tressing language to him. He assures him that it will be im- 
possible for him to survive bis best friend and patron. He 
shows, by a remarkable conformity in the events of their lives, 
that their destinies are inseparably connected, particularly 
in those accidents by which their lives had been endangered ; 
and proposes tbat they should perform their sacrifices to the 
gods in gratitude for their preservation. 

' It is probable that this was not the last sickness of Msecenas, 
but that he recovered from it. 

6. Quid moror . . . integer : ' why should I, the other part, re- 
main, since I should not be equally dear to any other, nor in- 
deed survive you entire ? ' i. e. when you, a part of me, are 
tuken off. 

8. Utramque : for utriusque ; 'ofboth.' 


10. Sacramentum ; an allusion to the oath taken by soldiers, 
who swear not to desert their standard ; so Horace says, 
he had sworn not to be separated, even by death, from his 

13. Chim<sr<£ : the Chimaera was a fabulous monster, having 
the fore parts of a lion, the hinder parts of a dragon, and being 
like a goat in the middle. 

15. Sic : i. e. that we should be united in life and in death. 

17. Seu Libra . . . undce : the construction is, Seu Libra, seu 
fonnidolosus Scorpius, pars violentior natalis horce, aspicit me, 
seu Capricornus tyrannus Hesperice undce. Libra was consider- 
ed a fortunate sign, or constellation, to be born under ; but the 
Scorpion and Capricorn were inauspicious. — Pars violentior na- 
talis horce ; ' the most dangerous sign of our nativity.' — Aspicit 
me : ' shines upon me ; ' i. e. sheds its influence; referring to 
the horoscope, where reference is had to the sign, or the part 
of the sign, which appears above the horizon at the moment of 

23. Refulgens : this is a term in astrology, which signifies 
shining in direct opposition. Saturn was said to have a bane- 
ful influence on the fortunes of those born under his star. 

25. Quum populus : this refers to the time when the people 
applauded Maecenas at the theatre, on his first appearance after 
a dangerous illness. See Book I. Ode XVII. 2. note. 

30. Victimas : victima properly means a sacrifice of one of 
the larger animals, such as bulls ; and hostia, of one of the 
smaller kind, such as sheep or lambs. The difference of the 
sacrifices of the patron and the poet may, therefore, have refer- 
ence to their different rank and means. 


The poet in this ode censures the folly and extravagance of 
the wealthy, in their buildings and manner of living. He 
shows, by his own example, that an unambitious man, of a cul- 
tivated mind, content with a competency and the affection of 
his friends, is the truly happy man. 

3. Trabes Hymettice. : from mount Hymettus ; the marble 
from this mountain was in high repnte. That marble should 
be employed where wood had always been deemed sufficient, 
constituted a part of the extravagance which the poet censures. 

4. Ultimd recisas Jifrica : i. e. made of marble of the most 
costly and exquisite kind : "factus e marmore in remotiore Africce. 
parte exciso, h. e. JYumidico, subnigro et variis maculis distincto." 

5. Attali: Attalus was king of Pergamus, and having no 
legal heir, he made the Roman people heir to his immense 
possessions. One Aristonicus, however, claiming to be of the 
royal lineage, took possession of the throne and kingdom of 

292 NOTES. 

Attalus ; but he was afterwards seized, and carried to Rome, 
where he was put to death by order of the senate. 

7. JYec Laconicas . . . clientce : ■ ' nor do I keep under me la- 
dies of noble birth to spin the purple of Sparta.' It is said that 
the proud and wealthy patrons compelled their female clients 
of the higher order to make their robes for them. The purple 
from Sparta, with which they dyed their wool, was considered 
the best in use among the Romans. 

9. Fides : i. e. animi integritas. 

12. Potentem amicum : sc. Msecenas, his patron. 

14. Unicis Sabinis : sc. agris : ' with my Sabine farm alone.' 

17. Tu secanda . . . locas .« ' yet you engage workmen to cut 
yourmarble.' i. e. for building. Tu is applied indefinitely. 
Locare signifies ' to let out by the job.' 

20. Marisque . . . littora : ' and you are urgent to push the 
shores further out into the sea at Baiae.' Baiis obstrepentis, i. e. 
roaring or dashing against Baise ; which was a place of much 
resort, on account of its pleasantness, the variety of its springs, 
and the salubrity of the air. 

24. Terminos : It was sacrilege, according to the laws of the 
Twelve Tables, to remove the land-marks. Indeed the stone, 
which marked the boundaries, was held so sacred that it was 
deified by them as the god Terminus. 

26. Salis : ' you encroach upon,' ' you overleap.' 

32. Quid ultra tendis : ' why do you desire more ? ' since 
death will overtake you before you can enjoy it. 

33. Recluditur : i. e. for the burial. 

34. Satelles Orci: Charon. 

36. Auro captus : The fable here alluded to, in which the 
cunning Prometheus is supposed to have attempted to bribe 
Charon to ferry him back over the Styx, is not now known. — 
Hic . . . coercet : ' he restrains beyond the Styx proud Tan- 
talus and all his race.' Pelops, Atreus, Agamemnon, and Ores- 
tes were the descendants of Tantalus. 

38. Hic . . . audit: ' he is ready.' — Vocatus atque non voca- 
tus : i. e. whether invoked or not, the messenger of death is 
ready to conduct the poor man to a place of rest, when his toils 
and sufferings are over. 


Tliis ode was probably written for some festival in honour of 
Bacchus ; and tlie poet seems to have caught the enthusiasm. 
and to have become an actor in the scene he describes. 

1. Carmina . . . docentem: i. e. teaching his worshippers how 
to celebrate his mysteries. This was done in secret retirement, 
in remotis rupibus. 

5. Evoe : now feeling tbe inspiring influence of the god, he 
exclaims Evoe, as they are wont to exclaim, who are celebrating 
the orgies. 


6. Turbidinn Uctatur : ' exults tumultuously.' 

7. Parce : ' spare me.' Feeling unable to bear the full in- 
spiration of the god, he intreats him to forbear, and not to 
strike him with his thyrsus ; for in this way Bacchus was sup- 
posed to excite the phrenzy of his followers. 

9. Thyiadas : the Thyiades were the infuriated Bacchanals, 
or priestesses of Bacchus. 

12. Iterare: i. e. iterum iterumque laudare. Doer. Bacchus 
was supposed to produce, and cause an abundance of wine, 
milk, and honey. 

13. Fas et : and it it lawful for me to sing. — Conjugis : i. e. 
Ariadne. She was said to be translated by Bacchus to the 
heavens, and presented with a starry crown, called Gnossia 
corona, or Seven Stars. 

14. Penthei : Pentheus was a king of Thebes, who, for slight- 
ing the rites of Bacchus, was torn to pieces by his own mother, 
sisters, and aunt. 

16. Lycurgi: Lycurgus king of Thrace, finding hfs sub- 
jects too much addicted to wine, ordered all the vines in 
his kingdom to be rooted up. For this offence Bacchus caused 
him to go mad and to cut offhis own feet. 

17. Mare barbarum: i. e. Indicum. Bacchus was said to 
have extended his conquests to the Indus and the Ganges, 

"20. Bistonidum : the Bistonides were the Thracian women, 

23. Leonis : Bacchus is said to have tranformed himself into 
a lion, and under this form to have fought the giants, and killed 

25. Quanquam . . . dictus : ' although you were said to be 
better suited to dances and scenes of mirth.' 

29. Insons : without offering to hurt you. — Aureo cornu deco- 
rum : ' graceful with your golden horns.' There are various 
reasons, but none very satisfactory, why Bacchus is repre- 
sented with horns. 


Horace here predicts the glory and immortality of his name. 
And with the true spirit of a poet he imagines himself al- 
ready assuming the form and faculties of a swan, and soar- 
ing above the earth, over which he is about to take his aerial 
flight. As he will leave the humble abodes of men, so he 
will shake off " this mortal coil," and cease to be an object of 
human sympathy or sorrow. He wishes not for the empty hon- 
ours of a burial, nor the waste of useless tears on his account, 
since he shall not die. 

1. Non usitatd . . . vates : ' I as a poet, in my two-fold cbarac- 
ter, shall be borne on no common or feeble wing through the 
liquid aether.' — Usitatd : this may mean ' of no common or ordi- 

294 NOTES. 

nary kind ' ; or it may mean simply ' unused to flying.' — Biformis : 
i. e. part man and part swan. " Bince formce, tam hominis, quam 
cycni concessce sunV Doer. 

5. JYon ego . . . obibo : ' I shall not, although the offspring of 
humble parents, I shall not die, whom you, O Msecenas, call 
beloved.' This is the common reading, and the usual rendering- 
of the passage. But there seems to be some violence in 
separating dilecte Mcecenas. Doering, with some others, point 
it thus ; non ego, quem vocas, Dilecte Mcecenas, obibo : and 
gives this explanation : " non ego, ut homo vulgaris, qualem tu 
me nunc appellas, dilecte Mcecenas, et qualis tibi esse videor, 
morti ero obnoxius." 

9. Jamjam . . . pelles : ' already a rough skin contracts upon 
my legs : ' i. e. they are assuming the appearance of a swan'slegs. 

11. Superna : ' as to the parts above : ' i. e. my body. 

17. Me Colchus : sc. noscet : shall know me. — Et qui . . . 
Dacus : ' and the Dacian, who can dissemble his fear of the 
Marsian cohort.' The Marsi, a people of Latium, were con- 
sidered among the best of of the Roman soldiers, and much to 
be feared by their enemies. 

19. Peritus : sc. literarum : the Spaniards imitated the Ro- 
mans in cherishing a-love of learning. 

20. Discet : i. e. " cantibus meis attentas aures praibebit." Doer. 
These distant and different nations, the poet says, shall learn 
his fame and read his writings. 



In this beautiful ode Horace endeavours to show that happi- 
ness does not depend on external circumstances. Rank and 
fortune, however great their splendour, cannot silence the voice 
of conscience. He only is the truly happy man who lives con- 
tented with his lot, without being a slave to any passion, or 
suffering any reproof from within. 

1. Odi profanum vulgus : ' I despise the profane rabble.' By 
' profane,' we may understand, the uninitiated. For he represents 
himself here as the priest of the Muses, and as about to dictate 
a sacred song to the boys and girls, who composed a choir for 
the occasion, as in the Carmen Sceculare, and as in the hymn to 


Apollo and Diana, Book I. Ode XVIII. He could not bear the 
rabble, because they understood not what was true wisdom. 

2. Favete linguis : i. e. keep silence. This was a phrase 
used at public and solemn sacrifices, to command silence and 

4. Virginibus puerisque : these composed the choir. 

5. Greges : kings are considered shepherds, and the peo- 
ple their flocks. Dacier. 

7. Clari . . . triumpho : ' illustrious from his conquest of the 

9. Est ut : i. e. contingit ut : ' it happens that.' 

11. Campum : the election of the chief magistrates of Rome 
was held in the Campus Martius. — Petitor : 'candidate.' 

14. JVecessitas: sc. mortis. 

17. Districtus . . . saporem : the construction is, Siculce dapes 
non elaborabunt dulcem saporem ei, cui super impid cervice 
districtus ensis pendet. This probably refers to the story of 
Damocles, related by Cicero. See Tusc. Quest. Book V. 21 ; 
or Class. Dict. 

27. Arcturi cadentis : Arcturus is a constellation near the 
Great Bear. 

28. Hoedi : for Hadorum. These are two stars in the left 
arm of Erichthonius. The rising of the Hozdi, and the setting of 
Arcturus were usually attended with violent storms. 

30. Mendax : that has disappointed his expectations. 

34. Jactis in altum molibus ■• ' by the piers built out into the 
sea.' — Huc frequens . . . fastidiosus : ' hither the undertaker, 
with a crowd of workmen, lets down the stones, while the fas- 
tidious owner looks on.' Doering makes this comment ; "fre- 
quens cum famulis, pro cum frequente famulorum (operariorum) 
turbd ; per ccementa (dicta quasi pro ccedimenta a casdendo, ut 
ramenta pro radimenta a radendo) intellige lapides caesos, sed 
rudes et informes." 

41. Phrygius lapis : i. e. marble columns brought from Phry- 
gia; this kind of marble was in high estimation. 

44. Achcemeniumve costum : 'Persian ointment.' Th e costus, 
or costum, was an expensive unguent of delightful odour. It is 
called Achxmenium, from Achaemenes, king of Persia. 


In as much as the Rornans had relaxed the strictness of their 
discipline, and fallen into luxury and vice, the poet exhorts 
them to commence a reform by educating their children differ- 
ently. He intimates that they should early be inured to labour 
and privation, that by enduring the hardships of warfare they 
may prize the blessings of peace and frugality. 

1. Amice : ' cheerfully.' By early habit they may be made to 
live frugally without feeling it to be any privation. 

5. Sub divo : i. e. in the field and in the camp. 

296 NOTES. 

7. Matrona bellantis tyranni : i. e. from the walls of a city 
invested by the Romans, let the wife of some barbarian tyrant 
look out and see the danger in which her lord is, and dread the 
fierce Roman. 

9. Eheu . . . ccedes : these are the words ofthe lady, in fear 
of the harm which her husband may surTer from the Roman 
soldier. — Rudis agminum : ' unskilled in warfare.' 

11. Leonem : she compares the Roman to a lion, as expres- 
sive of his strength and eourage. 

16. Poplitibus : the enemy pursuing strikes the hams, or 
back part of the legs, and the backs of those who have turned 
in flight. 

17. Repulsce nescia sordidce : ' that has never experienced a 
dishonourable repulse.' This has reference to election to civil 

19. Secures : i. e. fasces. Insignia consulatus et pr&turoz. 

21. Virtus . . . vid : ' virtue, which opens heaven to those de- 
serving immortality, strikes out a path for itself unknown to 

25. Est et . . . merces : This seems to be another topic, relating 
to fidelity in keeping what has been intrusted as a secret. It 
may have reference to some violation of confidence, by divulg- 
ing somc important secret, which took place about the time the 
ode was written. 

26. Cereris . . . arcanai : the mysteries of Ceres were held so 
inviolably sacred, that any disclosure of them to the uninitiated 
exposed the author to religious detestation, and even to capital 
punishment. They were called Eleusinian mysteries, from 
Eleusis, the town where they were celebrated. The process of 
rnitiation was by a kind of infernal drama, imposing and hor- 
rible beyond description. 

28. Trabibus : i. e. roof. 

30. JVeglectus : i. e. " hominum impietate lasus." Doer. — In- 
ctslo addidit integrum : has involved the innocent in the same 
puniBhment with the guilty. 


This ode commences with an encomium on justice and con- 
stancy ; and shows that many mortals have, by these virtues, 
gained admission to the assemhly of the gods. But its main 
object was to discourage the plan of making Troy, instead of 
Rome, the seat of the empire, which Augustus was supposed 
to be meditating. A design of this sort was generally believed 
to have been formed by Julius Cssar, a short time before his 
assassination ; and Augustus seemed disposed to carry out the 
prqjects of his predecessor. To dissuade Augustus from a 
measure so unpopular, the poet represents Juno, in a full assem- 
bly of the gods, declaring that the Romans may continue to 


enjoy their supremacy, and to extend their empire, provided 
they do not attempt to rebuild the walls of Troy ; but that, 
should they attempt this, they should feel the effects of her re- 
sentment, and rue the day that they rebuilt that detested city. 

I. Justum ac . . . manus : the construction is, Non ardor ci- 
vium jubentium prava, non vultus instantis tyranni, neque Auster, 
lurbidus dux inquieti Hadrice, nec magna manus fulminantis 
Jovis quatit virumjustum ac tenacem propositi a solidd mente. 

9. Hdc arte ; i. e. by this firmness of purpose. — Vagus: this 
epithet has reference to the wanderings of Hercules over the 
earth, to accomplish the labours and hardships imposed on 
him by Eurystheus. 

II. Quos inter : i. e. among those, who by their perseverance 
have gained admittance to the assembly of the gods, we must 
reckon Caesar. 

13. Merentem: ' deserving this honour ;' i. e. of being carried 
to heaven. 

17. Gratum eloquutd . . . divis : ' afler Juno had spoken what 
was pleasing to the gods in council ; ' to this effect — 

18. Hion . . .fraudulento : the construction is, Ex quo tem- 
pore Laomedon destituit deos mercede pactd, fatalis incestusque 
judex, et peregrina mulier vertit in pulverem Ilion, Ilion dam- 
natum mihi castceque Minervaz cum populo et fraudulento duct. 

19. Fatalis : i. e. ordained by fate to be the destruction of 
his country. — Judex : he was the judge that awarded the gold- 
en apple to Venus, which so incensed Juno. 

21. Destituit . . . pactd : ' defrauded the gods of the pay- 
ment promised.' The fable here alluded to states, that Laome- 
don engaged Neptune and Apollo to assist him in building the 
walls of Troy, and that he afterwards defrauded them of the 
reward he had agreed to give them. Some explain this by say- 
ing that Laomedon borrowed the consecrated gold and silver 
from the temples of these gods, and neglected to repay it. 
Laomedon was the son of Ilus, king of Troy. 

22. Mihi . . .fraudulento : ' given over for punishment, to- 
gether with its people and perfidious king, to me and the 
chaste Minerva.' Damnatus was a term of the Roman law 
which adjudged an insolvent debtor to his creditors ; in which 
sense it is here used to express the condemnation of the Tro- 
jans to the resentment of Juno and Minerva. Dacier. 

25. JVec jam . . . hospes : i. e. the infamous Paris no longer 
glitters before the licentious Helen. " Helena haud amplim 
cultum Paridis etformam miratur." Mitsch. 

28. Hectoreis opibus : ' by Hector's valour.' 

31. Invisum nepotem : i. e. Romulus, who was considered as 
the son of Mars, and consequently the grandson of Juno, was 
hateful to her on account of his descent from Venus by An- 
chises, the father of iEneas. 

33. Marti redonabo : i. e. " donabo et concedam Marti, h. e. cth 

298 NOTES. 

ird et odio invisi mihi nepotis in Martis gratiam absistam." Doer. 
— lllum : Romulus. 

37. Dum . . . pontus : ' so long as an extended sea may rage 
between Troy and Rome.' 

43. Triumphatis : ' that have been vanquished by her.' 

45. Horrenda : sc. Roma ; 'an object of terror.' 

46. Medius liquor : ' the intervening sea,' ' the Mediterranean.' 

49. Aurum . . . dextrd : Rome, I say, ' more powerful for 
despising gold unsought for, and better placed while the earth 
conceals it, than if she seized with rapacious hand what is 
consecrated, and applied it to profane uses.' 

50. Spernere : " Gr&ce, pro spernendo, dum spernit." Doer. — 
Jtapere ; for rapiendo. 

53. Obstitit : ' resists.' 

55. Qud parte . . . rores : ' in what region the sun scorches, 
in what the mists and rains prevail.' 

66. Meis . . . Argivis : ' torn down by my Greeks.' Juno fa- 
voured the Greeks, and therefore uses meis. 

70. Qwo, Musa, tendis ? : the poet checks himself, as if he had 
rashly been hurried into matters too high for the lyric muse. 


After the civil wars were ended, Augustus turned his atten- 
tion to the arts of peace. He particularly cherished learning 
and learned men. Tn this ode Horace thanks the Muses for the 
iavours they had bestowed on him, and especially for the friend- 
ship and protection of Augustus, which he ascribes entirely to 
their influence. He intimates that a love of poetry and elegant 
literature had inspired his patron with nobler sentiments and 
feelings than those of revenge and party strife. 

2. Regina: i. e. O Calliope, regina Musarum, descende e 
ccb/o, a,ge dic longum melos tibid. Calliope is here called queen 
of the Muses, because she was their eldest sister, whence she 
particularly presided over heroic poetry, and was attendant on 
kings. Sanadon. 

5. Auditis ? : ' do you hear her ? ' The poet seems already to 
imagine his prayer granted, and that Calliope had descended 
from heaven, and asks those about him if they hear her. 

9. Me .- the construction is, fabuloscB palumbes texere novd 
fronde me puerum, kc. — Vulture: Vultur, or Vulturnus, was a 
mountain of Apulia, which extended into Lucania. The part of 
the mountain where Horace played was near the boundary 
line ; so that he fell asleep, as he says, extra limen altricis Apu- 
li(B ; ' beyond the bounds of my native Apulia.' 

13. Mirum . . . Acherontice : ' which was matter of astonish- 
ment to all, who inhabit the town of lofty Acherontia.' This 
was a small town on the top of a high hill, which the poet calls 
nidus, ' a bird's nest,' from its situation. 


15. Saltusque Bantinos : Bantia was a town surrounded by 
forests. This and Forentum were both situated near the bor- 
ders of Apulia and Lucania. 

18. Premerer : i. e. tegerer, defensarer. 

21. Vester, Camcence : ' I am under your protection, O Muses.' 

22. Tollor: i. e. ascendo ; his country-seat was up in the Sa- 
bine territory. — Frigidum : because placed on the top of a hill. 

24. LiquidcB . . . Baice : liquidce refers to the character of the 
waters at Baiae, which caused that to be a place of frequent 

26. Philippis . . . retro : ' the defeat of our army at Philippi.' 
It will be recollected that Horace was at the battle of Philippi, 
and left his shield there not very much to his credit. See Book 
II. Ode V. 10. note. 

28. Palinurus : this is a promontory on the coast of Lucania, 
so called from Palinurus, the pilot of ^Eneas. It is extremely 
dangerous to mariners, on account of its latent rocks, and had 
nearly proved fatal to Horace. 

29. Utcunque : i. e. " quandocunque, dum." Doer. 

33. Hospitibus fcros : it is said that the ancient Britanni used 
to sacrifice strangers. 

34. Concanum: " de hoc barbaro more, quo Concani, Canta- 
brice in Hispanid Tarraconensi populus, sanguinis equini potu 
delectati esse dicuntur, nihil quidem aliunde constat." Doer. 

36. Scythicum . . . amnem : i. e. the Tanais. 

41. Vos . . . almce : i. e. You, O divine Muses, inspire Csesar 
with mild counsels, and delight to see him pursue the course 

42. Scimus ut: sc. Jupiter. 

49. Magnum illa . . . brachiis : the construction is, llla hoiTi- 
da juventus fidens brachiis inhderat magnum timorem Jovi. ' that 
dreadful band of youth, trusting to their powerful arms,' &c. 

51. Fratrcsque* i. e. Titclnes. 

53. Sed quid Typhccus . . . ruentes : {. e. what can Typhceus and 
the most powerful of giants do against Minerva. 

58. Hinc : on the side of Jupiter. 

59. Hinc : on the side of Jupiter. — Et ; sc. Apollo. 

65. Vis consili expers : ' force void of reason.' 

66. Provehunt in majus : ' increase.' 

71. Orlon : this was a celebrated hunter, who, in attempting 
to offer violence to Diana, was slain by an arrow from her bow. 

73. Injecta . . . suis : ' the earth, thrown upon her own mon- 
strous productions, grieves.' The giants that attempted to scale 
heaven were the sons of Earth, or Terra. The mountains, 
which they piled up, were thrown upon themselves. 

78. Ales : the vulture that preyed upon the bowels of Tityus. 

79. Amatorem . . . Pirithoiim : Pirithoils descended with 
Theseus to the infernal regions to bring away Proserpine ; but 
Pluto being apprized of it, put him in chains. 

300 NOTES. 


This ode seems to have been written in honour of Auo-ustusv 
It sets forth his achievements and represents him as the guar- 
dian god of the Roman people. 

1. Ccelo . . . regnare : ' we have been accustomed to believe 
that Jove reigns in heaven from hearing him thunder there.' 

% Prcesens divus : ' a god upon earth.' i. e. so Augustus by 
his conquests and his services to his country shall be hailed as 
a visible divinity. Presens has tbis signification, and not pro- 
pitius,favens, as some have supposed. 

4. Persis: Itis saidthat Phraates, king of the Parthians, after 
being restored to his throne, was so alarmed merely at the re- 
port that Augustus was about to make war upon him, that he 
voluntarily sent an embassy to him and offered to restore tha 
military standards that had been lost several years before at 
the defeat of Crassus. The Parthians are here meant by Per- 
sis. Augustus did not in reality subdue either the Britons or 
Parthians, but the people submitted to the authority of his 
name. See Book I. Ode XXI. 3. note. 

5. Milesne . . . vixit : i. e. " Miles Crassi, a Parthis ignomi- 
niosd clade affecti, potuitne captivus cum conjuge alienigend w- 
vere ? " Jaeck. 

7. Proh curia . . . mores : ' ah degenerate senate, and corrupt 
manners ! ' 

10. Anciliorum : i. e. the twelve sacred shields preserved by 
the Salii, as the pledges of empire, one of which was supposed 
to have dropped from heaven. — Togce : the toga was considered 
as the distinguishing rnark of a Roman. 

13. Reguli: Regulus, being taken captive by the Carthagini- 
ans, was sent to Rome on parole of honour, to treat of an ex- 
change of prisoners. Instead of advising this measure, by 
which he would himself have been restored to his country, he 
dissuaded the senate from it, as against their interest to ex- 
change the young and vigorous Carthaginians for the less effi- 
ciont Romans. He returned and surrendered himself to his 
enemies ; who, being enraged at his conduct, put him to death 
by the most cruel tortures. 

15. Et exemplo . . . cevum : ' and from an example bringing 
mischief to the coming age.' 

17. Immiserabilis : " pro immiserata ; i. e. si redimeretur.'' 1 

23, Et arva . . . nostro : ' and I saw the fields, which we had 
laid waste by war, now cultivated.' Regulus had conquered 
the Carthaginians and laid waste iheir territory almost to the 
walis of their city, beforc the shameful defeat which the indo- 
lence of his soldiers brought upon him. 

38. Pacem duello miscuit: ' he confounds peace with war,' by 


asking for quarter when his arms were in his hands, from which 
alone he should have sought safety. 

39. Probrosis . . . ruinis : ' raised higher on the shameful 
ruins of Italy.' 

42. Ut capitis minor : " minuitur capite, qui, amissa libertate, 
desinit esse in civium numero." 

45. Donec . . . dato : ' until, by becoming the author of ad- 
vice never before given, he settled the wavering minds of the 

53. Longanegotia 'the tedious lawsuits.' 

55. Tendens : i. e. going into the country to relax himself 
from the labour by which he had been confined among his 


This ode is a kind of moral address to the Romans, in which 
the poet ascribes their calamities to their corrupt manners, and 
neglect of religion. He therefore endeavours to dissuade them 
from their impiety, and intimates that the gods would bring 
upon them still heavier punishments, if they did not repair their 
temples and respect their worship. He says the Romans were 
formerly a brave and virtuous people, that they cultivated their 
lands and extended their empire ; but that time had been 
gradually undermining their virtues, and thus every succeeding 
generation had been worse than that which preceded it, till 
they had come to their present degenerate condition. 

5. Dis . . . imperas : ' you hold your empire, because you con- 
duct as inferior to the gods.' 

8. Hesperice : Italy. 

9. Monases et Pacori manus .• ' Monseses and the army of 
Pacorus.' Monaeses and Pacorus, two distinguished generals 
of the Parthians, had each defeated the Romans. 

11. Et adjecisse . . . renidet .• ' and are pleased to have enrich- 
ed their collars with the spoils taken from our soldiers.' The 
Parthians wore small chains about their necks. These they 
rendered more valuable by the gold, precious stones, &c. taken 
from the slaughtered Romans. 

17. JVuptias : i. e. have violated the laws and sanctity of the 
marriage rite. 

21. Ionicos: i. e. lascivos: the wanton dances of the Ionians 
are proverbial. 

22. Fingitur artibus .- i. e. is educated or trained to seduc- 
tive arts ; artibus is in the dative case. 

24. De tenero . . . ungui : ' from childhood ' ; this is a common 
expression with the Romans. 

25. Non his juventus, «Sfc. .- the meaning is, ' it was not youth 
born of such corrupt parents, that formerly fought the battles 
of our country.' 


302 NOTES. 

30. Sabellis . . . ligonibus : ' with Sabine spades.' 
35. Amicum tempus . . . curru : ' restoring in his descending 
chariot the grateful time ' of rest. 


A festival was observed with much religious pomp by the 
Roman ladies on the first of March, in memory of the day on 
which the Sabine women reconciled, and made peace betvveen 
the Sabines and their husbands, who had seized them. On this 
day too they had dedicated a temple to Juno, in which they an- 
nually orTered sacrifices to that goddess. While theladies were 
engaged in their offerings to Juno, their husbands sacrificed to 
Janus. After these religious services were over, the ladies re- 
ceived presents from their husbands and other friends, as an 
acknowledgment of the favour conferred by their happy media- 
tion. The Calends of March were called Matronalia, or Ma- 
tronales Ferice. 

We may suppose that Msecenas, in a visit to the poet early 
on the Calends of March, had expressed some surprise at finding 
him employed in preparations for a domestic feast, as Horace 
was not a married man. This ode was written in consequence, 
in which Horace informs him of the reason, and invites him to 
be present at the entertainment. 

I. Martiis . . . linguce : the construction is, O Ma?cenas, docte 
sermones utriusque linguce, miraris quid ego ccelebs agam kalen- 
dis Martiis, quid flores velint, et acerra plena thuris, carboque 
positus in vivo cespite. 

5. Docte . . . MngucB : ' learned in both Greek and Latin.' 
This means no more than a complimentary salutation ; as vir 

7. Libero : the poet here ascribes his preservation to Bac- 
chus ; whereas in Book II. Ode XIV. 28, he attributes the same 
kind office to Faunus. As both these divinities were supposed 
to have poets under their protection, Dacier thinks it may be 
the same god under different names ; and that a goat was of- 
fered to him under the name of Bacchus, and a sheep when 
he was called Faunus. 

II. InstilutcB : i. e. cceptce. 

13. Amici sospitis : sc. in gratiam ; i. e. ob amicum sospitem. 
15. Perfer in lucem: 'continue till daybreak.' 

17. Mitte civiles : Msecenas, in the absence of Augustus, had 
the government of Rome. 

18. Daci Cotisonis : Cotlso was king of the Daci, or Getae. 
He had made inroads into the Roman territory ; but was re- 
pulsed by Lentulus. 

. 21. Sei-vit . . . Cantaber : the war in Spain continued more 
than two hundred years before the Cantabrians were perfectly 


25. Negligens . . . cavere • ' relaxing your anxiety, since you 
are a private man, do not be too solicitous about public con- 
cerns.' — Privaius : although Msecenas was prsefect of Rome, 
yet, as compared with the emperour, he is properly called a pri- 
vate man. Others understand it thus : 'Divest yourself of your 
public character and assume that of a private citizen for the 
present occasion.' 


Horace had formed an attachment to Lyde, who, being 
young and a stranger to love, paid little regard to his profes- 
sions. The poet therefore addresses this ode to Mercury, in- 
treating him to inspire a song, the strains of which may make 
an impression on the obdurate fair one. And we gather from 
the XXII. Ode of this Book that he did not write in vain. 

1. Te . . . magistro : * under your instruction.' 

5. JYec loquax olim : before Mercury conceived the plan of 
forming the lyre, no music was made upon the testudo or tor- 
toise shell. 

9. Tu potes . . . silvas : this alludes to the fable of Orpheus. 

17. Tityos .- or Tityus ; the Greek termination is in os. 

18. Urna : this was the pitcher or vessel with which the 
water was taken up and poured into the tub or cask (dolium), 
having holes in its bottom. 

19. Danai : For the story of the Danaldes, see Class. Dict. 
91. Audiat Lyde ; i. e. let Lyde hear what punishments 

await hard-hearted maidens. 

29. Una .- Hypermnestra was the only one of all the flfty 
daughters of Danaus, who did not kill her husband on their mar- 
riage night, according to the command of their father. 

30. Perjurum .- he is called perjured, because he had violated 
the faith and sanctity of a father-in-law, which he had pledged 
to his son-in-law. 

47. Et nostri . . . querelam « i. e. and engrave upon my tomb- 
stone an epitaph that shall perpetuate the sad remembrance of 
my love. 


Near to Horace's villa, in the Sabine territory, there was a 
beautiful fountain, called the fountain of Bandusia, from the 
name of the place in which it was situated. In accordance 
with the popular belief that some spirit or Genius presided over 
each fountain, our poet proposes to offer a sacrifice to this, and 
to consecrate it to immortality. 

2. Dulci digne mero : i. e. worthy of the wine he intends to 
pour out in libation. 

6. Frustra : he was in vain destined to be the leader of the 
flock, since he will be sacrificed. 

304 NOTES. 

9. Cariicula •' the heat of the scorching dog-star, Sirius, 
could not penetrate the cool recesses of the fountain. — Atrox .- 
* oppressive.' 

13. Fontium .- sc. unus. 

14. Me dicente : i. e. when I celebrate the grove that spreads 
its branches over the rocks from which your gushing waters 


It is stated in the introductory reraarks to Ode XXIX. of 
Book I. that Augustus was preparing for two expeditions at the 
time that ode was written ; the one destined to Arabia, under 
Gallus, and the other against the Britons, which he headed in 
person. Having met on his march a deputation from Britain, 
which accepted the terms ofTered by him, he turned his march 
into Spain ; where he continued somewhat more than three 
years, till he subdued the Cantabrians ; and returned to Rome 
in the year of the city 730, when this ode was written on the 

1. Herculis ritu : ' after the manner of Hercules.' It is said 
that Hercules entereji Spain, and having penetrated as far as 
the Straits of Gibraltar, set up his pillars there, and returned to 

2. Morte . . . laurum .- i. e. for the sake of conquering his 
enemies, he encountered the danger of death. — Morte : sc. quce- 
sitd .- c by braving death.' 

5. Unico . . . divis : i. e. and let the chaste Livia, his wife, 
having paid her vows to the benignant gods, come out to meet 
her peerless husband. " Unico .• egregio, prastantissimo." Doer. 

7. Et soror : Octavia, who had been married, first to Mar- 
cellus, and afterwards to Antony. 

11. Virum experta .- i. e. nupta. — MaU ominatis . . . verbis : 
1 refrain from ill-omened words.' i. e. do not say that this dread- 
ful war will break the marriage tie; but rather give thanks, 
that you are restored to each other's embraces again. 

18. Marsi memorem duelli : i. e. wine made as long ago as 
the war begun by the Marsi ; the Social war, so called. 

19. Spartacum : Spartacus was a notorious gladiator, who, 
putting himself at the head of a number of gladiators, which 
was increased by immense multitudes of slaves, ravaged all 
Italy. Horace could hardly have expressed the character 
of this predatory scene better than by doubting whether a 
cask of wine had escaped Spartacus. 

21. ArgutcE : i. e. canorce. 

22. Myrrhinum : usually, myrrheum ; l perfumed with myrrh.' 

23. Janitorem: he tells his servant boy, if he meets with any 
difficulty in conveying his message to Nesera, to come away 
without making a disturbance. 


25. Lenit albescens .• he says, gray hairs render a man more 
patient in bearing affronts. 


In this ode Horace attempts to show the mischief produced 
by riches ; and declares that he is much happier without them, 
than he should be, were he possessed of the wealth of the In- 

I. Danaen : for the story of Dana€, see Class. Dict. 

5. Acrisium : Acrisius was the father of Danae and king of 
the Argives. 
7. Fore enim : sc. sciebant 

II. Auguris Argivi: the family of the augur Amphiaraus 
was utterly overthrown by the avarice of his wife Eriphyle, 
who was bribed to betray him. See Class. Dict. 

14. Vir Macedo ■• Philip of Macedon, the father of Alexander 
the Great. He was notorious for bribing the governours of 
cities and strong places by presents. He often said there was 
no difficulty in making himself master of any fort, if the gate 
were large enough to admit a camel loaded with silver. 

15. Munera . . . sazvos .• " referunt ad Menodorum, vel Menam, 
qui muneribus corruptus a Pompeio, cujus classi prsefectus 
fuerat, ad Augustum, et ab eo vicissim ad illum defecisse tra 
ditur : scevos, h. e. fortes." Doer. 

19. Tollere verticem t ' to raise my head.' 

22. A dis pluraferet : sc. tanto ; ' so much the more shall he 
receive from the gods.' 

31. Fulgentem . . . beatior : 'yields a pleasure unknown to 
the king of fertile Africa, and is a lot happier than his.' — Fallit ; 
sc. eum ; * escapes him ' ; ' is unknown to him.' 

38. Tu dare deneges : ' would you, Maecenas, refuse to give.' 
Dacier imagines that the poet's principal object in writing this 
ode was to thank Maecenas for a little dwelling which he 
had given him ; and to assure his patron that he was happier 
with this than if he had made him governour of a province or 
a kingdom. 

41. Quam si . . . continuem : 'than if I should join the king- 
dom of Alyattes to the fertile fields of Mygdonia.' — Alyattes, -is, 
or Alyatteus, -ei ; he was the king of Lydia, and father of Crce- 
sus, famed for his riches. 


iElius Lamias, to whom this ode was addressed, was a per- 
son of illustrious family and considerable estate. He had risen 
by his personal merit to the rank of lieutenant-general in the 
Spanish war under Augustus. He so demeaned himself in this 
office as to gain the esteem and respect of the army. Horace 

306 NOTES. 

therefore compliments him on the hereditary honours, which he 
so well sustained ; and upon which his own character and 
achievements had shed additional lustre, And since he pre- 
dicts a storm on the morrow, he invites Lamias to pass the day 
with him. 

1. JEli . . . late tyrannus : the construction is, JEli, nobilis ab 
vetusto Lamo, quandoferunt et priores Lamias hinc denominatos 
esse, et omne genus nepotum per memores fastos ducit originem 
ab illo auctore, qui princeps dicitur incoluisse moznia Formiarum, 
et lath tyrannus tenuisse Lirim innantem littoribus Marica, 

2. Hinc : i. e. a Lamo ; from this Lamus, king of the Lasstry- 
gones, the former Lamiae derived their name. 

4. Fastos : these were the registers or annals, in which was 
kept the record of the family of the Lamiae, as well as that of 
other noble families, and of public affairs. 

7. Et innantem . . . Lirim .• i. e. and held under his sway 
the river Liris, which flows into the sea through the marshes of 
Minturnse. " Ager Minturnensis designatur per fluvium Lirim, 
qui illum transit, et per paludes Minturnenses in mare diffundi- 
tur." Doer. — J\Iaricce : Marica was a nymph, the wife of Fau- 
nus, and mother of Latinus, who presided over Minturnse, and the 
regions about it ; hence littoribus Maricce, for ' the marshes of 

9. Cras . . . cornix : the construction is, Cras tempestas, de- 
missa ab Euro, sternet nemus foliis multis, et littus inutili algd, 
nisi annosa cornix, augur aquce,fallit me. 

14. Genium . . . curabis : ' you shall honour your guardian 
genius ' ; i. e. indulge in festivity. 


The Romans believed that many of their gods passed their 
summers in one country, and their winters in another. Faunus 
was of this number. He was supposed to come into Italy onthe 
13th of February, and to return to Arcadia on the 5th of De- 
cember. Both these days were observed by sacrifices and fes- 
tivity in honour of Faunus, who was supposed to preside over 
their flocks and fields. This ode was probably written for one 
of his festivals. In the first part, the poet intreats Faunus, if 
he pays him due honours, to smile upon his fields and preserve 
the tender offspring of his flocks ; and in the second, he sets 
forth the joy of the village on the return of his autumnal feast, 
when man and beast will relax from their toil, and rejoice in 
the bounty of their benefactor. 

3. Jlbeasque . . . alumnis : ' and may you depart propitious to 
the young of my flocks.' 

6. Veneris sodali : he calls the cratera the companion of Ve- 
nus, since the wine is poured from it in libations to her. 

10. Tibi Nonce redeunt : the nones of December were the 
season of the autumnal feast to Faunus. 


16. Ter pede terram: a part of the festivities on this occasion 
consisted in dancing. 


It seems that Murena had been chosen augur, and that seve- 
ral of his friends had met together in honour of the occasion ; 
and that among them were Horace, and another poet named 
Telephus, vho was a greatscholar, and who undertook to enter- 
tain the company with some grave discussion on ancient history. 
Horace interrupts him by intimating that it were better to in- 
quire where the best wine was to be had, with the requisites for 
an entertainment, that they might drink their friend's health in 
honour of his new appointment. The hint succeeded, and we 
are to imagine our poet in the midst of the entertainment, 
giving orders for the manner of drinking, as though he were 
king of the feast. 

1. Quantum: i. e. O Telephus, you relate how many ages 
passed between Inachus and Codrus, who devoted himself to 
death for his country. 

6. Quis . . . ignibus : ' who will get the baths ready.' The 
Romans always bathed before they sat down to their entertain- 

7. Quo prabente . . . taces : ' who will furnish a house, and at 
what hour I shall find it well warmed, you say not a word about 
all this.' 

9. Da Lunce : sc. poculum in honorem. 

13. Qui Musas . . . vates .• the construction is, Vates, qui amat 
impares Musas, attonitus petet ter ternos cyathos. 

14. Attonitus .- i. e. " furore poetico correptus." Doer. 

24. Vicina ; i. e. our fair neighbour here, too young to be 
the wife of envious old Lycus. 


M. Valerius Messala Corvinus having engaged to sup with 
Horace, the poet makes this address to a jar of choice old 
wine, by which he intimates that he shall give his friend wine 
as old as himself. He goes on in praise of wine, recount- 
ing its wonderful powers. 

1. O nata . . . pia testa: i. e. O pia (sacra) testa, quce contines 
vinum natum (expressum) eodem anno quo natus sum. He calls 
the jar pia, because it was made the same year in which he 
was born himself. 

5. Quocunque . . . die : ' you are worthy to be brought forth 
on this happy day, who preserve the Massic wine, whatever be 
the end for which it was chosen.' Doer. 

7. Descende ■• wine was kept in the upper part of the house. 

10. Sermonibus : ' philosophy.' — Horridus .- * severe,' ' stern.' 

308 NOTES. 

13. Lene tormentum .- " Blanditur ebrietas, et extorquet plerum- 
que animi gravitatem." Vet. Schol. 

18. Cornua : * courage.' 

19. Post te : i. e. after drinking freely. — Trementi : ' fearing.' 

22. Segnesque . . . Gratice : ' and the Graces, who are slow to 
loose their knot' The Graces are rerepresented as holding 
each other's hands, to show that they are inseparably united. 

23. Vivce : ' burning.' 


The kind offices of Diana being briefly named, the poet, as 
an expression of gratitude for some favour, consecrates to her a 
favourite pine tree, that shaded his country seat, and promises 
to sacrifice to her a boar yearly, whose blood should sprinkle 
the tree. 

4. Diva triformis : this goddess was called Luna in heaven ; 
Diana upon earth ; and Proserpine in the infernal regions. 

5. Tua pinus esto : ' let the pine tree be sacred to thee. — 
Villce •• sc mece. 

6. Per exactos . . . annos : ' yearly.' " Exacto enim anno, re- 


Phidyle was a rustic woman, and, as most commentators sup- 
pose, the poefs house-keeper in the country. She seems to 
have imbibed the opinion that sacrifices to the gods were more 
or less acceptable in proportion to their intrinsic value. Horace 
in this ode attempts to convince her, that the gods regarded the 
disposition of mind with which sacrifices were offered, rather 
than the costliness of the gifts ; that purity of life and good 
intentions were of most importance ; and that with these any 
ofFerings, however small, were acceptable. 

1. Supinas : when the ancients prayed to the celestial gods 
they raised their hands ' with the palms upwards ' ; but turned 
them downwards when they addressed the infernal gods. 

2. Nascente Lund : the occasions were very numerous on 
which it was supposed proper to make sacrifices to the gods ; 
Horace would imply that once a month, ' at the new moon,' 
was sufficient, and then it was not necessary to be extravagant. 

3. Hornd •• i. e. prcesentis anni. Adj. hornus, -a, -um. 

7. Dulces alumni : i. e. agni, hcedi ; sc. sentient. 

9. Nam, quce . . . tinget : the construction is, Nam victima 
diis devota, quce pascitur nivali Algido inter quercus et ilices, aut 
crescit in Albanis herbis, tinget cervice secures pontificum. The 
meaning is, that these victims are designed for public sacrifices, 
which may with propriety be more magnificent than those of 
private individuals, who ought to make their offerings propor- 
tionate to their station and abilities. 


15. Parvos . . . myrto : ' crowning your little household gods 
with rosemary and tender myrtle.' This is enough. You need 
not attempt to appease them by the slaughter of many victims. 

17. Immunis .- sc. sceleris ; i. e. ' pure.' 

18. JYon sumptuosd . . . micd : ' it has appeased the angry gods 
with pious meal and crackling salt, and would not have been 
more acceptable with a costly sacrifice.' 


In this ode Horace inveighs against luxury and extravagance 
as the prevailing vices of the age. The ode may be considered 
as consisting of three parts. In the iirst, the poet exposes the 
licentious enormities of the age ; in the second, he shows 
their causes ; and in the third, points out their proper reme- 

1. Intactis . . . caput : the construction is, Licet occupes omne 
Tyrrhenum et Jipulicum mare tuis ccementis, opulentior intactis 
thesauris Arabum et divitis lndice, tamen si dira JYecessitas Jigit 
adamantinos clavos summis verticibus, non expedies animum me- 
tu, nec caput laqueis mortis. — Intactis : i. e. " nondum attrectatis ; 
integris adhuc." Doer. The Romans had not yet succeeded in 
their attempts to conquer Arabia Felix. 

3. Ccementis : i. e. the materials for building, such as stones 
and mortar. See Book III. Ode I. 34. note. 

6. Verticibus : some suppose the tops of the houses of persons 
destined to death to be meant by sumrnis verticibus; others sup- 
pose it to mean their heads. 

9. Campestres •• " qubd in campis sine tectis vivunt." 

15. Defunctumque . . . vicarius .- ' and another, on like con- 
dition, succeeds him who has performed his year's labour.' 

17. lllic . . . innocens : the construction is, lllic innocens 
mulier [noverca] temperat privignis carentibus matre. — Tempe- 
rat privignis : ' treats kindly the children by a former marriage.' 

24. Et peccare : there were four things which seemed to have 
influence in securing the happiness of marriage among the 
Scythians ; a virtuous education, an attachment of wives to 
their husbands, their horror of conjugal infidelity, and the 
severity of their laws in punishing that crime with death. 

27. Si quceret . . . postgenitis .- ' if he wishes to have written 
beneath his statues, Father ofhis country, let him dare to curb 
the overwhelming spirit of licentiousness, and he will become 
renowned to posterity.' 

30. Quatenus : ' in as much as ' ; ' since.' 

42. Magnum . . . opprobrium : i. e. what do laws avail if 
' poverty, now esteemed a great disgrace,' &c. 

45. Vel nos in Capitolium : The poet says, if we really wish 
to put an end to this luxury and vice, and to return to our 
primitive simplicity, let us either carry our superfluous wealth 

310 NOTES. 

into the Capitol, and consecrate it to the gods, as an offering ; 
or else let us throw it into the sea, as desecrated, and the 
source of our guilt. 

58. Seu malis .- ' or whether you prefer.' There was a law 
against playing dice, and all games of hazard. 

59. Quam perjura . . . properet : i. e. while in the mean time 
the perfidious father, to amass wealth for this unworthy heir, 
cheats without distinction his partner and his host. 


Horace, under pretence of being inspired by Bacchus, in- 
dulges in the praises of Augustus more extravagantly than 
might otherwise seem proper. 

3. Mente novd : ' with new inspiration.' — Quibus . . . Jovis : 
the construction is, In quibus antris meditans ceternum de- 
cus egregii Ctcsaris audiar inserere illum stellis et consilio Jo- 

9. Exsomnis . . . Evias : ' the waking Bacchant,' or priestess 
of Bacchus. 

12. Devio : l wandering.' 

14. O Naiadum . .^.fraxinos : ' O powerful king of the Naiads 
and Bacchantes, who are able with their hands to tear up the 
tall ash-trees.' 


In this little ode Horace declares that he will not in future 
hearken to the dictates of a hurtful passion, to which he had 
been too long a slave. And it must be said, to his credit, that 
he did actually give up, at the age of forty, when this ode was 
written, his former habits of sensual indulgence. Though from 
what he says, we have some reason to believe that resentment 
had some share in forming the resolution to do so. 

3. JVunc arma . . . custodit : it was usual to offer at the tem- 
ple of some god the instruments of an art, which was discon- 
tinued. In this case the temple of Venus was selected vvith 
great propriety. 

5. Lcevum . . . latus : he hangs up the arms of his midnight 
revelry on the eastern wall of the temple, on the left side of 
the goddess. For the statues of the gods were so placed as to 
face the south ; consequently the east, which was esteemed the 
happy quarter of the heavens, was on their left hand. 

6. Ponite : the address is made to the attendants, who were 
to deposit the arms as ordered. 

8. Oppositis . . . minaces : ' threating the doors closed against 
us.' — Funalia et vectes et arcus : ' torches, bars, and bows.' 
These were to repulse the guards which the ladies might have 
for their defence, and to force open the doors. 


11. Sublimi . . . arrogantem: 'chastise with one sraart blow 
the arrogant Chloe.' 


There is a difficulty in comprehending the meaning of this 
ode fully ; as the person addressed under the name of Galatea 
is not known. Nor are the circumstances or object of the con- 
templated voyage understood. 

1. Impios . . . ab ortu : the drift of these twelve lines seems 
to be this : May all those omens, which are usually esteemed 
inauspicious by persons about to commence a journey, happen 
to the wicked ; but may those be favourable which attend the 
departure of her for whose safety I am anxious. — Impios . . . 
ducat : 'may the cry of an ill-omened bird attend the guilty.' 
It is not certain what kind of bird is meant by parra. 

5. Rumpat : ' thwart ' ; ' interrupt.' 

6. Si per . . . mannos : ' if, shooting across the road like an 
arrow, it has frightened the horses.' — Mannos : small, swift 
horses, or nags. 

7. Ego cui . . . ab ortu : the construction is, Providus auspex 
prece suscitabo illi, cui cgo timebo, oscinem corvum ab ortu solis, 
antequam avis divina imminentum imbrium repetat stantes pa~ 
ludes. — Divina ; 'knowing beforehand.' Birds which gave 
omens by their singing were called oscines : tbose that gave 
them by their fliglit were called prcepetes, or alites. When the 
crow or raven repaired to the margin of a lake to bathe itself 
in the water, this was thought to forebode a storm ; and the voice 
of this bird, when heard from the east, was considered a good 

15. L&vus . . . picus : ' the ill-boding woodpecker.' 

19. Novi : ' know by experience.' — Et quid . . . lapyx : * and 
how deceitful is the serene Iapyx.' 

24. Verbere : sc. fluctuum: ' vvith the lashing surge.' 

28. Palluit audax : i. e. she, who had dared to trust herself 
to the back of a bull, now grew pale at the sight of sea-mon- 
sters. This is an allusion to the fable of Jupiter and Europa. 

31. JVbcte sublustri : ' by star-light.' 

35. Pietas : ' filial affection.' 

41. Porta . . . eburnd : true dreams were said to pass through 
a gate of horn ; false dreams, through one of ivory. 

55. Speciosa : ' while my comeliness remains.' 

57. Vilis Europe, . . . quid mori cessas : she imagines her 
angry father to upbraid her in these words, which continue to 
pellex, in the 66th verse. 

61. Acuta leto: ' sufliciently sharp to kill you."' 

68. Filius : Cupid. 

69. Abstineto . . . irarum • ' abstain from your anger.' By 
aGreek construction. See Lat. Gram. Rule XVI. Obs. 1. 

312 NOTES. 

75. Sectus orbis : ' a division of the globe ' ; the globe being 


In this ode Horace makes known to Lyde his intention to 
pass the day of Neptune's feast at her house ; away from the 
noise and bustle of the eelebration. He exhorts her to relax 
her sobriety a little, and to bring forth her old wine. 

3. Strenua : Grsece pro strenue, ' promptly.' As he writes, 
he imagines himself already at her house, and urges her to put 
off her gravity and bring forth her choice wine. 

8. Cessantem : ' waiting,' for a call. 

12. Cynthice : Diana. 

13. Summo carmine : sc. cantabimus Venerem. 


This ode was addressed to Msecenas, when he was prsefect 
of Rome, and the whole weight and responsibility of the gov- 
ernment rested on him. Horace intreats him to lay aside pub- 
lic cares for a short time, and to attend a frugal entertainment 
at his Sabine villa. 

1. Tyrrhena: pro Tyrrhenorum. 

2. JVbn ante verso : ' as yet unbroached.' The ancients placed 
their jars, or casks, upright ; and poured the wine out by turn- 
ing them partially down, instead of drawing it out, as we do. 

4. Balanus : a choice unguent for the hair, expressed from a 
kind of fruit commonly called myrobalanum. 

8. Telegoni juga parricidce : ' the hills of the parricide Tele- 
gonus.' Telegonus, son of Ulysses by Circe, having killed his 
father without knowing him, went to ltaly and built Tusculum 
on a hill. 

10. Molem : from his lofty palace on the ^Esquiline Hill, 
which Horace calls molem, Maecenas could see the three cities 
before mentioned. 

13. Vices : ' variety ' ; ' changes.' 

16. Explicuere : ' have smoothed.' 

17. Jam clarus . . . ignem .- i. e. now the bright constellation 
Cepheus shows his fiery stars hitherto concealed. Cepheus, the 
father of Andromeda, gave his name to a constellation near the 
tail of the little bear. This constellation rises about the 9th of 
July. It was therefore very hot when this invitation was given 
to Mascenas. 

18. Procpon : a constellation so called from its rising just be- 
fore the dog-star, Canicula. — Furit : i. e. scevit astu. 

26. Curas, i. e. tu curas quis status deceat civitatem. It was 
enough for Maecenas to look to the management of the affairs 
of Rome, at that time containing about three millions of inhabi- 


tants, including the suburbs, and being forty-eight miles in cir- 
cumference, without being solicitous about nations at a dis- 

28. Parent: 'are doing'; 'have in contemplation.' 

43. Cras . . . occupato : ' to-morrow let Jupiter envelope the 
heavens in a dark cloud.' 

46. Neque diffinget : ' nor will he alter.' 

53. Laudo . . . pennas : ' I praise fortune when she is stable ; 
but if she flies soon.' 

57. Non est meum : ' it is not my way.' 

64. Geminusque Pollux : ' and the twin brothers Castor and 


Other distinguished poets and orators, before Horace, had 
spoken of the fame of their own writings ; and, although at the 
present day it would hardly comport with our ideas of delicacy 
or propriety to do so, yet it was very different with the Romans. 
An action, which is not in itself criminal, depends for its pro- 
priety, or impropriety, on the common usage and sentiments of 
the place and the age. Among the Romans it was usual for 
men of genius to express their opinion on their own claims to 
distinction ; and candidates for office did not hesitate to come 
forward and solicit the suffraores of their fellow citizens. 

1. Exegi : " i. e. erexi ; in altum eduxi." Mitsch. 

2. Situ : c structure.' 

3. Impotens : ' violent,' ' which cannot be controlled.' 

8. Recens : ' flourishing.' 

9. Virgine : ' vestal virgin,' whose duty it was to attend the 
ehief priest in religious silence, when he went in solemn pro- 
cession to the Capitol to offer sacrifice. 

12. Regnavit populorum : by a Greek idiom ; see Lat. Gram. 
R. XVI. Obs. 1. 

13. Princeps : ' the first,' who introduced the iEolian mea- 
sures of Sappho and Alcaeus. 


Augustus had been in Gaul, where he had put a stop to the 
progress of the Sicambri, and conflrmed the conquests of Tibe- 


314 NOTES. 

rius and Drusus over the Rhseti and Vindehei. His return was 
expected with much impatience at Rome, where a magnificent 
triumph was preparing for him. On this occasion Antonius Ju- 
lius, then prsetor of the city, requested Horace to write a Pinda- 
ric ode in honour of Augustus. Our poet confesses himself un- 
equal to the task, and tells Antonius that he can much better 
perform it himself ; while at the same time, as his commentators 
say, he surpassed even Pindar. 

3. Daturus nomina : it will be recollected that Icarus, the 
son of Dsedalus, is said to have given a name to the Icarian 
Sea by being drowned in it. He flew too high, and the sun 
melted the wax with which his wings were constructed, and he 
fell into that part of the Archipelago which bears his name. 

7. Profundo . . . ore : i. e. with deep and majestic eloquence. 

10. Nova . . . verba: although writers of dithyrambic poetry 
were not restrained by the ordinary laws of number and mea- 
sure, and gave way to a daring irregularity not allowed to any 
other form of writing ; yet they had no right to coin 'new 
words.' But they made new combinations ; and nova verba 
probably means compound words, not so used before. 

13. Regesve . . . sanguinem : ' or celebrates those princely he- 
roes ; ' i. e. Theseus, Pirithoiis, Bellerophon, and others. See 
Class. Dict. 

17. Eha . . . palma : i. e. the crown won at the Olympic 
games at Elis. 

19. Centum . . . munere : i. e. " carmine centum statuis prae- 
ferendo." Doer. 

22. Vires animumque moresque : ' bodily strength, courage, 
and moral virtues.' 

25. Multa . . . tractus : ' whenever Pindar rises to the lofty 
regions of the clouds, a strong and even breeze supports that 
Dircsean swan.' Dirce is a fountain in Bceotia, near Thebes, 
vvhere Pindar was born. 

33. Concines ; i. e. tu poeia, O Antoni, canes. 

35. Per sacrum clivum : this alludes to the manner in which 
a victorious general in a triumph led the captive princes in the 
procession to the Capitol, which was situated on a hili. 

49. Tuque : The tu must not be referred to sol, nor to 
triumphe, as some have supposed, but to Antonius, as the whole 
drift of the sentence implies. For as he married the emperor's 
niece, he would of course be near his chariot in the procession. 

52. Dicemus: sc. nos, ego et omnis civitas. We will often 
shout, Io triumphe. This was the usual exelamation on such 

53. Te: this also, of course, refers to Antonius, who, being of 
high rank, must offer a sacrifice of corresponding magnificence, 
while a trifling one would suffice the humble bard. 

57. Curvatos . . . ignes : i. e. resembling the bright crescent 
of the moon when three days old. 


59. Qua . . . fulvus : sc. fronte ; ' where he has a white 
spot to be seen ; but tawny as to the rest of his body.' 


Horace addresses this ode to the Muse Melpomene, as the 
patroness of lyric poetry. He thanks the Muses for their fa- 
vours to hira even frora the hour of his birth ; and seems to im- 
piy that he received in the first moments of life whatever dis- 
tinguished him afterwards. The ode is written with so much 
beauty and feeling, that Scaliger says he would rather be the 
author of it, than be the king of Arragon. 

2. Placido lumine : ' with benignant eye.' 

3. Labor Isthmius : ' the Isthmian games.' 

10. Sed . . . nobilem : the construction is, Sed aquce quce prce- 
fiuunt fertile Tibur, et spessaz comoz nemorum fingent nobilem 
JEolio carmine. 

14. Soboles : ' the youth of Rome, the queen of cities, see fit to 
place me with the choirs of lyric poets.' 

18. O Pieri : ' O Muse Melpomene.' Pieri is the vocative 
from Pieris, -idis. 


Augustus had desired Horace to write two odes ; one upon 
the Secular games ; and the other upon the conquests of Dru- 
sus and Tiberius in Pannonia. The poet commences this ode 
with the praises of Drusus, as it was his first campaign, and as 
he was more beloved by Augustus than Tiberius. In the XHIth 
ode of this book he continues the subject principally in praise 
of Tiberius. 

1. Qualem . . . Vindelici : the order of construction is, Qua- 
lem olimjuventas et patrius vigor propulit nido, inscium laborum, 
alitem ministrum futminis, (cui Jupiter, rex deorum, permisit reg- 
num in vagas aves, expertus eum fidelem in rapiendo Ganymede 
Jlavo,) vernique venti, nimbis jam remotis, docuere paventem inso- 
litos nisus ; mox, fyc. . . . talem Vindelici vidtre Drusum geren- 
tem bella sub Rhcctis Alpibus. — Alitem : ' the eagle.' — Ministrum 
fulminis : ' the thunder-bearer.' 

6. Laborum . . inscium : ' unused to flying.' 

14. Ab ubere jam lacte depulsum : " i. e. ab ubere matris, adeo- 
que jam lacte, quo adbuc nutritus fuerat, depulsum." 

18. Quibus (sc. Vindelicis) . . . distuli : it is matter of doubt 
to comraentators how these four verses came here. All admit 
them to be unworthy of tlie poet, and brought in without ap- 
parent reason. £ome suppose it may have been a common 
question, when talking of the conquests of Drusus, from whence 
the Vindellci derived the the custom of arminor themselves with 
a.xes, like the Amazons. Others think they may have been 

316 NOTES. 

written in ridicule of some other poet, who had attempted to 
celebrate the same conquests, and used some such language. 

24. Consiliis . . . revictce : ' vanquished by the wisdom of this 
youthful prince.' 

28. In pueros . . . JVerones : Tiberius and Drusus were the 
sons of Tiberius Nero by Livia. When Augustus married their 
mother Livia, he adopted Tiberius and Drusus ; and brought 
them up with the same tenderness and care that he would have 
done, had they been his own children. 

35. Utcunquce . . . culpcc : ' whenever good precepts are want- 
ing, vices obscure the natural endowments.' 

38. Metaurum Jiumen : Hasdrubal, the brother of Hanmbal, 
was sent from Carthage with a powerful reinforcement to 
meet Hannibal in Italy ; and had he eucceeded, the fate 
of Rome would have been settled. Claudius Nero, then en- 
camped in sight of Hannibal, secretly left his camp with a de- 
tachment of soldiers, and defeated and slew Hasdrubal at the 
river Metaurus. The Carthaginians did not even know of the 
departure of Nero, till he caused the head of Hasdrubal to be 
thrown into their camp. This dispelled the darkness that over- 
hung Latium. Then Hannibal exclaimed, on beholding it, " I 
know the fate of Ca-rthage." 

41. Almd risit adored: 'smiled with a cheering victory.' — 
Adorea, from ador, 'fine corn,' was a distribution of wheat 
among the soldiers, as a reward afler victory. 

42. Dirus . . . .Afer : Hannibal. 

45. Posthoc: i. e. after Nero's victory. — Usque : 'continu- 

48. Fana . . . rectos : i. e. the temples had the images of the 
gods replaced. The Carthaginians had thrown them down, and 
polluted the temples. 

51. Sectamur : ' we pursue.' 

54. Sacra : Penates ; sacrorum ritus. 

64. Echioniceve Thebce : Echion was the son-in-law of Cad- 
mus, and assisted him in building Thebes. 

65. Merses .• sc. gentem Romanam. 

68. Conjugibus loquenda : " i. e. ccesonm maritorum conjugi- 
bus cum luctu memoranda." 


The first ode in this book was composed in honour of Augus- 
tus, and in the hope that he would return immediately. This 
was written in consequence of his delay ; and is an expression 
of the affection of the Romans for Augustus, and of their impa- 
tience for his return. The other was animated with Pindaric 
fire, and seemed to be an earnest of the triumph that awaited 
Augustus ; while this is full of tenderness and desire for his 


15. Sic . . . Casarem : ' so Rome, full of strong and sincere 
<3esires, demands her Cassar.' The poet proceeds to give the 
reasons which the Romans had for respecting and loving Au- 
gustus ; and enumerates some of the blessings of his reign. 

23. Laudantur . . . puerperce : i. e. " matres pariunt liberos, 
patri suo similes." Doer. 

24. Culpam . . . comes : ' punishment closely pursues the crim- 

29. Condit : ' spends ' ; ' passes.' 

31. Et alteris . . . deum : the Romans used two tables at their 
entertainments ; the first for meats, the second for fruits and 
wine. At the second table they sung hymns, and offered liba- 
tions to their household gods and to such others as they pleased. 
After the battle at Actium, the senate decreed that libations 
shouid be made to Augustus, not only at private, but at public 
feasts. And the year following they ordered that he should 
have a place in the hymns that were sung to the gods. 


This ode, like the XVIIIth of the first book, is a hymn of 
praise and prayer to Apollo and Diana ; and seems to have 
reference to the Carmen Sceculare, at the end of the odes. It 
was to be sung by a choir of young men and virgins. 

1. Proles Niohea : the seven sons and seven daughters of 
Niobe that were slain by Apollo and Diana, on account of the 
insolence of their mother. 

2. Raptor : Tityus, or Tityos, ofFered violence to Latona. 

3. Prope victor : Achilles is so called because he slew Hec- 
tor, the chief defender of Troy. 

4. Phthius : < Phthian,' born at Phthia in Thessaly. Achilles 
fell at Troy because he was insolent to Apollo. 

13. llle: sc. Achilles. 

14. Malh feriatos : ' imprudently engaged in festivity.' 

18. JYescios fari pueros : rh-xia. rsxv«, ' infants that could not 

19. Ureret : for ussisset. — Latentem : for latentcs. 

22. Adnuisset . . . muros : ' had favoured the affairs of ^Eneas, 
that the walls of another city might rise under betfer auspices.' 

28. Levis Agyieu : ' O youthful Apollo.' — Levis : ' smooth,' 
without a beard ; indicative of youth. — Agyieu : an epithet of 
Apollo, from kymk y ' a street ' ; because statues were erected to 
him in the streets. 

35. Lesbium . . . pedem : * attend well to the Sapphic mea- 
sure.' Sappho belonged to Lesbos. The Carmen Sceculare, to 
which he here probably refers, is written in Sapphic measure. 

37. LatoncB puerum : Apollo. 

38. Rite . . . JYoctilucam : ' and duly celebrating Diana, who 
illuminates the night by her increasing splendour.' The Secu- 


318 NOTES. 

lar Poem was sung in the early days of the moon, before it 
came to the full. 

41. Nupta jam dices : ' shortly, when married, you will say.' 
The Romans imagined that the virgins who had the honor of 
ainging the Secular Poem were soonest married. 


Tn this beautiful ode the poet does not merely deseribe the 
pleasures and charms of Spring. His object seems to be to in- 
culcate a moral lesson. He would show by the rapid succes- 
sion of the seasons, and the decay of all things in the vegetable 
kingdom, that man himself is rapidly passing away ; and that 
whatever he has to do in this life must be done quickly. 

3. Mutat terra vices : * the earth changes its appearance.' — 
Ripas . . . prcetereunt ; ' flow within their banks.' The streams, 
that had from the melting of snow and from the rains overflowed 
their banks, have now subsided. 

7. Et almum . . . diem: ' and the hour which hurries orTthe 
grateful day.' 

13. Damna . . . lunce : ' but the quickly gliding months repair 
the losses made by the changing seasons.' The ancients count- 
ed their months by the new rnoons ; hence lunce, for menses. 

17. Hodiernce . . . summce : ' to tbe sum of life attained this 

21. Sphndida . . . arbitria : ' and Minos shall have passed his 
awful sentence.' 

26. Hippolytum .■ see Hippolytus and Pirithoiis in the Class. 


This ode is supposed to have been written either at the time 
of the Saturnalia, when it was customary among the Romans 
to send presents to their friends ; or in return for something 
valuable which the poet had received from Censorinus ; for 
which he sent him these verses. So poets have usually paid 
their debts of gratitude. 

1. Donarem . . . sodalibus : ' I should take pleasure in giving 
to my friends, O Censorinus, bowJs and grateful vessels ot 

5. Divite me . . . Scopas : 'if I were rich in the works of art, 
which either Parrhasius or Scopas produced.' Parrhasius was 
a celebrated painter, and Scopas a distinguished statuary. 

7. Hic saxo : ' Scopas in marble.' 

8. Ponere : ' to represent.' 

12. Et pretium . . . muneri : ' and can explain to you the 
value of the gift ; ' that is, he can set forth the importance of 
poetry in immortalizing the great and the good, wliich he goes 
on to show. 


13. Non incisa . . . ducibus : * it is not marble monuments 
with magnificent inscriptions, that give life and everlasting 
fame to great men afler death.' 

18. Ejus . . . laudes : the construction is, Clariiis indicant 
laudcs cjus qui rediit lucratus nomen ab JJfricd domitd, quam fyc. 
Scipio gained the name of Africanus from his conquests in 

20. Calabra Pierides : the poet Ennius, of Rudiae in Cala- 
bria, celebrated the victory of Scipio over Hannibal in Africa. 

22. Quid . . . puer : ' where would have been the fame of 
the son of Ilia and Mars ? ' Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romu- 
lus, was called also Ilia. 

25. Stygiis jiurtibus : ' from oblivion.' iEacus was indebted 
to the poets for the honorable place assigned to him in the 
Elysian fields. 

31. Tyndarida : * Castor and Pollux, that bright constella- 

o3. Ornatus . . . iempora : ' crowned as to his temples.' 

34. Liber : Bacchus. 


This ode is an encomium upon Lollius, who is represented as 
possessing the most exalted virtues. Lollius little deserved this 
praise. But his hypocrisy, for a long time, completely conceal- 
ed his real character, not only from Horace, but from others, 
and even from Augustus. But he was afterwards rightly un- 

I. JVe forte . . . chordis : the construction is, O Lolli, ne credas 
fortt, ut verba interitura, quce ego natus ad Aufidum sonantem 
longe loquor, socianda chordis per artes non antk vulgatas. ' Do 
not think, O Lollius,' &c. 

5. JVon si . . . Camana : ' aithough Homer holds the first 
rank among poets, Pindar and Simomdes are not therefore with- 
out their merit ; the menacing lines of Alcseus, and the grave and 
majestic muse of Stesichorus are still held in remembrance.' 

II. Vivuntque . . . puellct : ' those impassioned strains still 
live, which were tuned to the lyre of the ^Eolian maid,' Sappho. 

13. Non sola . . . Lacoena : the construction is, Lacctna Hele- 
ne non sola arsit comptos crines adulteri, et awum, ^-c. 

18. Non semel Ilios : Troy was besieged by Hercules, and by 
the Amazons, before it was by the Greeks. 

30. Celata : i. e. not celebrated by poets and historians. 

39. Non unius anni : the meaning is, that the services of 
Lollius were not confined to the year of his consulship, but that 
his influence was long felt with the wise and good who were 
magistrates afler him. 

42. Dona nocentium : ' the bribes of those who wished to 
^orrupt him.' 

520 NOTES. 

43. Et per obstantes . . . arma : i. e. and through crowds of flat- 
terers has triumphantly displayed his firmness and virtue. — 
Jlrma : i. e. virtutem et integritatem. 


Ligurinus was a handsome young man, who was so weak as 
to be vain of his beauty. He lost all the advantages which na- 
ture had bestowed upon him by his ridiculous vanity ; which 
Horace attempts to correct by reminding him that all his per- 
sonal attractions will soon fall a prey to time and age. 

2. Insperata . . . superbiaz : ' when the wings of your pride 
shall come unexpeeted ' : i. e. when that beauty, which raised 
your pride, shall unexpectedly take wings, or disappear. 

6. Alterum : ' another ' ; i. e. changed from what you now 


Horace invites Phyllis to come and celebrate with him the 
birth-day of his patron Msecenas. It is worthy of remark that 
these celebrations were always attended with some religious 
solemnities. The poet here tells her, that the altars are crown- 
ed with vervain, and waited to be sprinkled with the blood of a 

5. Fulges : for fulgeas ; or, as Doering prefers, in the future 
from the old verb fulgo, meaning simply, ' with which your 
hair shall be crowned.' 

8. Spargier : for spargi, by Paragoge. 

9. Cuncta festinat manus : ' all hands are busy.' 

12. Vertice : ' from the house-top.' The Romans made their 
fires in the middle of their rooms, with an opening above to let 
out the smoke. 

16. Mensem . . . findit Aprilem : ' divides April, the month of 
sea-born Venus.' The word Idus comes from the Tuscan 
Iduare, to divide. The festival of Venus was celebrated in April. 

20. Ordinat ; ' counts.' 


This ode is written in a playful, familiar manner to invite 
Virgil to join a party of pleasure, at which, it would seem, 
that each individual was expected to produce something to- 
wards the entertainment. There is no doubt but this is ad- 
dressed to Virgil the poet, though some have imagined it to be 
another person. 

2. Anima): 'winds.' — Lintea: 'thesails.' 

6. Infelix avis : ' the swallow ' ; into which the wretched 
Procne was changed. For Itys and Procne, see Class. Dict. — 


Et Cecropice . . . libidines : ' and the eternal reproach of the 
house of Cecrops ; because she (Procne) too cruelly revenged 
the brutal violence of king Tereus.' 

11. Deum: Pan. 

14. Calibus : the wine made at Cales was in high estimation. 

16. JVdrdo . . . merebere : ' you shall share our wine by bring- 
ing perfume.' It was a common thing among the Romans for 
three or four friends to meet together, and each one to furnish 
something to their entertainment. 

22. Non ego te . . . domo : ' I have no thought of entertaining 
you with wine free of expense, as if I were the rich master 
in a well-stored house.' 

26. Nigrorum . . . ignium : 'of the black funeral pile.' 


Horace in his youth had been much in love with Lyce, a 
beautiful, but proud girl, who did not reciprocate his passion. 
He now takes occasion to insult her by triumphing over her 
faded charms, and exulting at the ravages which time has 
made upon her beauty. It would have been well for the reputa- 
tion of the poet, if this ode had not been written. 

9. Nec Coce, . .. purpurcB : 'neither the purple from Cos.' 
This was an island in the ^Egean sea, from which choice silks 
were brought. 

10. Clari lapides : ' sparkling jewels.' 

11. Notis . . . fastis: ' recorded in the public registers ' ; in 
which were marked tbe events of each year, and among them 
the births. So that the age of any one might be known by 
referring to these registers. 

16. Surpuerat : for surripuerat. 

17. Felix post Cynaram : ' who yielded in charms to none but 
Cynara.' This was another beautiful young woman with whom 
Horace, in his addresses, was more successful. — Et artium . . . 

facies : ' and a face possessing every pleasing charm.' 


In the introduction to the third ode of this book it is men- 
tioned, that Augustus had desired Horace to write in honor of 
the conquests achieved by Drusus and Tiberius. In that ode 
the praises of Drusus are chiefly celebrated ; in this, those of 
Tiberius. But the beginning is employed in ascribing the 
success of the two brothers to the wisdom and prudence of 
Augustus ; instead of coming at once to the eulogium of the 
immediate agents. 

7. Quem . . . posses : ' whom the Vindelici, hitherto free from 
the Roman laws, have lately felt, and learned what you can do 
m war.' 

222 NOTES. 

13. Plus vice simplici : ' more than once.' 

14. Major Neronum : Tiberius. 

16. Auspiciis . . . secundis : sc. Augusti. 

17. Spectandus : l distinguished ' ; or deserving admiration. 
21. Pleiadum choro : 'the choir of the Pleiades ' ; they are 

seven in number ; and hence frequently called the Seven Stars. 
25. Tauriformis : ' branching,' like the horns of a bull ; a 
forra under which the gods of rivers were frequently repre- 

32. Sine clade : ' without loss to his own army.' 

33. Te . . . prcebente : sc. O Auguste. 

36. Vacuam : Antony and Cleopatra left Alexandria at the 
approach of Augustus. 

39. Peractis . . . arrogavit : ' has ascribed to your victorious 

41. Te : sc. miratur. 

45. Te : sc. audit : " h. e. tibi dicto audiens est, iibi paret" 


A deep feeling _of gratitude, as well as a strong personal 
attachment to Augustus, breaks out and shows itself on almost 
every occasion, where our poet can with propriety indulge in his 
favourite theme. He devotes this whole ode to the praises of 
his glorious reign and princely virtues. The immediate occa- 
sion of the ode was probably the closing of the gates of the 
temple of Janus. 

2. Jncrepuit lyra : this expression has been variously explain- 
ed ; but Doering's interpretation seems to be the most natural 
and the most classical. He joins lyra with loqui ; thus, Me 
volentem lyrd loqui (canere) prozlia et victas urbes Phcebus in- 
crepuit (graviter admonuit), ne darem parva velaper Tyrrhenum 

6. Et signa: the military standards, restoredby Phraates to 
Augustus, were carried to the Capitol, i. e. the temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus. See Book I. Ode XXI. 3. note. 

9. Janum Quirini : the temple of Janus was built by Romu- 
lus ; hence Horace calls it Janum Quirini, or Romulus' Janus. 
The gates of this temple were always open, except in time of 
peace. They had been only twice shut before the reign of 
Augustus, and three times during that period. This was the 
third time. — Ordinem: thus ; et injecit frarna licenti(B evaganti 
extra re.ctum ordinem. 

21. Non : sc. populi. 

22. Edicta . . . Julia : i. e. the laws which Augustus imposed 
on vanquished nations. He belonged to the Julian family. 

25. Profestis lucibus : i. e. common days, before the festi- 

EPODES. 323 

29. Virtute functus . . . duces : ' generals distinguished for 
their valour.' 
32. Progeniem Veneris: Augustus. 


As there have been various conjectures respecting the mean- 
ing and derivation of the title of this Book, it may be well for 
the reader to peruse the following remarks of Doering upon the 
subject. " De inscriptione hujus libri Epidon, sive ab Horatio, 
sive a Grammatico aliquo, profecta, unde illa petita fuerit, et 
quo sensu accipienda sit, non amplius ambigi potest. Scilicet 
Iamborum inventor, Archilochus, ejusmodi quoque Iamborum 
genus invenisse dicitur, quos Wuhv$ appellaret, quia in illis, ut 
Diomedes ait, versuum partes (h. e. versus breviores) iegitimis 
et integris versibus l-rJ&ovrtu, h. e. accinuntur, vel, ut Hephaestlon 
docet, orciv fctyoika) ffTi^u TtgiTTov n \Tt<pi^rtr«t, Jam verd cum ipse 
Horatius Archilochi se imitatorem profiteatur, hic liber Epo- 
don ejus juvenilia inprimis et maledicentiora carmina contineat." 
It is therefore a name adopted from Archilochus. 


This epode was written on the eve of the great engagement be- 
tween Augustus on one side, and Antony with Cleopatra's forces 
and fleet on the other. Meecenas had refused to have Horace 
accompany him on this expedition, as he had been accustomed 
to do on similar occasions. The poet feels evidently hurt by 
the refusal. He expresses his anxiety and deep concern. 

1. lbis . . . propugnacula : ' you will then venture, O my friend 
Msecenas, with light Liburnian gallies, amidst the lofty bulwarks 
of Antony's ships.' The fleet of Augustus was composed, in a 
great measure, ofthese light gallies. See Bookl. Ode XXXI. 
30. note. 

5. Qtcid nos . . . gravis : l and what shall I do, to whom life 
is delightful while you survive, but to whom it would be a bur- 
den, were you taken away.' 

7. Jussi : sc. a te. 

9. Hunc laborem: i. e. the danger of this carapaign. 

21. Ut adsit : ' although she were with them.' We find ut 
used in this way for licet by other writers also. 

25. Ut juvencis . . . meis : by Hypallage, for ut ptures juvenci 
illigati meis aratris nitantur. 

27. Calabris . . . Lucana mutei ■ by Hypallage, for Calabra 

324 NOTES. 

I/ucanis ; Lucania was cooler than Calabria, and suited to sum- 
mer pasturage. 

29. Nec ut . . . mcenia : i. e. nor that my Sabine villa, built 
of white marble, may extend to the walls of Tusculum, far 
above it. Tusculum was built by Telegonus, the son of Circe ; 
hence Circaa mcenia. It was more than twenty miles from 
Horace's country seat. 

33. Avarus . . . premam .- ' I may bury in the earth, like ava- 
ricious old Chremes.' This is a character in a play of Te- 

34. Discinctus . . . nepos .• ' or prodigal may squander away like 
a spendthrift.' The Romans tied up their gowns with a girdle 
when they were at work, and wished to be free from incum- 
brance ; hence the phrase accingere ad opus. But when un- 
employed they suffered them to flow loosely ; hence discinctus 
and dissolutvs signify an effeminate and negligent person. — .7Ve- 
pos • this word, which originally signified a grandson, from the 
too great indulgence generally shown by grandfathers, and the 
ruin that ensued, became the common term for ' spendthrift.' 


This epode is a satire upon avarice. The poet introduces 
Alfius, a covetous old usurer, (who was satisfied of the necessity 
of renouncing his mode of life, and who had resolved on re- 
tiring from the city,) as recounting the blessings and the charms 
of a country life. After he has called in all his money, and by 
way of soliloquy gone throughwith the inimitable description of 
rural felicity contained in this poem, his ruling passion comes 
over him too strongly to be resisted, and he again lets his 
money out on interest. 

4. Fcenore : ' money transactions.' Fcenus usually signifies 
the interest of money, which, by the laws of the Twelve Tables, 
must not exceed one per centum a month. 

7. Forum: ' courts of law.' 

12. Inserit : ' he ingrafts.' 

13. Mugientium .- sc. boum. 

20. Certantem . . . purpurce, : ' the grape vying with purple.' 
22. Tutor jinium : ' the tutelary god of boundaries.' 
24. In tenaci gramine : ' on a bed of grass.' By tenaci we 
may understand ' strong-rooted ' ; ' not easily pulled up by the 
roots.' It is here used rather as an expletive word. 
28. Quod : ' which combination of sounds.' 
31. tMultd cane : i. e. with a numerous pack of hounds ; as 
multo milite. 

33. Amite : i. e. a pole around which the nets were fastened. 

35. Advenam : i. e. a visiter, migrating in the winter to the 
warm climate of Italy. 

41. Perusta solibus : ' sun-burnt' 

EPODES. 325 

49. Conchylia: 'shell-fish.' 

50. Scai-i : the scarus was a delicate fish, but it is not cer- 
tainly known what it was. 

53. Jlfra avis : a turkey. 

54. Attagen : supposed to he a partridge. 
57. Herba lapathi : a species of sorrel. 

59. Terminalibus : the festival of the god Terminus, or the 
boundary stone, which was considered as sacred. 

65. Positosque vernas : i. e. vernas positos circum renidentes 
Lares. These slaves indicate the wealth of the owner. 

67. Fanerator Jllfius '• here the old usurer's soliloquy con- 


70. Kalendis .- he cannot resist the temptation, and seeks an 
opportunity of loaning his money on the first of the month. 


Horace, when supping with Mascenas, had eaten garlic, 
which made him sick. He complains bitterly against garlic 
in this ode ; and says, to be made to eat it is sufficient punish- 
ment for the blackest crime, since no poison is more terrible. 

3. Edat . . . nocentius: 'let him eat garlic, more noxious 
than hemlock.' 

4. Messorum : Garlick was said to be given to reapers as a 
tonic, and also as a counter poison when they had eaten some 
other noxious substance. It was commonly given, as Virgil 
represents it, mixed with wild thyme. 

5. Qiiid . . . pr&cordiis .• " i. e. quod genus veneni est hoc, quo 
discrucior ? " 

8. Canidia : this was a famous sorceress, to whom the fifth 
epode is addressed. 

11. Ignota . . .juga: i. e. when he was about to yoke the 
brazen-footed bulls, which breathed fire, and guarded the gol- 
den fleece. 

13. Hoc . . . alite .- * having avenged herself on her rival by 
presents infected with this, she fled on a winged dragon.' Ja- 
son had fallen in love with Glauca, or Creusa, as she is some- 
times called. By way of revenge Medea sent Glauca a golden 
crown and a magnificent wedding garment, which she had poi- 
soned. These presents had the desired erTect ; and Glauca was 
destroyed by them. Medea is said to have fled from the ven- 
geance of Jason through the air in a chariot drawn by fiery 

lf. Munus : this refers to the poisoned garment sent by De- 
janira to Hercules, which had been dipped in the blood of the 
Centaur Nessus. — Efficacis : ' indefatigable.' 


226 NOTES. 


In this epode the poet inveighs vehemently against some per- 
son who, from the condition of a slave, had become a military 
tribune, and was making an ofFensive display of his wealth and 
dignity, to the annoyance of the more reputable part of the 
community. It is commonly supposed to be addressed to Me- 
nas, a freedman of Cneus Pompey, and in most manuscripts it is 
inscribed to him. 

1. Lupis . . . compede : the construction is, Quanta discordia 
sortitb obtigit Ivpis et agnis, tanta est mihi tecum, O Mena, pe- 
ruste quod ad latusfunibus Ibericis et quod ad crura durd com- 
pede. — Sortitb : ' naturally.' 

3. Peruste : ' marred or hardened.' Menas had been a pirate 
before he served Pompey, and had been scpurged, and in 

7. Metiente te t ' as you proudly strut along.' 

9. Vertat huc et huc : ' turns away in disgust.' 

12. PrcEconis ad fastigium : ' till the beadle was weary.' 

16. Othone contempto : in spite of Otho's law, which assigned 
seats in the theatre^to the equestrian order separate from the 
people ; and also made a distinction between those who were 
knights by birth, and those who were promoted to that rank. 
This fellow, who had been a slave, takes his place in the first 
seats, which were appropriated exclusively to those born 

17. Quid attinet . . . pondere .- i. e. to what purpose is it that 
so many brazen-beaked ships were sent ? 

20. Hoc . . . militum : ' if such a wretch be made military 


Horace here describes the diabolical rites and ceremonies of 
an assemblage of sorceresses, of which Canidia is the principal 
character. They have taken a boy of noble birth, whom they 
are about to put to death by torture, in order to prepare from 
his marrow and dried liver a philtre, or love potion, capable of 
recailing an inconstant lover to her arms. 

1. At : the scene opens in a pathetic manner by the exclama- 
tion of the terrified boy, who perceives with horror the glaring 
eyes of the hags all turned upon him, with a fiend-like expres- 
sion, which cannot be misunderstood. 

5. Te : i. e. Canidia. — Si vocata . . . adfuit : i. e. if you were 
ever a mother. 

7. Purpurce : youth of family wore the toga prcetexta, a gown 
bordered with purple, till they were seventeen years old. The 
boy conjures Canidia by this token of his rank, which ought to 
protect him. 

EPODES. 327 

12. Insignibus raptis : his robe ancl bulla, which was a gold 
or silver heart worn round the neck, were torn off by the hags 
while the boy was making his intreaty ; so that at the conclu- 
sion of it he stands naked. 

17. Jubet . . . erutas : here Canidia calls for the drugs and 
materials which witches were supposed to use in composing 
their philtres. Among them is the wild fig-tree, because it 
bears neither fruit nor flower, and is esteemed ill-omened ; and 
to make it more dreadful it must be torn up by the roots from 
a burying-place. 

19. Et uncta . . . strigis .- the construction is, Et ova nocturna 
strigis uncta sanguine turpis ranre, plumamque nocturnse strigis. 

24. Flammis aduri Colchicis : i. e. to be burned or concocted 
with magical fires, such as Medea used at Colchis. 

25. Sagana : Sagana, Veia, and Folia were sorceresses at- 
tendant on Canidia. — Expedita : ' with her gown tucked up.' 
that she might be unincumbered. 

26. Avernales : ' from lake Avernus.' 

32. Qi/6 . . . spectaculo •• ' where the boy, having his body 
buried, might die with hunger in the sight of food changed two 
or three times a day.' 

35. Quantiim extant aqud : i. e. as much as the heads of per- 
sons when swimming are out of the water. 

38. Amoris . . . poculum : ' a love potion.' 

39. Interminato .• ' forbidden,' or which could not be reached. 

40. Intabuissent : 'were wasted away.' 

41. Masculcz : ' imrnoderale.' 

43. JYeapolis : Naples, from riches and advantages of climate, 
was regarded as a place of pleasure and amusement, otiosa. 
45. Excantata : ' charmed.' 
54. JVumen : ' avenging power.' 

58. Suburance canes : ' may the dogs of Subura.' This was 
one of the most public streets of Rome. 

59. Quale . . . manus .- ' the choicest my hands ever made.' 
Canidia represents her gallant, Varus, as perfumed with the 
essences she herself had made. 

61. Cur . . . valent : ' why are my charms less potent than 
those of Medea ? ' There seem to have been some signs of 
the failure of her charms, and she asks, ' What is the matter ? ' 
Quid accidit ? 

62. Medece, .• sc. venenis. 

63. XJlta pellicem .• sc. Glaucen : see Epode III. 13. note. 

68. Ftfellit me : ' has escaped my notice.' 

69. Indormit . . . pellicum : ' he sleeps on the beds of all my 
rivals, perfumed with drugs that inspire obhvion.' 

71. Solutus : sc. Varus. Varus, the object of her enchant- 
ments, is quite free from their effects, by the influence of some 
niore powerful enchantress. 

73. Non usitatis . . . caput : having been hitherto ur.suc- 

328 NOTES. 

cessful, she now exclaims, in full confidence of the efficacy of 
the terrible and unusual philtre she is preparing from the mar- 
row and dried liver of the boy, You shall return to me, with sor- 
row, O wretched Varus, by the charm I now prepare. 

76. Marsis . . . vocibus . ' by the incantations of the Marsians.' 
They were so called from Marsus, the founder of their nation ; 
and were considered the most powerful sorcerers in Italy. 

83. Sub hcec : ' after these words.' After Canidia had thus 
spoken, the boy no longer sought to soften these impious wretch- 
es by intreaties, which he perceived to be in vain. 

86. Misit . . . pr&ces .- 'he uttered imprecations ' ; such as 
Thyestes made against his brother Atreus. See Class. Dict. 

87. Venena . . . vicem : ' enchantments may confound the 
great distinctions between right and wrong ; but they cannot 
change the destiny of mankind,' i. e. they cannot avert the pun- 
ishment that awaits the guilty ; you will have your reward. 

89. Diris : ' by my curses.' 

97. Vicatim : ' from street to street.' 

99. Different : ' will scatter.' 

100. Esquilinai alites : birds of prey frequented the Esquiline 
hill, because here malefactors were executed, and their bodies 
were left exposed ; the poor also were buried there. 

101. Parentes : the poor boy thinks it some consolation, that 
his parents will see these guilty hags punished for their unnatu- 
ral crimes. 


This epode is addressed to some ill-natured and backbiting 
poet, whom Horace compares to a worthless dog, that snarls at 
travellers and strangers ; but drops his cowardly ears and runs, 
if a wolf appears, or if there is need of his aid. It is frequently 
published with this inscription, In Cassium Severum. But it is 
probable that neither this, nor the IVth Epode against Menas, 
was inscribed by Horace himself with the real name. 

1 . Hospites : ' strangers.' 

6. Amica vis .- ' a friendly guard.' 

10. Projectum : intimating that he was easily bribed to keep 

13. Qualis . . . gener : i. e. such as was Archilochus, when 
rejected as a son-in-law by the faithless Lycambes. He wrote 
a satyrical poem so severe against him, that both father and 
daughter destroyed themselves in vexation and despair. 

14. Acer hostis : sc. Hipponax. See Class, Dict. 


This epode was addressed to the Roman people at the time 
vvhen the civil war was about to break out between Augustus 
and Antony. After the defeat of Lepldus, and tlie death of 

EPODES. 329 

Sextus Pompey, there liad been a time of peace and repose to 
the commonwealth which was now about to be interrupted. 

2. Conditi •■ sc. in vaginis .• ' sheathed,' since the death of 
Sex. Pompey. 

3. Campis atqae JYeptuno : ' by land and sea.' 

12. Nunquam . . .feris: ' which are never cruel, unless to- 
wards beasts of a different kind.' 

18. Scelusque . . . necis : i. e. and the crime of Romulus in 
shedding his brother's blood. 

19. Ut: 'since.' 

20. Sacer nepotibus : ' fatal to posterity.' 


Previous to the general engagement at Actium, there had 
been several partial engagements between the forces of Augus- 
tus and Antony, in which fortune favoured the former. Horace, 
therefore, on hearing of that great battle, which he expected 
would prove decisive, addressed this epode to his patron Msece- 
nas, then at the scene of action, in anticipation of the glorious 
result he predicted to his friend. 

I. Ad feslas dapes : i. e. at a joyful festival on the occasion 
of Csesar's victory. 

6. Hdc : ' the lyre.' — lllis : ' the flutes.' — Barbarum .- h. e. 
Phrygium carmen. 

7. Neptunius dux : Sextus Pompey, either on account of 
some naval success of his own, or because his fatber had had 
the command of the sea, called himself the son of Neptune. 

9. Quce : sc. vincula. Pompey received all the slaves that 
would enter his service ; and the desertion was so great throuo-h 
all Italy, that prayers and sacriflces were made in the temples to 
arrest its progress. 

II. Romanus .... miles : i. e. Antony. 

12. Fcemincc : i. e. Cleopatra. 

13. Spadonibus . . . rugosis : ' wrinkled eunuchs.' 

16. Conopium : an Egyptian pavilion, or canopy, to keep off 
the flies and other insects. The Romans considered these as 
marks of effeminacy, and therefore dishonourable. 

17. Ad hoc . . . Ccesarem : ' at this unworthy spectacle two 
thousand Gauls, crying out with indignation, turned their horses 
and went over to Csesar.' These were probably the Gallo- 
Grecians, under Dejotarus and Amyntas, who deserted Antony 
and joined Augustus just before this battle. The second syl- 
lable in verterunt is shortened by Systole. 

20. Sinistorsum : when looking out to sea from the harbour 
of Actium, Italy is on the right, and Alexandria, to which Cleo- 
patra fled, is on the left. 

22. Intactas boves .- sc. jugo. 

23. Nec Jugurthino . . . ducem : ' you did not bring hcme 


330 NOTES. 

from the Jugurthine war, a general equal to him.' i. e. Marius 
from the conquest of Jugurtha did not return so great and glo- 
rious as Augustus. 

25. JVeque Africano •■ sc. a bello. — Cui: sc. Scipioni. 

26. Sepulcrum : ' monument.' 

27. Punico . . . sagum : by Hypaliage, for mutavit Punicum 
sagum sago lugubri ; ' changed his purple Phcenician dress for 

29. llle •. Antony. 

30. JVon suis : ' unpropitious.' 

33. Capaciores affer : the poet, filled with exultation, imagines 
himself already at the banquet with Mascenas. He does not 
yet know that further dangers are to be encountered by his 
friends in the pursuit which followed, and finally terminated, this 
dangerous struggle. 


This epode seems to be an ebullition of ill nature and of im- 
precations against Maevius, quite unworthy of our poet. This 
Masvius was detested by both Virgil and Horace, as a vile and 
despicable poetastcii, He was about to sail for Greece ; and 
as Horace had wished Virgil a prosperous voyage to Greece 
in Book I. Ode III. ; so he now prays for disasters upon his 
enemy Maevius. 

3. Latus : sc. navis. 

7. Quantus : ' in as great a fury as when.' 

14. Jijacis ratem •• the victorious army of the Greeks were 
shipwrecked on their rcuirn from Troy. The indignation of 
Pallas pursued Ajax, son of OQeus, in particular, on account of 
some violence offered by him to Cassandra in the temple of 
that goddess. 

19. Udo . . . remugiens . . . JVoto: 'roaring with the blasts of 
the rainy soutli wind.' 


Horace exhorts his friends to seize every occasion of enjoying 
life while it is in their power to do so, and especially to pass 
with him a rainy day in conviviality. He enforces his argu- 
ment by representing the Centaur Chiron, as giving the same 
advice to his pupil Achilles, after he had informed him that it 
was dccreed by fate that he should perisli at Troy. 

1. Contraxit : ' has enveloped.' 

2. Jovem : ' the air,' which is said to be brought down in 

5. Obductd . . . senectus : ' let the contracted brow of age be 
7. Deus . . . vice : ' by some kind change perhaps God will 

EPODES. 331 

restore things to their former state.' It seems there was some 
particular cause for the anxiety of the poefs friends, although 
it is uncertain what it was. 

9. Cyllened : invented by Mercury, who was born on mount 
Cyllene, in Arcadia. 

11. Centaurus : Chiron. — Alumno •• Achilles. 

13. Assaraci : Troy was formerly under Assaracus. 

15. Certo sublemine : 'byan unalterable decree ' ; or, by a 
thread that fixes your destiny. 

18. Deformis . . . alloquiis : l the sweet soothers of odious 


The civil war between Csesar and Pompey had been suc- 
ceeded by that between Octavius and Brutus ; and when 
these commotions had come to an end, others arose between 
Octavius, then called Augustus, and Antony. The Roman 
empire was divided between these chiefs, and the Adriatic 
was covered with their fleets. A battle was expected, which 
was to decide the fate of tlie empire. On the eve of this 
dreadful scene, Horace composed this epode, in wJiich he de- 
plores the condition of the Roman people, and intimates that 
they may as well abandon their country for ever, as live amidst 
such scenes of horrour and uncertainty. In short, the civil 
wars, which began between Marius and Sylla in the year 666 
of Rome, were never perfectly extinguished till the death of 
Antony in 724. 

4. Porsencc : when Tarquin the Proud was expelled from 
Rome he fied to Porsena, king of the Tuscans, who endeavour- 
ed witli a powerful army to reinstate him. But tlie daring con- 
duct of Mntius Scsevola, and his disclosure of the plot formed 
against Porsena's life, induced him to desist. 

5. Capuce : Hannibal had determined to make Capua the 
capital of Italy when he should complete his conquest of the Ro- 

6. JVovisque . . . infdelis : ' faithless in their frequent revolu- 
tions.' The Allobroges werc a people of Gaul famous for their 
frequent seditions. 

7. Cczruled . . . puhe : Tacitus describes the Germans as hav 
ing blue eyes ; hence the epithet cccruled. 

8. Parentibus: sc. nostris. 

9. Impia . . . cetas •. the construction is, Nos impia aitas devoti 
sanguinis perdemus civitatem, quam neque Jinitimi, &c. — De- 
voti sanguinis ; ' whose blood is devoted to destruction,' on ac- 
count of our crimes. 

13. Quceque . . . insolcns : the construction is, Insolensque 
dissipabit ossa Quhini, nefas videre ! qucje. carent ventis et soli- 
hus. — Quce carent ventis et solibus : l which are religiously pre- 

332 - NOTES. 

served from air and light ' ; i. e. which are yet preserved in 
their consecrated urn. 

15. Forte . . . laboribus : ' perhaps all, or the better part of 
you inquire what is to be done, in order to escape these evils.' 

17. Phoceeorum . . . exsecrata civitas : the Phocseans, a people 
of Ionia, rather than fall into the hands of the Persians, by 
whom they had been long harrassed, agreed to abandon their 
city. They then bound themselves by an oath never to return, 
til] a mass of glowing iron, which they threw into the sea, 
should rise to the surface. Afler various hardships they ar- 
rived in France, where they settled and built Massilia. 

25. Simul . . . nefas : ' that we may return whenever the 
rocks shali rise from the bottom of the sea, and swim on the 

27. Quando Padus . . . cacumina : l when the Po shall wash 
the summits of Mount Matinus.' 

31. Ut : 'sothat' 

36. Exsecrata : ' having" sworn to go.' 

37. Moltis . . . cubilia : ' let the faint-hearted and desponding 
cling- to this ill-omened abode.' 

42. Divites et insulas : * and the Fortunate Islands.' He 
probably refers to the Canaries, where it had already been pro- 
posed by Sertorius to settle. 

46. Suam . . . arborem : i. e. the natural, not ingrafted tree. 

52. JYec . . . humus : * nor does the teeming earth swell with 

54. JEstuosa . . . impotentia .- ' the scorching heat.' 

58. Utrumque : i. e. both rain and heat. 

59. Argoo . . . remige .• i. e. with invaders like the Argonauts. 

60. Impudica Colchis .- Medea. 

61. Comua : sc. antmnarum: ' their sail-yards.' 

65. Quorum: sc. sozculorum. 

66. Me vate : ' according to my prophecy.' Vates means 
both poet and prophet, because prophecies were given in verse. 


This epode professes to be a recantation of all the poet had 
said against Canidia in the fifth epode. He pretends that he is 
unable longer to bear the erTects of her vindictive spirit ; he ac- 
knowledges himself vanquished, and sues for mercy. But the 
whole is evidently ironical, and in fact a most keen and bitter 

1 . Jam . . . scientia : ' now at length I yield to the power of 
your art.' 

4. Libros carminum : ' books of enchantments.' 

7. Citumque . . . turbinem : ' stop, and turn back your rapidly 
whirling top.' Sorcerers had a kind of magical top, or rhom- 
hus, which turned round with a thread or yarn attachcd to it. 

EPODES. 333 

As this turned, it twisted the thread, and was supposed to in- 
crease the power of enchantment over the person subjected to 
its influence. Horace here intreats her to untwist the thread, 
and loose him from the power of her enchantment, by turning 
the machine backwards, retro. 

8. JYepotem . . . Nereium : Achilles. See Telephus in the 
Class. Dict. 

11. Unxere . . . Hectorem : i. e. the Trojan matrons obtained 
permission to anoint the body of Hector, which had been 
doomed to be the prey of dogs and vultures. 

13. Procidit: 'prostrated himself.' Priam went out from 
Troy to the tent of Achilles, and intreated him to restore the 
body of his son Hector ; which he did. 

15. Setosa . . . membra : the companions of Ulysses, who had 
been changed by Circe into swine, were permitted by her to 
resume their former shape, at the request of Ulysses. 

18. Relapsus : sc. est ; ' was restored.' 

23. Tuis . . . odoribus ; ' my hair is turning white by your 
enchantments.' — Odoribus : 'magic herbs.' 

25. Neque est : ' nor is it allowed.' 

26. Tenta: 'strained.' 

27. Negatum : ' what I before denied.' 

28. Sabella . . . Nznid ; ' that the incantations of the Samnites 
disturb the breast, and that the head is cleft by the charms of 
the Marsi.' 

35. Cales . . . Colchicis : ' you are heated against me, a living 
laboratory of Colchic poisons.' 

36. Stipendium : ' expiatory punishment.' 

39. Mendaci lyrd ; " qua nempe mulier impudica et improba, 
ut pudica et proba, laudatur." Doer. 

41. Perambulabis astra: i. e. you shall be represented in my 
verses as walking amidst the stars. 

42. Vice : ' at the treatment ' of their sister. 

44. Vati : i. e. to the poet Stesichorus, who had been punished 
by blindness for satirizing Helen, and whose sight was restored 
on his recantation of what he had written. 

47. Prudens ; ' skilled.' 

48. Novendiales . . .pulveres : ' in scattering their warm ashes,' 
i. e. ashes on the ninth day after death. Bodies were kept 
seven days, burned on the eighth, and their ashes buried on 
the ninth. 

53. Inultus . . . Cupidinis ; ' shall you unpunished expose and 
ridicule the mysteries of Cotytto, the rites of unbridled love ? ' 
Cotytto was the goddess of impurity and sensual indulgence. 

55. Et . . . venefici : i. e. and as if you were the high priest of 
our enchantments on the Esquiline hill. 

57. Qmc? proderat . . . anus ; ' what advantage should I gain 
by having enriched the sorceresses of Pelignum ? ' i. e. by pay- 
ing exorbitantly for their instructions in magic. 

334 NOTES. 

59. Sed . . . manent : ' but a fate more lingering than your 
wishes awaits you.' i. e. You will pray in vain for death to de- 
liver you from tortures and sufferings. This passage seems not 
to have been well understood by some commentators. 

70. Fastidiosa : l nauseating.' 

72. Insolentice : l resistless power.' 


This poem, designed to be sung at the celebration of the 
Secular Games, by a choir of fifty-four boys and girls, an equal 
number of each, is considered one of tbe most fmisbed per- 
formances of antiquity. These games were celebrated once in 
an age, or about a hundred years. They were instituted in con- 
sequence of certaimprophecies contained in the Sibylline Books, 
This celebration was originally distinguished by three solemn 
festivals, which were afterwards united in one festival, which 
continued three days and three nights successively. The first 
celebratlon of the Secular Games was in the year of Rome 245 ; 
the second was in 305 ; the thira was in 505 ; the fourth was in 
605 ; and the fiflh, for which Horace wrote this poem, was in 
737. It was therefore a hundred and thirty-two years since the 
last celebration. The present solemnities were announced with 
great pomp and preparation. The heralds were sent out into 
the provinces to invite all the world to a festival, such as they 
never had seen, and never again would see. The Quinde- 
cemvlri, some days before, distributed among the people certain 
lustral, or purifying substances, such as bitumen, sulphur, and 
certain kinds of grain. Sacrifices were made to the gods ; and 
their benedictions were implored upon the interests of Rome, 
which was the great object of this festival. 

4. Tempore prisco .- i. e. on this occasion of ancient origin. 
Many manuscripts have sacro. 

5. Quo Sihyllini : the Books of the Sibyls were written in 
hexameter verse, and contained, among othcr religious matters, 
the forms of the ceremonies at the Secular Games. 

14. llithyia: i.e. Diana, who had the care of womenin child- 

birth, and was invoked under three titles, Mithyia, Lucina, and 


17. Diva: Diana. — Patrum: ' of the Senate.' 

20. Lcge maritd : the Julian law, passed a short time before 

this was written, was designed for the encouragement of matri- 


mony, offering rewards to those who married, and subjecting 
those who did not to some privations. 

21. Certus . . . orbis : 'thatthe regular circle of a hundred 

23. Ter die claro : the festival continued three days and three 

25. Vosque . . . servet : ' and do you, O Fates, who are true 
in declaring what has been once decreed, and what the settled 
result of things will keep unchanged.' 

37. llice . . turmcB ; these were the Trojan troops who had 
settled in Italy under iEneas. 

41. Sine fraude : ' uninjured.' 

43. Baturus . . . relictis .- i. e. about to leave an empire more 
rkmrishing than Troy, which he left to come to Italy. 

49. Quceque . . . albis ; sc. gens : ' and may the nation which 
venerates you by the sacrifice of white oxen.' Many manu- 
scripts have quique and imperet, instead of quceque and im- 

51. Impetret .- ' accomplish its object.' — Bellante prior : ' su- 
perior to its opponent.' 

54. Albanas secures : the axes of the lictors, put for the power 
of the Romans. 

63. Salutari levat arte : Apollo was considered as the god of 
medicine and of the healing art. 

67. Alierum . . . atvum : ' and may continually advance the 
Roman commonwealth and Latium to another happy lustrum, 
and always to a better age.' 

69. Quceque . . . aures : the construction is, Dianaque, quce. te- 
net Aventinum Mgidumque, curet preces Quindecimvirorum, et 
applicet amicas aures votis puerorum. 

73. Hcec . . . laudes : the construction is, Ego chorus, doctus 
dicere laudes et Phazbi et Diance, reporto domum bonam certamque 
spem, Jovem deosque cunctos sentire hcBc. Both the choirs join 
211 sdxm? this. 

336 NOTES. • 



The object of this satire is to expose the folly of discontent 
and avarice, by which men allow theraselves to be deprived of 
the enjoyments which their condition and fortune oflfer them. 

I. Quam sibi . . . objecerit : ' which reason has chosen, or 
chance thrown in his way.' 

6. Mercator : sc. ait. 

7. Concurritur : ' the battle begins.' 

9. Juris legumque peritus : ' the lawyer.' 
30. Consultor : ' the client' 

II. i//e, (i. e. consultor, cliens) . . . est .- ' he, who, having be- 
fore given bail, is forced from his farm into the city.' i. e. to 
defend his cause, or consult his patron. 

14. Fabium .• it is said that Fabius had written several books 
in favour of the Stoic philosophy, which probably did not agree 
with the poefs Epicurean notions. 

18. Mutatis. . . partibus : 'your conditions, or professions, 
being changed.' 

19. Licet : sc. illis. 

21. Buccas : ' may swell with indignation.' Why may 
not Jove justly be indignant at their fickleness. 

26. Doctores : ' teachers,' who sometimes gave little boys 
sweet cakes to induce them to learn their letters. 

29. Perjidus hic caupo : ' the knavish inn-keeper ' ; one who 
adulterated his commodities, wine, &c. 

40. Dum : ' provided that.' 

43. Quod, si . . . assem .- suppose the miser here to say. 
' Which, if you once break in upon it, may be reduced to a 
wretched penny.' 

44. At, ni idjlt : the poet rejoins, ' But unless that be done.' 

45. Millia : sc. modiorum. 

46. Hoc : ' on this account.' — Si . . . humero : ' if by chance 
you have to bear on your burdened shoulder the sack of Jjread 
amoncr the slaves.' 

49. Quid . . . viventi : ' what difference does it make to one 
living within the limits prescribed by nature.' 

53. Cumeris : ' baskets.' 

58. Aiifidus : a river of Apulia. 

G2. Quia . . sis : ' because you may be of as much impor- 
tance, as you possess of weaith.' — Tanti sis : " tanti crstimeris, 
quantas opes habeas" 


63. Quid facias illi : ' what can you do for such a man ' ; i. e 
one who thinks so perversely. — Libenter . . . facit .- ' so long as 
he voluntarily conducts himself thus.' 

86. Posl omnia ponas : by Tmesis, for postponas omnia. 

87. Si nemo . . . amorem : ' if no one shows a regard for you, 
which you no way deserve.' 

88. An si . . . amicos : the construction is, An, si velis reti~ 
nere servareque amicos nullo labore, cognatos quos natura dat 

94. Parto quod avebas .• sc. eo ; ' that being obtained which 
you desired.' 

95. Dives . . .nummos: sc. ita ; ' so rich that he measured 
his money.' 

99. Liberta : " qitam uxoris loco habuisse videtur Ummidius" 

100. Tijndaridarum : this word includes the children of Tyn- 
darus of both sexes, and, although of the masculine gender, 
may express the daughters, Helen and Clytemnestra, who kill 
ed their husbands, Deiphobus and Agamemnon, the latter with 
a hatchet. * 

101. Ntevius : i. e. ut avarus et sordidus. 

102. Nomentanus : i. e. ut nebulo, vel homo luxuriosus. 

105. Est inter . . . quiddam : ' there is some difference be- 
tween &c.' 

103. Nemon 1 . . . se probet : i. e. ' does no one then, even the 
miser, congratulate himself ? ' 

114. Ungula .- i. e. ungulati equi. 

115. Suos vincentibus : ' that outstrip his own ' horses. 

_ 120. Neme . . . putes : ' lest you may think I have been rob- 
bing the portfolio of blear-eyed Crispinus.' He was a vain, lo- 
quacious philosopher and poet. 


The object of this satire is to expose the meanness and folly 
of avarice. 

1. Ambubajarum collegia : ' the companies of musicians.' The 
word ambubaia signifies ' female flute-players.' — Pharmacopolce .- 
' perfumers.' 

2. Mendici: ' cheating beggars.' By this word is meant the 
priests of Cybele and Isis, jugglers, fortunetellers, and such 
worthless characters as get their living by imposing "upon peo- 
ple. — Balatrones : ' rope-dancers.' 

_ 3. Tigelli : this Tigellius was one of the most famous musi- 
cians of his time. He is called ' the singer ' rather by way of 
4. Contra hic : this means some other person. 

8. Stringat : ' wastes,' ' consumes.' 

9. Conductis : ' hired ' at exorbitant interest. 
12. Fufdius : this was a notorious usurer. 


333 NOTES. 

14. Quinas . . . exseccd : ' he deducts five times the interest 
from the sum.' The lawful interest being at the rate of twelve 
per cent. per annum, Fufidius was not satisfied with five times 
this ; but deducted or discounted beforehand, at the rate of 
sixty per cent. 

15. Quantb perditior : ' the more distressed.' 

16. JYomina sectatur : ' he carefully finds out the names' of 
young heirs under age ; i. e. that he may loan them money at 
exorbitant interest. 

18. M in se . . . facit : ' but [you will say] he expends upon 
himself in proportion to his income.' 

20. Utpater: Terence, in his play called "The Self-tor- 
mentor," represents a father as making himself miserable, be- 
cause his son had forsaken him and gone into the army, and 
blaming his own severity as the cause. 

25. Pastillos : ' perfumes.' 


The poet would show, in this satire, that the faults of friends 
must not be too severely censured. He also ridicules the dog- 
mas of the Stoics, who allowed no distinction between crimes, 
but said that all should be punished with equal severity. 

3. Sardus : ' of Sardinia.' 

6. Ab ovo . . . mala : i. e. from beginning to end. Eggs were 
served first, and fruit last at dinner. 

7. Io Bacche .• this was the beginning or the chorus of a song, 
repeated by Tigellius, probably of his own composition. — Sum- 
md voce ; ' the base.' 

8. Ima : ' the treble.' This refers to the situation and the 
names of the strings in the instrument called the tetrachord. 

11. Junonis sacra : the solemn processions in honour of Juno 
were proverbial for the slow and majestic pace with which 
they moved. 

15. Becies . . . locvlis : 'if youhad given ten times a hundred 
thousand sesterces to this frugal man, content with little, in 
five days tbere would be nothing in his coffers.' 

21. Carperet : ' was inveighing against.' 

27. Serpens Epidaurius : the serpent is remarkable for the 
keenness of its sight, as its Greek name \a.Kuv, from ty*v, ' to 
see,' implies. It vvas sacred to iEsculapius, who had a temple 
in Epidaurus. 

28. Inquirant . . . illi : ' that they also in turn may inquire 
into your vices.' 

29. Minus aptus . . . hominum : ' not well suited to the witty 
raillery of these gentlemen.' Horum hominum probably refers 
to the persons alluded to in the preceding verse. It has been 
thought that the character here described was intended for 
VirgU, who is said to have been the subject of some ridicule at 


the court of Augustus, for his timidity and consequent awk- 
wardness ; and that Horace wrote this satire in his defence. 
'These gentlemen,' then, are the courtiers of Augustus. 

35. Num qua . . . natura : ' whether nature has originally 
sowed any vices in you.' 

38. llluc . . . prozvertamur : ' let us turn to the common re- 

44. Strabonem : ' a child with distorted eyes.' 

45. Pcetum : ' leering ' ; which was considered a beauty. — 
Pullum : ' his chicken.' 

47. Sisyphus : Mark Antony's dwarf, two feet high. — Va- 
rum : Varus and Scaurus were the names of noble families, 
in Rome, originally given on account of a bodily defect. Hence 
the father, to cover the child's deformity, calls him after one of 
these elevated characters. 

56. Incrustare : defective vessels were varnished over with 
pitch or wax to conceal their defects. To do this to a perfect 
vessel would create a suspicion as to its soundness. 

58. Tardo : ' cool,' ' reflecting.' — Pingui .- ' stupid.' 

65. Impellat . . . sermone : ' may interrupt one with any trifling 

70. Pluribus hisce . . . inclinet : ' should incline to these [vir- 
tues], the more numerous, if the virtues do but preponderate.' 
The metaphor is taken from weighing in a balance, when, he 
eays, we should make the scale turn in favour of a friend. 

76. Denique . . . ira3 : ' in short, since the vice of anger can- 
not be wholly eradicated.' 

78. Ponderibus . . . suis : ' her weights and measures.' 

82. Labeone : ' than Labeo,' who used to contradict Augus- 

85. Concedas : ' overlook.' 

86. Drusonem : sc. fugit ; Druso was a usurer, and if his 
debtors could not pay him at the proper time, he compelled 
them to come and listen to him while he repeated his histories. 
This was no light penalty, as he wrote wretchedly. 

87. Qui : nominative to audit. — Kalendce : this was the time 
of payment for borrowed money. 

88. Mercedem .- « the interest.' — JVummos .- * the principal.' — 
Unde unde : ' by some means.' — Extricat : ' procures.' 

89. Porrecto jugulo : ' with neck out-stretched,' like an hum- 
ble slave. 

90. Potus : sc. meus amicus ; 'having drunk too freely.' 

91. Evandri . . . tritum : ' worn by the hands of Evander,' 
a king of ancient Latium. Some understand a dish made by 
Evander, a celebrated sculptor. But tritum is seldom, if ever, 
used in that sense. 

96. Queis . . . peccata : ' who consider all sins as nearly equah' 
i. e. the Stoics. 

99. Quum . . . pecus : ' when mankind at first crept forth 
from the earth a dumb and stupid race.' 

340 NOTES. 

100. Propter : ' on account of.' 
110. Viribus editior : ' the stronger.' 
112. Fastos : ' annals.' — Mundi : ' of the world.' 
115. JYec vincet . . . idemque : ' nor will reason ever convince 
us of this, that he sins equally and the same.' 
120. Nam non vereor, utferuld, $c. 

122. Furta : sc. paria. — Magnis : ' with great crimes.' 

123. Si tibi . . . homines : ' if you had the reins of govern- 

126. Quod habes : the Stoics taught that a wise man was su- 
periour to a king. 

136. Rumperis et latras .• ' you will burst with rage, and 
snarl at them.' 

37. JVc longum . . . sectabitur : ' I will be short ; whilst you 
a king go to the farthing bath, with no attendant but siDy Cris- 


Horace wisbes to show that satirical poets, who expose and 
lash the real vices of the age, ought not to be considered as 
slanderous ; and that pointing out examples of the vices they 
censure is the most short and ready way of correcting them. 

2. Atque alii . . . est : ' and others whose comedy is of the 
ancient school.' 

7. Mutatis tanium : the comic poets wrote in iambic verse ; 
but Lucilius wrote his satires in hexameters. 

8. Emunctoz naris : ' of kcen raillery.' 

10. Stans pede in uno : ' standing on one foot.' This ex- 
pression is used to signify ' a very short time.' 

13. JYam ut . . . moror : ' for, as to writing much, I consider 
that as nothing.' 

14. Crispinus . . . provocat : ' Crispinus challenges me for a 
very small bet,' against a large one. 

19. At tu . . . imitare : the construction is, At tu, ut mavis y 
O Crispine, imitare auras conclusas in hircinis follibus, labo- 
rantes usque dum ignis molliat ferrum. 

20. Usque : ' constantly.' 

21. Ut mavis : ' as much as you please.' 

22. Delatis capsis : the highest honour and reward to which 
a poet aspired was to have his writings and his statue placed 
in the library of Augustus, on Mount Palatine. This honour, 
the poet says, Fannius had obtained unsought. This is keen 
satire ; as it was a distinction wholly undeserved by Fannius, 
and obtained by indirect and unfair means. 

23. Timentis : sc. mei ; for which we have mea. 

25. Quemvis . . . turbd : ' take any one at random from the 
27. JE*rt : ' brazen statues.' 


28. Ad eum quo : sc. solem ; l to that with which.' 
33. Foznum . . . cornu : i. e. he is a dangerous fellow. It was 
customary to wind a wisp of hay about the horns of cattle that 
pushed and were dangerous, to give folks a hint to be on their 
41. Sermoni : • to prose.' 

47. Pater ardens: this alludes to a scene in Terence's Adelphi. 

48. JVepos . . .filius : ' his profligate son.' 

51. JYumquid Pomponius : Horace does not admit the fact, 
that in comedy the style is occasionally elevated by the subject, 
to be any argument in favour of its deserving the name of poet- 
ry, since a similar occasion would produce a similar effect, even 
in common prose. 

54. Quem si . . . pater : sc. versum ; ' which if you displace, 
any angry father would rave in the same manner as he in the 
play.' — Personatus : ' in the play.' Persona was a mask worn 
by the ancient actors. 

57. Tempora certa modosque : ' quantity and measure.' 

59. No?i . . . poetcB : ' you would not even find the fragments 
ofthe dismembered poet ; as if you alter the arrangement of 
this passage ; Postquam, <^c.' from Ennius. 

62. Alias : ' at another time,' I may inquire whether comedy 
be real poetry or not. 

64. Genus hoc scribendi : i. e. Satire. — Sulcius .- Sulcius and 
Caprius were two infamous informers, who carried about their 
indictments, or accusations, libellis. 

68. Ut sis : i. e. although you may be a robber like Ccelius 
and Birrus, I am not an informer, like Caprius and Sulcius. 

71. Queis . . . Tigellius: ' on which the hand of the rabble 
and of Hermogenes Tigellius may sweat.' 

75. Suave : for suaviter ; ' sweetly.' 

85. Sa;pe . . . quaternos : there were three couches, formino- 
a semicircle, placed around a Roman table. On each of these, 
three persons usually reclined, and sometimes more ; in this 
case four are mentioned, making twelve at the dinner. 

86. Qudvis : sc. raiione, or aqud. 

87. Pratcr . . . potus : ' except the host, and him also at iast, 
when heated with wine.' 

90. lnfcsto nigris : ' so hostile to slanderers.' 

98. Sed iamen . . .fugerit: ' and yet I wonder how he got 
clear of that affair.' This Horace calls the most deadly kmd 
of slander ; artfully to insinuate, after all these friendly profes- 
sions, that he was guilty of the crime charged against him. 

99. Hic . . . loliginis : ' this is the essence of black envy.' 
The loligo, or cuttle fish, emits a fluid as black as ink, in order 
to escape when pursue^d. 

105. Utfugerem : sc. ea. 

111. Sectani : Sectanus was infamous for his debaucheries ; 
and Trebonius for his adulteries. 

342 NOTES. 

122. Unum . . . objiciebat : * he placed before my view one 
of the judges distinguished for knowledge and integrity.' 
125. JEgros : i. e. sick through intemperance. 
128. Ex hoc : ' from this kind of education.' 
130. Isthinc : ' from these vices.' 
132. Consilium proprium : 'my own reflection.' 
135. hoc . . . belte : ' some one has done this very improperly.' 
142. Judcei : the Jews were famours for their zeal in making 


This satire contains Horace's celebrated account of a jour- 
ney to Brundusium. His adventures are recounted with much 
pleasantry ; and the satire is considered one of his best per- 
formances. Horace accompanied Msecenas, Coccelus, and Ca- 
plto to Brundusium on business of a political nature. It was on 
this occasion that the reconciliation was effected between Au- 
gustus and Antony, and the treaty of peace made, by which Oc- 
tavia was given in marriage to Antony. 

5. Aliiiis . . . unum : ' which more active travellers than we, 
usually perform in one.' The gown was girt high in proportion 
to the activity necessary. 

11. Pueri: sc. cazperunt ; ' our servants began.' — Nautis : 
1 on the boat's men.' 

13. JEs : ' the fare.' — Mula : ' the mule,' by which the boat 
was drawn along a canal. 

21. Certbrosus : ' an irritable fellow.' 

23. Quartd : i. e. the fourth hour from sunrise ; answering 
to our ten cfclock. 

26. Anxur : this town was built upon a barren, rocky hill, 
about three miles from Feronia. 

29. Soliti componere : this was the second conference at 
Brundusium to reconcile Augustus and Antony. 

30. Collyria : ' eye-salve.' — Lippus : ' having sore eyes.' 

32. Ad unguem . . . homo : ' a man made to perfection ' ; a 
figure taken from the habit of passing the nail over marble to 
ascertain whether it was perfectly polished. 

34. Fundos : ' Fundi,' where Aufidius Luscus acted as prae- 
tor. It seems he was a scribe, and had been sent to Fundi by 
the prator urbanus to oversee the affairs of it. His vanity in- 
duced him to make a display before strangers of ail the insig- 
nia of the office of prsetor at Rome, and rendered him an object 
of their ridicule. 

35. Insani . . . scribx : ' laughing at the display of badges by 
this foolish scrivener.' 

36. Prunccque batillum : 'a censer of burning incense.' This 
vvas usually carried before persons vested with supreme au- 


40. Siniiessa: c at Sinuessa,' a town on the borders of 

44. Nil . . . amico : c nor shall I ever, while in my right mind, 
compare any thing to a pleasant friend.' 

45. Campano ponti : ' to the Campanian bridge,' over the 
river Savo. 

46. Parochi: sc. pmbuerunt ; parochi were eommissioners 
appointed to furnish hay, wood, and other necessaries for those 
who travelled on pnblic business. 

54. Osci : tlie Osci, or Campanians near Capua, were noto- 
rious for their vices. 

55. Sarmenti . . . exstat : ' the mistress of Sarmentus is yet 
living ' ; i. e. he is a runaway slave. 

63. Pastorem . . . Cyclopa : ' that he would personate the Cy- 
clops in a dance.' Messius seemed well calculated for this 
character, as a deep scar in the forehead gave him the look of 
Polyphemus ; and he could represent him without mask or 

65. Catenam: slaves of the meanest class were chained; and 
when freed they consecrated their chains to Saturn. But Sar- 
mentus, who had run away, is supposed to have consecrated 
his chains to the Lares, who were invoked by travellers. 

67. Domince : the right of his former mistress was no less 
perfect over him, although he had got clear of her, and was 
now a scribe. 

69. Libra : a pound of bread a day was the lawful allowance 
for a slave ; and he intimates that one so lank and meagre 
should have been contented with it. 

78. Atabulus : a destructive wind called Sirocco. Doer. 

79. Erepsemus : by Syncope, for erepsissemus. 

83. Quod . . . non est : ' which cannot be named in verse ' ; 
although it may be known by its external marks (signis), such 
as the selling of water, and the excellence of its bread. This 
town is supposed to be Equotuticum, which name he could not 
use in hexameter verse. 

84. Venit : ' is sold.' 

85. Ultra : i. e. the traveller carried this bread along with 
him, ' beyond.' 

93. Lymphis iratis exstructa : there are two meanings to this 
expression ; one, that the town was built in despite of the en- 
raged waters ; and the other, that its inhabitants were luna- 
tics and visionaries. Francis has expressed it thus : 
" Then water-curs'd Egnatia gave us joke, 
And laughter great, to hear the moon-struck folk 
Assert, if incense on their altars lay, 
Without the help of fire it melts away." 

96. Judccus Jjppella : ' the Jew Apella.' 

97. Deos : the Epicureans believed that the gods did not 
concern themselves about the affairs of the world. 

344 NOTLa. 


In this satire Horace attempts to show that real greatness is 
quite independent of external circumstances ; and that true no- 
bility consists in personal worth, and not in the distinctions of 
birth and family. He mentions his own case as a proof thatr 
Msecenas selected his friends for their personal qualities ; since 
he had no advantages of family to recommend him. And he pays 
a grateful tribute to the memory of his father for having trained 
him in the path of virtue, and instilled those principles into his 
mind which seem to have laid the foundation of his happiness. 

1. Non quia . . . natum : the construction is, O Mcecenas, 
non suspendis adunco naso, ut plerique solent, ignotos, ut me na~ 
tum libertino patre, quia nemo est generosior te quidquid Lydo- 
rum incoluit Etruscos fines, nec quod fuit tibi matemus atque 
paternus avus qui olim imperitarent magnis legionibus. — Lydo- 
rum quidquid : ' of all the Lydians.' 

5. JVaso suspendis adunco : ' you sneer at.' 

6. Libertino : libertinus originally meant the son of a freed- 
man ; but afterwards both libertus and libcrtinus were used to 
signify a freedman. 

9. Ignobile : because Servius Tullius was born of a female 
slave. And yet by his own merits he rose to sovereignty. 

12. Contra, Lcevinum . . . populo : ' whereas, on the contrary, 
Laevinus, though belonging to the family of Valerius Poplicola, 
who helped to banish Tarquin the Proud from his kingdom, 
was never valued one penny, even by the Roman peopie, whose 
humour you know.' 

14. Licuisse: i. e. ccstimatum esse. Licere was a word used 
at auctions ; as, parvo pretio licet (sc. habere rem), < the thing is 

20. Moveret: * would exclude me,' from the senate. 

22. Pelle: i. e. sorte, or conditione. 

24. JYon miniis . . . generosis : ' no less the ignoble than the 

24. Qub tibi . . . tribuno : sc. profuit; ' what did it profit you, 
Tullius, to resume the laticlavejyou had put off, and become 
tribune ? — Tribuno, for tribunum, by attraction agreeing with 
tibi, after the manner of the Greeks. This Tullius was of low 
birth, and had been compelled to relinquish the laticlave by 
Csesar, because he espoused the cause of Pompey ; but after 
the death of Caesar he resumed it. 

27. Ut quisque . . . pellibus : ' when any one is so crazy as to 
cover half his leg with black leather.' The buskins worn by 
senators were originally black. 

30. Barrus: a vain, conceited spendthrift, who wished to 
be thought handsome. 

38. Tune . . . audes : ' dare you, the son of a Syrus, a Da- 
mas, or a Dionysius ? ' These are the names of slaves. 


39. Cadmo : Cadmus was a lietor, who acted as executioner. 

41. Hoc . . . videris : ' on this account you fancy yourself a 
Paulus or a Massala.' These were noblemen. 

43. Sonabat : Novius had a thundering voice, which could 
drown the din of draymen, and the trumpets that preceded 
the funeral processions. He would by this imply that the 
strength of his lungs was the only recommendation of Novius 
for the tribuneship, and that he was fit only for a crier. 

51. Prcesertim . . . assumere : ' especially since you are so 
cautious in selecting the deserving only.' 

52. Felicem : ' lucky.' There was no chance in the case ; 
his own merit obtained him the place he held in the esteem of 

58. Circumvectari : divided Tmesis. 

59. Satureiano caballo : ' on a horse of Saturum.' This place 
was famed for its noble breed of horses. 

68. Mala lustra : ' haunts of impurity,' literally lustra means 
* dens of wild beasts ' ; here it is used figuratively, for places of 
bad repute. 

72. Flavi : Flavius was master of a school at Venusia, where 
Horace was born, in which were taught reading, writing, and 

73. Magni qub pueri : this is burlesque. 

74. Loculos : 'sacthels.' — Tabulam : ' arithmetical tables.' 

75. Octonis . . . cera: ' carrying their money on the Ides.' — 
Octonis : the Ides were eight days after the Nones. The word 
seems merely expletive here, epitheton ornans. Doer. 

86. Si prceco . . . sequerer : ' if but an auctioneer, or a collec- 
tor, as he was himself, I should have the small profits of such 
an employment.' 

89. Eoque . . . defendam : ' nor will I excuse myself so, as 
many do, by saying it is not their fault, that they were not born 
of illustrious and noble parents.' 

95. Adfastum : ' to suit his pride.' 

109. Lasanum: ' a travelling kitchen.' — (Enophorum : 'wine 
jar.' Tullius, to save expense, travelled with his cooking ap- 
paratus and wine jar, which his slaves carried. 

110. Hoc : sc. modo ; ' in this way,' I live more at my ease 
than you and a thousand others of senatorian rank. 

114. Assuto divinis : ' I stop and hear the fortunetellers.' 
Men of rank would be ashamed to be seen with the multitude 
around the diviners, or fortunetellers ; but Horace was not 
afraid of his dignity, and could follow his inclinations. 

120. Obeundus Jlarsya : for JSIarsyas ; there was a statue of 
Marsyas in the forum, near the Rostra, where the judges, law- 
yers, and parties interested, assembled to decide causes. The 
poet humourously represents the statue as frowning with in- 
dignation at the sight of the younger of the Novii, who from a 
slave was become a magistrate. 

346 NOTES. 

127. Quantum . . . durdre : { sufficient to prevent hunger dur- 
ing the day,' i. e. till evening, when the Roraans indulged 


While Horace was military tribune in the army of Brutus, 
there was in the same camp one Rupilius Rex, who, jealous of 
his advancement, often reproached him with his low birth. 
Our poet, by way of retaliation for this insolence, takes occa- 
eion to describe to Brutus a contest that happened one day be- 
tween Rex and one Persius, a merchant, who was there for the 
purposes of trade. He gives the whole an air of solemnity 
which heightens the burlesque. 

1. Proscripti . . . esse : the construction is, Opinor notum esse 
omnibus et lippis et tonsoribus, quo pacto ibrida Persius ultus sit 
pus atque venenum proscripti Rupili Regis. — Proscripti : Rex 
had been proscribed by Augustus. 

2. Ibrida, or hybrida : * mongrel ' ; which epithet is applied 
to Rex, because his father was a Greek and his mother an 

5. Clazomenis : Clazomense was a city of Asia Minor. 

8. Sise?mas : Sisenna and Barrus were the most celebrated 
railers in Rome. — Albis : white horses were considered the 

9. Postquam . . .fortes, fyc. : ' after all attempts to make up 
the breach had failed, (for all, between whom there happens a 
quarrel, are obstinate in their hostility in the same degree that 
they are brave,' &c.) 

20. Bacchius : he says the gladiators * Bacchius and Bithus 
were not more equally matched.' They always put to death 
whoever fought with them. They afterwards engaged each 
Other, and both expired on the stage. 

25. Canem : ' the dog-star.' 

27. Fertur qub rara securis : * where the axe is seldom car- 
ried ' ; because the torrent has carried away the trees, and left 
nothing for the woodcutter. 

28. Pranestinus : Rupilius was born at Praeneste. 

29. Expressa arbusto : i. e. drawn from the coarse raillery of 
the vineyard. The vines grew upon trees beside the road ; and 
those who went up to gather the grapes were exposed to the 
jibes of travellers, which were commonly retorted upon them. 

34. Reges . . . toltere : Brutus had only shared in killing 
Csesar, but his ancestor L. J. Brutus had expelled the Tar- 



The poet introduces Priapus, overseer of the gardens, com- 
plaining against the sorceresses Canidia and Sagana ; and 
describing their secret enchantraents and their diabolical prac- 

3. J\Ialuit esse deum: * concluded to make a god of me.' 
When the artificer found the inutile lignum unfit even for a 
stool to sit upon, he made a god of it. This is satire indeed 
upon the mythology of his country. 

4. Dextra : the image held a cane or club in its right hand, 
and a reed fastened to his head. 

6. Novis : Maecenas had lately built a palace, and laid out 
extensive gardens in the neighbourhood of the Esquiline Hill. 

7. Angustis . . • cellis : the bodies of the poor were in times 
past brought here from their narrow cells, or huts, by their 
fellow slaves. 

10. Pantolabo : both these persons were still living, but as 
they had squandered away their estates in dissipation, Horace 
appoints a burial-place for them with the lowest of the rabble. 

11. Cippus : when ground was set aside for any use, it was 
customary for the dimensions to be marked on a pillar set up 
for the purpose on the margin of it. 

12. Hceredes . . . sequeretur .- ' that this burying ground might 
never revert to the heirs of the estate.' 

14. Quo . . . agrum : ' from which but lately men had be- 
held the field deformed and white with human bones.' 

10. Quum . . . animos : ' although thieves and beasts of prey, 
accustomed to infest this region, were not sovexatious to me as 
those hags, who by their enchantments and poisons disturb the 
shades of men.' After quantiim, understand veneficce sunt. Pri- 
apus uses the present tense, although speaking of the state of 
things on Esquiliae prior to the improvements recently made 
by Maecenas. 

24. Cum Sagand majore : 'with Sagana the elder.' There 
were two sisters of this name. 

30. Lanea .- the image of wool represented the person whom 
the sorceresses favoured ; that of wax, the intended victim of 
the charm. The waxen image melted, as indicative of their 
conquest over the person it represented. 

38. Pediatia : to express his contempt for the effeminacy of 
Pediatius, Horace gives him the feminine gender. 

41. Lupi . . . colubraz : ' the hair of a wolf and the tooth of a 
spotted snake.' 

44. Voces . . . duarum : ' at the words and actions of these 
two Furies.' 

46. Diffissd : the wood, not being perfectly dry, was split by 
the heat with a loud crack, which frightened the witches, and 
they ran off in great terror. 

348 NOTES. 

48. Incantata lacertis vincula : ' enchanted bracelets.' Cani- 
dia lost her teeth, and Sagana her false hair and bracelets. 


The class of impertinent obtruders described, and most hap- 
pily hit orT, in this satire, is too numerous to be unknovvn to any, 
and too great a nuisance not to be detested by all. The poet 
gives a humourous account of a fellovv who accidentally met him 
in his walk, and whom he found it impossible to shake off. 

1. Vid Sacrd : this was the street through which triumphal 
processions passed to the Capitol. 

2. Totus in illis : ' wholly absorbed in them.' 
5. Suaviter . . . est: ' pretty well, at present.' 

7. Noris . . . sumus : ' I wish your acquaintance, sir ; I am a 
man of letters; says he.' 

10. Puero : ' to my servant boy.' 

11. Cerebri felicem ■' ' happy of temperament.' He congratu- 
lates Bolanus on his faculty of getting rid of such fellows at 

15. Sed nil agis u ' but you will not succeed.' 
20. lniquco mentis : ' discontented.' 

24. Quis . . . canto : ' who can dance more gracefully ? and 
Hermogenes himself would envy my singing.' 

28. Omnes composui : ' I have buried them all.' 

29. Sabella . . . urnd : ' which a Sabine fortuneteller predict- 
ed to me when a boy, the old woman having shaken her magic 
urn.' Letters and words wore put into an urn, which was 
then well shaken ; and the fortune was inferred from the ar- 
rangement these assumed on being thrown out. 

33. Quandocunque : separated by Tmesis ; ' one day.' 

35. Ad Vestm : sc. templum. 

36. Respondere vadato . ' to answer to his bail.' If he failed 
he forfeited the penalty of his recognisance. 

38. Stare : ' to stand,' so long as is necessary in a court of 

43. Macenas quomodo tecum : ' on what footing are you with 
Msecenas ? ' 

44. Paucorum . . . sance : ' he has few intimates, and is very 
particular in his selection of them.' 

46. Secundas : sc. partcs ; ' the second piace.' 

47. Hunc . . . omnes : ' if you are willing to introduce me ; 
may I die if you don't supplant all your rivals.' Summosses for 

54. Velis . . . expugnabis : ' you have only to wish it ; with 
such merit you cannot fail of success.' 

64. Lentissima : i. e. apparently without feeling. 

69. Tricesima sabbata : ' the thirtieth sabbath.' The Jewish 


Passover commenced on the thirtieth sabbath of their year, 
which began on the first of September. This festival lasted 
eight days, and was kept so strictly on the two first and 
two last days, that it was unlawful even to speak of business 
or secular concerns. 

69. Vin > : for visne. 

70. Curtis Judceis oppedere ■• ' to offend the circumcised Jews.' 
72. Hunccine solem tam nigrum : i. e. " diem tam infaustum." 


76. Licet antestari : ' will you witness the arrest ? ' This was 
addressed to Horace. 

77. Oppono auriculam : ' 1 offer my ear ' ; i. e. to be touched. 
This was the form observed in taking a person to witness, as 
an admonition for him to recollect it. When a man had given 
bail in a court of justice, if he neglected to appear at the time 
appointed, he might be taken by force before the prsetor, but 
not before some one had witnessed the arrest, who must do it 


Lucilius had numerous admirers in Rome, who were greatly 
disobliged by the freedom and severity with which he was 
treated in the fourth satire of this book. Horace was deter- 
mined to support his own judgment ; and instead of making an 
apology, justifies what he had said with all his strength. 

1. Nempe . . . Lucili : ' it is true, I did say that the verses of 
Lucilius were unfinished ' ; i. e. I said so in Satire IV. 

3. At idem . . . eddem : ' and yet he is praised in the same 
satire for chastising the city with much lively wit.' — Sale defri- 
cuit .■ ' rubbed with salt.' 

6. Laberi mimos : * the farces of Liberius.' These were full 
of broad humour. 

14. Ridiculum . . . res i even in things of much importance, 
ridicule often cuts more deeply and successfully than the strong- 
est reasoning. — Acri: sc. argumento. 

16. llli : ' those men.' — Quibus . . . viris est •• 'by whom the 
ancient comedy was written.' 

J7. Hoc stabant: 'reiied on this.' 

18. Simius iste : some ridiculous performer, commonly sup- 
posed to be Demetrius. 

21. O seri studiorum: 'late in learning,' ignorant. — Quine 
putetis : ' how can you think.' 

22. Rhodio quod Pitholeonti : ' which could be done by tbe 
Rhodian Pitholeon.' 

24. Nota : the mark showing the kind and the age of any 
wine. — JYota Falerni : means here ' Falernian wine.' Faler- 
nian wine was rough, and Chian soft. 

30. Bilinguis : the inhabitants of Canusium were a mixture 

350 NOTES. 

of Greeks and Latins, and spoke the language of neither cor- 
rectly; but a jargon made up of both. 

36. Turgidus . . . caput : ' whilst bombastic Alpinus murders 
Memnon, and renders turbid the source of the Rhine,' or makes 
the river-god with a head of mud. Alpinus had written a 
tragedy called Memnon, from the hero of it. 

38. Quce . . . Tarpd : ' which will not be recited in the tem- 
ple of Apollo for the palm of excellence before Tarpa as judge.' 
Augustus appointed five judges, of whom Metius Tarpa was 
one, to hear the pieces and distribute prizes for poetical excel- 
lence ; and also to determine what pieces should be spoken on 
the stage. The recital was commonly in the temple of Apollo, 
built by Augustus, and furnished with a library. 

40. Argutd . . . Fundani : the construction is, Tu, O Funda- 
ni, unus vivorum potes, comis garrire libellos, argutd meretrice 
Davoque eludente senem Chremeta. This alludes to a scene in 
Terence's Andria ; where an artful courtesan, and Davus, a 
slave, dupe the miser Chremes. 

43. Pede ter percusso : i. e. in iambics ; called trimeter. 

48. Inventore minor : sc. Lucilio ; Horace acknowledged Lu- 
cilius to be the inventor of satire, and in that species of writing 
his superiour. 

55. Non ut . . . reprensis : ' not as superiour to those cen- 

57. lllius : 'of his genius.' 

63. Capsis . . . propriis : ' whom report makes to have been 
burnt with his own books and papers.' See Class. Dict. 

66. Quam . . . auctor .• sc. Ennius ; ' than Ennius, the author 
(writer) of a rude kind of poetry unknown to the Greeks.' Auc- 
tor cannot refer to the inventor of satire, Lucilius, as Heindorf 
and others have supposed ; as the passage after the words sed 
ille does not agree with his character. Auctor means scriptor ; 
and the passage refers to Ennius. 

72. Stylum vertas : i. e. invert the stylus to erase words with 
the flat end, so formed for the purpose of erasing, and smooth- 
ing the wax on which they wrote. 

76. Nam satis . . . dixit : ' it is sufficient for me if the kings 
applaud, as said the bold Arbuscula, when hissed off the stage, 
despising the rabble.' She was a celebrated comedian. 

78. Cimex : ' disgusting.' 

82. Odavius : this was an eminent poet and historian. Au- 
gustus had ceased to be called Octavius. 

84. Ambitione relegatd : ' free from all arts to gain favour.' 

92. Puer : ' secretary ' ; add this satire to what I have be- 
fore written on this subject. 




This satire contains a dialogue between Horace and Treba- 
tius, an eminent counsellor and a distinguished scholar. The 
poet asks the advice of Trebatius, wlio counsels him to give up 
the writing of satires, as calculated to render bim odious ; and 
to celebrate the achievements of Augustus. Horace refuses to 
follow his advice, saying that he was not qualified for so 
high a subject ; but that he must write something, and as he 
liked satire, and as no one had any right to be displeased with 
him for satirizing vices, if he lived correctly himself, he should 
go on writing in this way. 

4. Dcduci posse : ' could be spun out.' 

7. Ter . . . Tiberim : ' having anointed themselves, let them 
swim thrice across the Tiber.' This prescription is very pro- 
perly given in the imperative mode. 

16. Scribere : ' describe and praise.' 

17. Scipiadam . . . Lucilius : ' as discreet Lucilius praised 
Scipio for these virtues ' ; i. e. Scipio Africanus. 

20. Cui . . . tutus : ' whom if you caress unskillfully, he re- 
sents it, and is wholly inaccessible.' A metaphor taken from 
spirited horses, wlucb are pleased to be caressed by a skillful 
hand, but wince and kick if handled clumsily. 

24. Saltat . . . lucernis .- ' Milonius falls to dancing as soon as 
his head gets heated with wine, and the lamps appear to him 

26. Ovo prognatus eodem : Pollux. \ 

29. Nostriim melioris utroque : ' who can do more than bbth 
of us,' in this kind*of writing. 

33. Veluti descripta .- ' as if painted.' Events in persons' 
lives were often painted, and consecrated in a temple to some 
god. Such a piece was called votiva tabella. 

34. Sequor hunc: by a satirical imitation of Lucilius, who 
often digressed into remarks about himself, Horace here gives 
an account of his own extraction. 

39. Sed hic . . . animantem : ' but my pen shall never wanton- 
ly attack any living being.' 

46. Insignis •. i. e. held up to ridicule. 

47. Urnam : the judges cast their votes of acquittal or of 
condemnation into an urn. 

48. Jllbuti : sc. Jilia minatur. 

49. Turius : a revengeful magistrate, who commonly threat- 
ened his enemies with the loss of their suit if it came before 

352 NOTES. 

53. Sccevce . . . nepoti : c to profligate Scseva.' This vvas an 
unprincipled spendthrift, who was said ta have poisoned his own 
mother, because she lived longer than he wished. 

57. JVe longum faciam : ' to be short.' 

60. Ut sis vitalis metuo : ' I fear that you are not long-lived,' 
i. e. that you are not in the favour of the great. — Ut metuo .- 
see Lat. Grara. R. LX. Obs. 7. 

62. Frigore te feriat : ' may chill you to death by a look.' 

65. Qui : Scipio Africanus. 

67. Ingenio offensi .• ' offended by the satirical vein,' of Lu- 
cilius ? Metellus and Lupus were satirized by Lucilius. 

69. Tributim : i. e. " per singulas tribus." Doer. 

70. Uni cequus virtuti : ' sparing virtue only.' 

71. Quin . . . soliti : ' and yet this brave Scipio, and this 
mild and wise Lselius, when they retired in private from the 
vulgar and the scene of public life, were wont to unbend, and 
sport with Lucilius, while their dinner of herbs was cooking,' 

77. lllidere dentem : ' to fasten his teeth ' ; alluding to the 
fable of the viper and the file. 

79. Difjindere : ' refute.' 

83. Si quis mala : the term mala in the law just cited by 
Trebatius, means, i slanderous,' 'libellous' ; whichHorace per- 
verts to ' badly made ' ; having nothing to answer seriously. 

86. Solventur risu tabulce . . . abibis : ' the indictment will be 
quashed with a laugh, and you acquitted.' 


. The advantages of temperate living, in its effects both on the 
body and the mind, are set forth in this satire with much truth 
and simplicity. They are represented as coming from an un- 
lettered peasant, who delivers them without affectation, as the 
result of his own experience and observation. 

1. Boni : ' my good friends.' ^ 

2. Ofellus : Horace being an Epicurean has very judiciously 
put these remarks into the mouth of Ofellus, a countryman of 
sound sense and practical wisdom. 

3. Mnormis . . . Minerva : ' a philosopher unshackled by 
rules, and with an uncultivated genius.' 

5. Acies ■■ ' the eye.' 

7. Impransi : i. e. non inter magnificas epulas. 

11. Gmcari : ' to drink like the^Greeks ' ; who were notori- 
ous for sitting long at table and drinking hard. 

12. Studio : ' your interest in the game,' beguiling the labour 
of it. 

13. Cedentem : ' yielding.' 

15. ^erae : sc sipotes.—Mella .- by Hypallage, for Falemum 
melle dilu.tum. 
20. Pulmentaria : ' delicious sauces.' 


"21- Pinguem vitiis albumque : ' bloated with luxury, and pale 
with disease.' 

22. Scarus . . . lagois : the former was a fish, and the latter, a 
foreign bird, not known now ; each of great delicacy. 

25. Vanis : sc. imaginibus : • by vain appearances.' 

29. Carne . . . illa : the construction is, quamvis tamen illa 
caro gallinae nihil magis distat hdc carne pavonis. 

31. Unde datum sentis: 'how can you distinguish by the 
taste ? ' 

32. Hiet: for sit; as expressing the voracity of this fish. 

37. His : i. e. to the mullets. 

38. Magnum : sc. mullum. 

40. Coquite: 'taint.' 

41. Putet : ' are nauseous.' — Malacopia: ' hurtful plenty.' 

44. Pauperies : ' cheap fare.' — Vilibus : ' cheap.' 

45. JYigris : olives intended for the table were gathered 
when they began to ripen and turn black. 

49. Auctor . . . prcetorius : when Asinius Sempronius Rufus 

'was candidate for the prsetorship, he caused a dish ofyoung 

storks to be served up for his guests. The people revenged the 

death of the poor birds by refusing the prastorship to their de- 

stroyer. The poet humourously stiles him praitorius. 

51. Pravi docilis : ' easily taught depravity.' 

59. Repotia : ' a marriage feast ' ; given the day after the 
wedding, a repetition of festivity. 

60. Albatus -. the Romans always appeared in white togas 011 
public occasions. — Cornu ipse bilibri : he is afraid to trust his 
servants or his guests with his oil flask ; for fear they should use 
it too profusely. He keeps it in a horn that held two pounds, 
his whole stock, and pours it on (instillat) drop by drop. 

65. ln neutram . . . miser : i. e. neither in avarice nor in 

66. Dum munia didit : ' whilst he assigns their duties.' 

67. Scbvus : ' too strict.' — Simplex : ' too negligent.' 

76. Cazna . . . dubid : ' from a various and costly supper ' ; 
where there is such a variety of dishes as to make one at a loss 
(dubius) which to use. 

89. Qubd hospes . . . consumeret : i. e. because they had 
rather that a guest coming unexpectedly should eat part of it 
with them, though rather musty, than greedily to devour the 
whole at once whilst sweet. 

93. Qua : sc. fama. — Carmine gratior . . . humanam : ' which 
charms the ear more sweetly than music' 

102. Indignus : 'not deserving to sufTer privation.' 

113. JSletato : this farm, formerly the property of Offellus 
was among the confiscated estates, and had been 'measured 
out' to the veteran soldiers of Augustus, in the same manner as 
those of Virgil, Propertius, Tibullus, and others. 

114. Mercede colonum : i. e. OfFellus hired the land that was 


354 NOTES. 

formerly his own, and paid a price for the same to Umbremisv 
to whom it fell in the distribution of the lands. 
115. Temerk .- ' without good reason.' 

121. Duplice : "intellige ficus bifidas ; ficus enim in duas 
partes divisse siccabantur, et tunc aridse in mensa secunda ap- 
ponebantur." Doer. 

122. Cuppd . . . magistrd : i. e. to drink as he pleased, with- 
out restraint. The Romans commonly had a drinking master, 
or king of the feast, who prescribed the rules by which they 
were to drink. Here the wine-cask was the only master, and 
it gave to each what he pleased to drink. There are various 
readings ; culpd and cupd. 

127. Nituistis : ' have you fared.' — Novus incola .• Umbre- 


This satire, written by way of dialogue, is intended to show 
that all mankind are either madmen or fools. Horace had re- 
tired into the conntry during the Saturnalia. Damasippus, a 
stoic philosopher, }'ays him a visit, and in conversation blames 
him for not writing and publishing something new, instead of 
remaining idle, or retouching his former works. The discourse, 
by an easy transition, turns upon Damasippus and his mode of 
life. This leads to an explanation of the doctrines of the stoics, 
and a justification of their dogmas. The various passions, which 
tyrannize over the human heart, are pourtrayed with inimitable 
skill. The whole conversation is interspersed with moral re- 
flections and useful instruction. 

2. Retexens : ' retouching ' ; ' correcting.' 

5. Saturnalibus : the feast of Saturn commenced on the 15th, 
and continued till the 21st of December ; during which period 
there was an entire cessation from business. 

7. Immeritusque . . . poetis : ' and the unoffending wall suf- 
fers, born under the malediction of gods and poets.' When the 
verses did not come to suit the poet, he would after a while get 
out of patience, and vent his vexation by striking the wall, or 
by scratching his head. See Book I. Sat. X. 71. 

9. Vultus : sc. tuus. — Minantis : ' promising ' ; ' threatening 
to perform.' 

10. Vacuum : sc. te. 

11. Platona Menandro, fyc. : these were books brought with 

15. Vitd meliore : i. e. wher your life was better employed. 

17. Tonsore : the stoics cherished long beards, which Horace 
aims at by the gift of a barber. 

18. Janum ad medium : there was a street crossing the Ro- 
man forum called Janus ; the upper part of this was called pri- 
mus, or suiamus Janus ; the middle of it, where business was 


principally transacted, was called medius Janus ; and lower 
part, imus Janus. Doer. The meaning is, after that my busi- 
ness was broken up on exchange. 

21. Vafer ille . . . Sisyphus .- Damasippus says he was for- 
merly a great virluoso, and could search out curious specimens 
of art, and assign their value to them. Sisyphus was celebrated 
for his ingenuity. See Class. Dict. 

23. Millia centum : sc sestertium. 

25. JMercuriale ; ' a favourite of Mercury,' the god of mer- 

28. Novus : sc. morbus. — In cor . . . dolere : * a pain in the 
side or head passing into the stomach.' 

30. Quumjit . . . urget: ' when he becomes frantic, and beats 
his physician.' 

31. Dum . . . Ubet : ' do but avoid this example (i. e. do not 
beat me), and rave as you please.' 

33. Siquid . . . crepat: ' if Stertinius speaks any truth.' He 
was a stoic philosopher who wrote a great many books on the 

36. Fabricio : the Pons Fabricius, a bridge crossing the Ti- 
ber, was the place he had chosen for drowning himself. 

33. Dexter stetit .- ' fortunately he was there ' ; i. e. Stertinius. 

44. Porticus et grex : 'the portico and school.' This refers to 
the portico, trroa, where Zeno, the founder of the sect of stoics, 
gave his precepts. Chrysippus was an early and active disciple 
of Zeno. 

45. Formula : ' rule ' ; or ' definition.' 

46. Tenet : ' includes.' 

53. Caudam trahit •• ' drags a tail ' ; i. e. is laughed at. Chil- 
dren often tie a tail, or something to drag, behind a person they 
wish to make ridiculous. 

59. Serva : ' take care ' ; i. e. see the ditch, or the rock be- 
fore you. 

61. Quum llionam . . . clamantibus : ' when he represented 
Iliona sleeping, and slept on, though twelve hundred spectators 
cried out, Mother, help me.' In the play of Pacuvius, called the 
lliona, Polymnestor, king of Thrace, who had married Priam's 
eldest daughter Iliona, murders Polydorus, Priam's youngest 
son, and leaves him unburied. The ghost of Polydorus appears 
to Uiona in her sleep, informs her of what had happened, and 
intreats her to bury his body. Fusius, who took the part of 
Iliona, should have awoke and sprung from his couch, when 
Catienus, in the character of Polydorus's ghost, called out in 
the words Jlater, te appello. But being intoxicated, he slept 
in good earnest ; and neither Catienus, nor the whole audience 
of twelve hundred persons could rouse him by joining in the 
cry, Mater, te appello. On account of her age, and the relation 
in which Iliona stood to Polydorus as an adopted child, she is 
styled mother. Some think that Pacuvius followed another 



fable, and that Polymnestor, by mistake, killed his own son for 

69. Scribe decem a Nerone : l write a receipt for ten thousand 
sesterces from Nerius ' ; i. e. the banker of Perillius. He who 
borrowed money wrote a receipt for the sum borrowed in the 
banker's book ; thus, " I have received so much of such a one's 
money from such a banker." When the money was paid, the 
receipt was erased. To do this was rescribere ; seeverse 76. — 
Adde Cicute . . . centum : ' add the hundred clauses and forms of 
knotty Cicuta.' This was a practised old notary, who understood 
all the turns and technical forms of the law in relation to bonds. 
Hence he is stiled nodosus. These forms are here called 
tabulas centum. 

71. Prottus : sc. Damasippus ; the parties are Perillius the 
lender of the money, Nerius his banker, and Damasippus the 

72. Malis ridentem alienis : ' laughing with the cheeks of 
another ' ; a proverbial expression, rendered by some, ' as if his 
cheeks were not his own,' ' immoderately,' and by others, ' at 
his creditor's expense.' 

74. lnsani est .- ' is the part of a madman.' 

75. Putidius . . . gossis : ' believe me, the brain of Perillius 
is much more addle* who loans you money, which you can nev- 
er repay.' — Dictantis .- i. e. ordering banker to pay. 

82. Ellebori : hellebore was admimstered for disordered minds. 

83. Nescio . . . omnem : ' I know not but prudence would re- 
serve for them the whole produce of Anticyra ' ; where helle- 

bore grew. 

84. Summam incidere sepulcro .- ' inscribed upon his monu- 
ment the sum they received.' Staberius enjoined this upon his 
heirs, and as a penalty for a failure in this, they were condemned 
to entertain the people with a show of two hundred gladiators. 

86. Arbitrio Arri .- Arrius was appointed by Staberius his ex- 


87. Sive ego : Staberius is supposed to say this. Every man 
has a right to do as he pleases with his own property. 

88. Patruus : i. e. severe, as uncles were. 

103. NU agit . . . resolvit : ' an example, that solves one diffi- 
culty by raising another, proves nothing.' 

117. "Undeoctoginta annos natus : ' seventy-nine years old.' 

132. Argis : ' at Argos,' where Orestes killed his mother. 

141. Splendida bilis : ' rage.' 

143. Veientanum : this was the poorest ware in Italy. 

152. Men' vivo : ' what, while I am alive ? '—Hoc age .- ' do 
this ' ; i. e. recover your strength. 

155. Hoc ptisanarium oryzce .- ' this decoction of rice.' 

156. Ociussibus : ' six pence ' ; an as was about three far- 

161. Non est cardiacus : ' has rot his stomach disordered.- 
The physician is supposed to say this. 


162. Negabit : sc. Craterus, medicus. 

166. Barathro: 'to the gulf ' of ambition, or extravagance. 
<2. Et ludere : ' and lose at play.' 
75. JYomentanum : he was a spendthrift. — Cicutam : he was 


80. Uter . . . prcetor : ' which ever of you would be aedile or 

itor,' may a father's curse light on him. 

183. Latus : ' uplifted,' ' borne aloft.' 

187. Atrida, cur vetas : the poet wishes to show that ambition 

no less madness than avarice ; and makes Stertinius next ar- 

ign Agamemnon, with whom he holds the following conver- 


189. Imperito : * I command.'— Inulto : ' with impunity.' 

195. lnhumato : sc. Ajace. 

205. Adverso littore : i. e. the port of Aulis, where the Gre- 
ian fleet was detained by a contrary wind. 

208. Qui species . . . habebitur : the construction is, Qui ca- 
riet species alias (alienas) a veris, permixtasque tumultu sceleris, 
s habebitur commotus secundam mentem. 

213. Stas animo : * are you in your right mind ? ' 

216. Rufam aut Rujillam : 4 my darling, my little darling ' ; 
or some such childish language. These words are written vari- 
ously ; Pupam, Pupillam ; Pusam, Pusillam, &c. 

223. Cruentis : sc. rebus, vel spectaculis. 

225. Vincet : ' will prove.' — JVepoUs , ' spendthrifts. 1 

227. Edicit : ' he gives out word.' 

229. Velabro : Velabrum was a street where oil-mongers, fish- 
dealers, &c. lived. 

231. Leno : the pimp speaks for the whole company, ofTering^ 
their services and whatever they possessed. 

233. Juvenis . the young spendthrift heir. 

237. Decies : sc. centena millia sestertium. 

238. Filius JEsopi : the son of iEsop the actor, dissolved a 
pearl in vinegar, worth a million sesterces, and drank it. This 
gave the idea to Cleopatra of doing the same with a pearl of 
still more value. 

240. Qui : ' in what.' — Ac si : ' than if.' 
243. Gemellum: 'twins,' in depravity. 

245. Quorsum . . . notandi : ' how are they to be ranked ? 
Must they be marked with chalk, as sane, or with charcoal, as 
insane ? ' 

246. JEdijicare casas • ' to build paper houses.' 

249. Si. K . . amare : ' if reason shall prove love to be more 
childish than these.' 

250. Trimus quale priiis : ' such as you did formerly when 
three years old.' 

253. Polemon : this was a thoughtless rake, who happened 
one day, as he came from his scene of revelry, to pass by the 
school of Xenocrates, and went in from curiosity. The philoso- 

358 NOTES. 

pher ingeniously turned his discourse upon temperance, and 
recommended this virtue so strongly, that Polemon was struck 
by the force of his arguments, tore off the garlands of flowera 
which he had worn at the banquet, and became so eminent a 
student of philosophy that he finally succeeded Xenocrates in 
his school. 

256. Impransi : ' sober ' ; ' serious.' 

258. Amator . . . distat : * how does the discarded lover dif- 

264. O here • his servant comes up and makes this speech to 

269. Redere certa sibi: 'to render steady and fixed.' 

271. Picenis : the apples which grew in the Picene territory 
were superior to others. 

272. Gaudes . . .forte : ' you are delighted if by chance you 
hit the place you aimed at in the room.' 

273. Feris : a metaphor from a musical instrument to strik* 
out a sound. 

275. Ignem gladio scrutare : ' to stir the fire with a sword ' ; 
meaning to increase an evil. 

276. Hellade percussd • ' having murdered his mistress Hel- 

277. Cerritus : for Cereritus ; struck with madness by Ceres. 

279. Cognata . . . rebus : ' different names to the same thing.' 
Madness, folly, and wickedness are considered the same thing 
by our poet. 

280. Siccus : ( sober.' 

281. Lautis manibus : i. e. his hands were washed, and pre- 
pared for some religious ceremony. 

282. Surpite : for surripite ; ' save me, me alone, from death.' 
284. Nisi liiigiosus : ' unless he wished a law-suit.' 

286. Fozcundd . . . Meneni : as if Menenius were the head of 
a family of fools. 

288. Cubantis t ' confined to his bed.' 

290. Tu indicis jejunia : ' you appoint your fast.' Religious 
festivals were introduced by fasting. 

302. Agave : in a fit of Bacchanalian fury tore her son Pen- 
theus in pieces, and carried his head about, as if it were that of 
a wild beast she had slain. 

307. JEdificas : Horace was probably enlarging his country 

308. Bipedalis : by humourously saying that he, though but 
' two feet high,' was imitating tall men, Damasippus would im- 
ply that Horace ought not to imitate his superiours in his mode 
of living. — Et idem . . . incessum: ' and yet you laugh at the 
fierceness and majestic air of Turbo in arms, as too lofty for his 
size.' Turbo was a gladiator of very small stature. 

323. Teneas . . . tuis te: ' O Damasippus, do keep yourself to 
your own affairs.' 



This satire consists of an amusing dialogue between the po- 
et and one Catius,- vvho pretends to be a great philosopher, and 
also to be profoundly versed in the science of cookery. But he 
becomes ridiculous by attaching so much importance to what is 
of little consequence ; and more particularly by exposing his 
utter ignorance of the subject 011 which he discourses. The 
whole is a keen satire upon that class of men who place their 
supreme happiness in the pleasures of the table. This he con- 
siders an abuse of Epicureanism, in the refined forms of which 
he was himself a believer. 

1. Aventi . . . praceptis : ' wishing to impress on my mind 
some new precepts,' which I have just learned. 

3. Pythagoran, Anyti reum : Socrates, who was accused by 

7. Sive . . . utroque: 'whether this is by natural or artificial 
memory, you being wonderful in both.' 

12. Longa . . . erit : ' to such eggs as shall have a long ap- 
pearance.' Catius very properly begins with the eggs, which 
form the flrst dish of the first course, and proceeds to the se- 
cond course, or the fruit. The following precepts given by 
Catius, are in general false and absurd. 

13. Ut magis alma : ' as more nourishing.' 

14. Ponere : i. e. apponerc tibi. 

26. Mulso : Mulsum is strong wine mixed with honey. 

27. Si dura . . . alvus : ' if you are costive.' 

29. Et lapathi . . . Coo : ' and sorrel steeped in white Coan 

32. Murice: the murex, peloris, and ostrea are different kinds 
of shell-fish. Misenum is a promontory of Campania. 

37. Card . . . mensd : ' to sweep off the fishes from a dear 
stall ' ; i. e. to buy them all at a great price. 

38. Ignarum . . . aptius : ' not knowing which are best serv- 
ed up with sauce.' 

43. Vinea : ' the vine ' is good for fatting goats. 

47. JVova . . . promit: ' only produces new kinds of pastry.' 

54. Lino : ' by being strained through linen.' 

57. Ima . . . aliena: 'attracting foreign substances sinks to 
the bottom.' In fact it is not the yolk, but the white of eggs 
that clarifies wine. 

61. Flagitat : sc. potor. — ln morsus refici: i. e. to be re- 
stored to a fresh appetite. 

65. Mwid : ' with pickle.' 

66. Qud . . . orca : ' in which the Byzantian fish has been 
allowed to putrefy and dissolve.' 

68. Stetit : ' has stood some time.' 

71. Venucula : sc. uva. 

73. Hanc ego . . . halec : i. e. I first introduced the use of 

360 NOTES. 

this Albanian grape with apples, and the sauce made of lees of 
wine and pickle. 

75. lncretum: mixed and pounded together. 

83. Ten* . . . palmd : sc. decet ; ' does it become you to 
sweep a floor of tesselated marble with a dirty broom ? ' 

84. lllota toralia : ' dirty couches.' 

86. lllis : i. e. not recollecting, that by how much the less 
expensive these things pertaining to cleanliness are, by so much 
the more reprehensible it is to be deficient here, than in things 
only to be expected at the banquets of the rich. 


This satire contains a dialogue between Ulysses and Tire- 
sias, a famous blind prophet. Homer represents Ulysses as 
descending to the infernal regions to consult Tiresias on the 
events of his voyage. On his return to Ithaca, Ulysses finds 
that Penelope's suitors had plundered and wasted his property. 
As the predictions of Tiresias had so far proved true, Ulysses 
is here represented as having raised his spirit to consult him 
further, as to the manner of repairing his fortune. This satire 
contains the advice of the soothsayer. 

1. Prceter narrata : ' in addition to what you told me before.' 

3. Doloso : sc. tibi. 

10. Turdus . . . illuc : ' should a thrush or any delicacy be 
given you, send it quickly there.' 

14. Ante Larem : i. e. even before your offering to your 
household god. 

18. Utne . . . latus : ' that I may protect the side of a vile 
slave Dama? 5 

22. Ruam • for eruam : ' I may obtain.' 

32. Quinte : when a slave obtained his freedom, he took the 
praznomeii of Qiiintus, Publius, or the like. 

36. Cassd nuce : ' an empty nut ' ; any trifle. 

38. Fi cognitor ipse : ' do you become his counsel.' 

40. Infantes Matuas . . . Mpes : Horace here ndicules two 
poets. One of them had called statues infantine, meaning that 
they were just made. The other represented Jupiter spitting 
snow upon the Alps. 

45. Validus male : ' in feeble health.' 

46. Sublatus: 'raised'; referring to the custom of parents 
lifting up a child when born, if they wished to have it pre- 
served— JVe manifcstum . . . te : ' that two obvious obsequious- 
ness to bachelors may not expose you.' 

53. Sic tamen . . . versu : the construction is, Tamen sic ut 
rapias limis oculis quid prima cera secundo versu. Prima cera 
signifies the first page of the will ; in the first line of which 
was the name of the testator ; and in the second, secundo versu, 
was that of the principal heir, which was followed by the names 
c f the co-heirs. 


55. Recoctus : i. e. versed in the tricks of the law, havin^ 
passed through the inferiour offices, such as that of quinqutvir, 
a kind of court bailiff. 

59. Aut erit, aut non : ' will corne to pass or no:,' as I havo 

62. Juvenis : Augustus. 

65. Soldum : for solidum ; sc. debitum. 

74. E.r tcstamento . . . tlata : ' aceording to her will Was so 
carried out for burial.' 

81. Capile obstipo: ' with head inclined,' in nn obsequious 
rnanner, as a slave to listen to his master's commands. 

99. Sparge subinde : throvv out occasionally some such ex- 
pression as this, Ergo nunc, ^r. 

98. Nummo . . . a 'dicerc •. this signifies to sell for any little 
coin, just to ansvver the lavv, which required the form of a sale 
for moncy to render a transrer valid. 


The poct, after expresslng his contentment and his gratitude 
for the blessings he enjoys, contrasts the confusion, bustle, and 
vexatious business of the city, vvith the quiet and ratiional en- 
joyments of the country. 

1. lla : ' very.' 

5. JMaid nate : gains acquired by industry were ascribed to 

* Mercury ' ; sudden and unexpected wealth, to Hercules. Ses 
verse 13. 

15. Ingenium: he prays to have every thing fat except his 

17. Mus&que pedestrd : ' plain, familiar poetry ' ; distinguish- 
«*d from prose only by measvre. 

19. Qucestus: ' a source of incorne,' to Libitina. 

20. Matuiine : Janus was the god of ti:ne ; hence he is styied 

• father of itaorning.' 

'2-3. Rotnce . . . rapis : ' vvhen at Rome you hurry me to be- 
come surety ' for my friends. 

94. Urge : ' make haste.' 

27. Postmodo . . . tardis : 'after I have spoken with a clear 
and distinct voice, what may cost me trouble afterwards, 
I then have to struggle with the crowd, and violence must bs 
tlone to those in the vvay ' ; i. e. before he can get clear of the 
crovvd r.fter having bail at the court. 

.34. Ante se undam : sc. horam ; ' before eight,' 

.35. Puteal: the prcetor's court was there. 

38. Cura: ' be so kind as to causc ' M;ecenas to si^n th?ee 

39. Dixeris-: sc. si ; 'ifyou say ' ; for, 'iflsay.' 
49. Dnntaxat ad hoc: ' at least so far as this.' 

44. Thrn.v . . . par : « ia the Thracian gladiator a mat< h for 
the Syrian ? ' 



48. JVoster : sc. Horatius. — Und : ' with Mseeenas.' 

49. Omnes : sc. dicunt. 

55. Si quidquam : sc. audivi. — Triquelra : ' in Sicily.' 

59. Misero .• sc. mihi. 

63. Pythagorce cognata ■' Pythagoras imagined there was a 
resemblance between the nature of the human body and that of 
a bean. He therefore forbade his followers to eat beans ; lest 
tliey should eat likewise some of their relations, who, in the 
changes of transmigration, might have become beans. 

65. Meique : ' and my friends.' 

67. Libatis dapibus : i. e. on what may be left after I have 
dined. A portion was iirst ofTered in libation to the house- 
hold gods. 

72. Lepos : he was a celebrated dancer. 

75. Usus rectumne : ' utility or virtue.' 

87. Tangentis male : ' scarcely deigning to touch.' 

88. Pater ipse domiis .- i. e. the mouse which gave the enter- 

94. Sortiia : l inheriting- from nature.' 

103. Canderet: 'glittered.' s 

108. VcrnaHter : 'like an attentive servant.' 


The design of the Saturnalia was to represent that equality 
tliat existed among mankind in the primitive ages, under the 
reign of Saturn. Hence during this eelebration slaves were 
allowed great freedom, and would, and could with impunity, say 
what they pleased. Horace. in this satire, introduces his slttve 
Davus as taking advantage of this season of licensed equality 
to tell him of his faults. Davus maintains that the wise man 
alone is free, who is not held in bondage by any vice, or a slave 
to any passion. His reasoning is so just, and the truth is 
pressed home so closely, that Horace, unable to answer, or to 
bear it any longer, stops him by threats. 

4. Ut vitale putes : ' so that you need not think me short- 
lived.' There was a vulgar prejudice prevailing, which con- 
tinues even to the present day, fchat a person pre-eminent for 
o-ifts and virtues was not long tbr tliis life. Davus thought he 
was not so remarkably good as to give any apprehension of this 


6. Et urget propositum ; ' and persevere in tiieir wicke i 


10. Clavum : ' his dress.' 

14. Veriumnis . . . iniquis : i. e. :;orn under the frowns 
Virturnnus. He presided over the chnnges of the year and of 
the visible creation, and was reptfesented under various fonns : 
hence used in the plural. 

35. Jucta : i. e. which he brought upon himself. 


17. Mercede . . . pavit: ' he kept a man on day wages.' 

19. Ac prior . . . lahorat : k and more tolerable than the for- 
mer (Priscus), who struggles now with astraight, and now with 
a lax cord ' ; i. e. who sometimes struggles with his passions 
and sometimes yields to their violence. 

"26. Romaz : ' when at Rome.' 

34. Oleum : 'essence,' 'perfume.' 

36. Miivius et scurrai : who came expecting to sup witb 

37. Dixerit ille : ' some one will say.' 

38. Nasum nidore supinor : ' raise my nose at a savoury 

50. Minor : ' subject to.' — Vindicia : the rod with which the 
pra.tor touched the head of those who received their freedom. 
The prsetor might make the body free ; butwisdom alone could 
free the mind. 

53. Sive vicarius : the head slave was called alriensis ; the 
others, who were under him, vicarii. 

59. Responsare : ' to resist ' ; i. e. has courage to oppose. 

60. Teres atque rotundus : ' smooth and round.' 

61. Per leve : ' on account of its smoothness ' ; a figure taken 
from a globe. 

65. Gelidd : sc. aqud. ~ 

69. Paxisiaca : Pausias was a celebrated painter. 

70. Fulvi : Fulvius, Rutuba, and Placideianus were gladia- 
tors, whose combats were sketched in a rude manner upon the 
places where they exercised. 

74. JYequam . . . audis > 'Iam considered a knave and a loi- 
terer ; but you are called a connoisseur, and a fine judge of 
ancient works of art.' — Audis : 'youhear' yourself called. 

76. Nil ego : ' I pass for nothing.' 

84. Strigili: by Hypallage, for mutat strigiiem furtivum uvd. 

92. Opera . . . nona : for operarius nonus ; i. e. or you shall 
be sent, the ninth slave, to work on my Sabine farm. Horace 
had eight there already. 


Nasidienus, an ostentatious, but miserly knight, gave an en- 
tertainment to Msecenas, of which this satire contains a hu- 
mourous account, related by Fundanius one of the guests. 

2. Nam . . . die : 'for when I sent requesting your company 
at my table, you were said to be there drinking from noon.' 
When the Romans wished to indulge longer at table than usual, 
they dined at an earlier hour than usual. 

6. Leni . . . Austro : if taken in Austrofervente, the flesh soon 
became rancid ; if in leni Austro, it would be tender. 

14. Procedit : Hydaspes brings forward the wine with the 
eame slow and stately step that a Grecian girl bears the sa- 
cred ensigns of Ceres, 


15. Alcon : sc. sequitur ferens. 

20. Sumnws ego .• the table was in the form of a semicircle. 
Around the circular part of it were placed three couches, on 
each of which were placed three persons. On the first were 
Fundanius, Viscus, and Varius. On the second or middle one, 
which was the place of honour, were Meecenas and his two 
friends that he brought with bim, umbrce, Vibidina and Balatro. 
On the third were Nomentanus, the iiost Nasidienus ipse, and 
Porcius. There was a passage for tlie attendants between each 
two of the couches. 

23. Umbras : persons not invited by the host, but coming 
with a guest, were called unibrm., 

28. Dissimilem noto : ' unlike what was common to them.' 

29. Passeris : ' of a flounder.' 

30. Ingvstata : ' such as had never been tasted.' 

32. Ab ipso . . . mtliiis : ' you will learn best from him.' 

34. Damnose : i. e. unless we drink this eternal talker dumb. 

39. Invertuni . . . iota : ' empty whole jars of wine into Alli- 
phanian cups. — Mliphanis: sc. poculis : made at AUlphce. 

40. Imi: the host and his two parasites were on the lowest 
couch. They spared the bottles on their side. 

46. Garo . . . Iberi: ' and witli the pickle of Spanish macke- 
rel, and with wine of this country, five years old, poured in 
when the sauce was boiling.' 

48. Cocio : ' when boiled ' — Chium vinum sic convenit illi 
cocio, ut non ullum aliud mag)s hoc. 

50. Vitio : being- changed to vinegar. — Uvam for vinum. 

54. Aulcea : the curtains, or canopy over tbe table. 

58. Rufus : the surname of Nasidienus. 

64. Suspendens omnia naso: ' making a joke of the whole.' 

67. Tcne: sc. num ccquum est? addressed to Nasidienus. 

72. Agaso : ' a groom,' implying that Nasidienus had taken 
his grooms from the stable to attend at dinner. His speech is 
a satire upon the dinner. The bread was burnt ; the sauce 
badly made ; and the servants taken from the barn. 

77. Soleas : the slippers were put off on reclining at table. 

82. Non dentur : the servants were slow in furnishing thc 

83. Ficiis rerum : 'on feigned pretences,' not to offend their 

91. Sine clune: tbese ringddves were probably bought cheap ; 
since the rumps, tbe rnost delicate part, were so tainted as to 
be unfit for the tabie. 




This epistle is addressed to Msecenas who, it would seem, 
had been urging our poet to resume his lyre, nnd to produce 
more odes. The substancc of his reply is, that he had become 
too old to indulge any longer in these trifles ; that ihe study of 
philosophy, of truth, and of duty, was more becoming his years, 
and better suited to his taste. H.e likewise intimates that he 
had aiready gained some reputation as a lyric poet, which it 
was not worth his while to risk by any further eiTorts in tiiis 

1. Primd . . . litdo : the con truqiion is, O M^cenas, dicte mi~ 
ki primd et dicende summd ( nd, quctris includere iterum, in 
anliquo ludo me, safis speclaUum, etjam donatum rude. 

2. Donatuni jam rude : ' already horiourably dir.charged/ 
When gladiators had for a long time acquitted themselves hon- 
ourably, they were presented with the rudis, a kind of rod, 
and excused from further perfprmanee in piiblic. 

4. Vejanius : he was a famous gladiator, who had obtained a 
discharge, and retired into the country to avoid further expo- 
sure to danger on the arena. 

6. Exoret: ' ask for his life,' which depended on the will of 
the spectators. 

32. Est quddam prodire tenus .• 'itis lawful to go to a certain 

44. Devites : ' you trj r to escape.' 

48. MelioA credere : ' to hearken to one wiser than yourself.' 

59. Plebs : ' a j:le')eian.' 

65. Qui .■ sc. suadeL 

77. Conducere publica : ' to form a part of the public reve- 

78. Crustis . . . avaras : ' by little favours would gain over 
c-ovetous widows.' 

86. Cras . . . fobri .- ' workmen, you will carry your buildini; 
materials to Thednum? This was a beautiful city of Campania. 

37. Lectus . . . esi : i. e. is he married. 

91. Quid pauper? : ' how is it with the poor man ? ' 

101. Insanire . . . me : 'you think me affected with the cur- 
rent madness.' 


366 NOTES. 


Horace, having in his retirement read Homer with unusual 
care and attention, writes to his friend Lollius at Rome his re- 
flections on this great poet. He avails himself of the occasion, 
while speaking of the morals contained in the poem, to set 
forth the worth and importance of wisdom and virtue. 

2. Declamas : i. e. dicendi arte exerceris. 

7. Barbarice .- i. e. for Helen, a foreigner. 

31. Jid strepitum . . . curam : ' and by the sound of the harp 
to lull their cares to sleep.' Cessatum, for which there are va- 
rious readings, is a supine : cessatum duccre, 'to sooth, to put to 

34. Curres hydropicus • 'you will run when seized with the 
dropsy.' Running was prescribed for the dropsy by Celsus and 


In the year of Rome 731 Tiberius was sent witli an army 
into Dalmatia. Julius Florus, to whom this epistle is addressed, 
attended him in this expedition. Tiberius continued regnlating 
j.fFairs in the East, till he was ordered by Augustus into Arme- 
nia. It was at this time that Horace wrote this epistle to Flo- 
rus, describing the route of Tiberius through Thrace, and re- 
questing to be informed on various subjects of public and pri- 
vate nature. He also advises Florus to be on good terms with 
Munatius, between whom thcre had been some misunderstand- 

12. Utvalet?: 'Ishe well?' 

13. Auspice Musct : ' with the aid of the Muses.' 

17. Scripta . . . JipoUo : i. e. the writings deposited in the li- 
brary in the teraple dedicated to Apollo on mount Palatine. 

30. Si libi . . . Munatius : ' if you have as much regard for 
Munatius, as you ought to have.' 


The poet Tibuilus, to whom this ode was addressed, was a 
Pcoman knight bf fortunc, taste, and elegance. He espoused 
the cause of libertv vvith Brutus, and had suffered in his estate 
in consequence ; as his lands were among those confiseated. 
Fonr books of elegies are all thnt remain of his works. These 
for swectness and pathos are hardly surpassed by any thing in 
the language. 

3. CossiParmensis : ' Cassius of Parma.' He valued liimself 
on the fertility of his genius ; and regarded the number of verses 
he could write in a given time, rather than their excellence. 
This is raillery in liorace. 



13. Supremwn : the Epicureans ineulcated this maxim, that 
every day was to be enjoyed as if it were the last. Then, if 
another were given, it would be considered a gratuity, and be 
the more gratefully received. 



In this epistle Horace invites Torquatus to sup with him on 
Csesar's birthday. He promises a homely entertainment, but a 
hearty welcome. 

1. Jirchiacis . . . lectis : there was one Archias, well known as 
the manufacturer of the cheaper kind of beds. They were 
shorter than the more costly kinds. 

9. Moschi •• Moschus was an orator of Pergamus, whose de- 
fence Torquatus had undertaken against a charge of poisoning 
some one. 

25. Eliminet: for evulget, effutiat. 

28. Umbris : 'uninvited guests.' 

29. Olidce . . . caprce : i. e. a strong scent. 


In this epistle Horace shows to his friend Numicius the folly 
of extravagant and ill-timed admiration. He shows that hap- 
piness does not consist in a love of the marvellous ; or in the 
indulgence of a taste for novelty ; but in a virtuous life, and 
a mind elevated above the influence of admiration or sur- 

7. Ludicra quid •• i. e. what do you think of public shows, of 
applauses, and of the honours conferred by the Roman people ? 
in what manner are thev to be regarded ? with what feelino- 
and look, do you think ? 

15. JEquus iniqui : sc. Vir ccquus ferat nomen inqui. 

22. Mutus : " homo ignobilis, uxoris dote dives factus, qui- 
cunque demum fuerit." Doer. One of no rank or eloquence, 
and who has not risen by his own talents or industry, but by 
his wife's fortune. 

31. Virtutem verba pnies : ' do you think virtue consists mere- 
ly of words ? ' 

51. Trans pondera : i. e. wlio may remind you to extend your 
hand in salutation across the loaded wagons, &c. in the crowd- 
ed streets. 

61. Crudi tumidique : ' with stomachs full and overloaded.' 

62. Cttrite serd: the inhabitants of Gcre, having been ad- 
mitted to all the privilejres of Roman citizens, forfeited thern 
by a revolt. They afterwards submitted, and received the 
rights of citizenship, except the right of voting, of which they 
were deprived. When any one aftcrwards forfeited his right 
of voting, he was said to be placed in the register of the 

368 NOTES. 


On retiring into the country, Horace had promised his patron 
that he would return in five days. But after spending the 
whole month of August, he writes this epistle to Maacenas, by 
way of apology for breaking hia engagement. The natural 
and easy manner in wbich Horace excuses himself to his illus- 
trious friend, shows that it is possible to enjoy the favour of the 
great without sacrificing one's independence, or descending to 

2. Sextilem: the Romans began their year in March, the 
sixth month from which was called Sexillis. Afterwards it 
took the name of Augustus, mensis Augustus ; as that before 
it did of Julius Csesar, mensis Juli 

6. Dcsignatorem : the person who had the care of marshal- 
ling; funeral processions was called designator, ' the under- 

12. Contractus : 'snug in his apartment' hc will indulge in 
reading. There are various glosses on this passage. 

14. Calaber : i. e. any rustic host. Horace was himself a 
Calabrian, and this -circumstance increases the humour of the 
followino- dialogue. 

21. HtBC se.ges : i. e. this profuse liberality. 

23. Mra lupinis : ' coin from lupins.' In tbeatrical exhibi- 
tions lupins were so done up as to resemble coins, and used in- 
stead ofthem. 

25. Reddes forte latus : i. e. you will restore my youthful 
vigour, the black locks tbat shaded ny short fbrehead, iiic. 

34. Satur altilium : ' when surfeited with dainties.' 

52. Unde domo : i. e. Rcmanus an hospes ; qudmam ex /a- 

56. Et properare •' i. e. knowing both when to hasten, and 
when to relax ; when to gain, and when to enjoy the fruits of 
his industy. 

64. Vilia scrvta : these words mean old clothes, old iron, and 
any trash of this kind. 

67. Qitod non . . . eum : i. e. that he had not seen him first. 

53. Siilcos . . . mera : ' he talks of nothing but furrows and 
rineyards.' — Jlcra: 'solely,' 'only.'* 


This epistle is addressed to Celsus Albinovanus, the secreta- 
ry of Tiherius, who is mentioned Book I. Ep. III. 15. Horaci? 
describes himself as labouring under hypochondriac affec- 
tions, inconstant, cnntradictory, and unreasonable. 

1. Cetso . . . Neronis : the construction is, O Musa rogata, 
refer Celso Jllbinovano, comiti scribo:que JVeronis, gaudere et ge- 


rere rem benk. This is an imitation of the Greek form of saluta- 
tion, x,ulouv xxi ih-roi.rTuv : ' give joy and success.' 
3. Minardem: ' promising,' 'intending.' 

12. Vcntosus : ' inconstant,' 'changeful.' 

13. Rem gerat : ut scriba apud JYcrowm. 

14. Ut placeat juveni: ' hovv he stands with the youthful 
prinee,' Tiberius Claudius Nero. — Cohorti: ' to the courtiers/ 
about the prince. 


This is a letter of introduction and commendation toTiberius 
Claudius Noro in behalf of SeptimiuS, the poet's particular 
friend. The great delicacy necessary on such an occasion is 
manifestly felt by Horace, who pleads the importunity of his 
friend, as an excuse for what he does, with modesty and seem- 
ing reluctance. 

1. Septimius . . . facias .- ' O Claudius, Septimius alone for- 
sooth knovvs Jiow high I stand in your esteem.' 

6. Quifl . . .ipso: he sees an.d understands how much influ- 
ence I have vvith you much better than I do myself. 

10. Sic tgo . . . pra-mia-. ' so I, to avoirl the appearance ofa 
greater crime (unwillingness to serve a friend), have taken up- 
on myself a little modest assurance.' Desccndi expresses his 
unwillingness, and that he did not at first intend to do it. 


There are few persons insensible to the pleasures of the 
country. In Horace this feelrng became a kind of passion ; 
and tbe praises he bestows in this epistle on a counlry life and' 
on contenttnent vvith one's lot, are pleasing and instructive. 

5. Vttuli : 8C. ul ; i. e. as a piir of steers, or of doves. 

10. Sacerdotis fugitivus : the priest's slave,tired of the cakes 
and delicacies offered at the altar, runs avvay from his master 
that he may get a little common bread. So our poet would re- 
treat from the luxuries and artificial pleasures of the city to the- 
simple and natural enjoyments of the country. 

24. Erpdles furcd : ' you drive with violence ' ; with a pitch- 
fork ; this is afigure dravvn from rustic employments. 

31. Pones invitus .- ' you will resi^n with reluctance.' 

33. Rcges . . . amicos : ' may enjoy life better than kings and 
the favourites of kings.' 

49. Fanum putrt Vacuna .- Vacuna was the goddess of ease 
and leisure, and had an old ternple in the Sabine conntry, not 
far from Horace's country seat.— Putre : vetustatt obsoletum. 

50. Excepto : sc. eo ; ' except this ' that you are absent, 

370 NOTES. 


It is not known who Bullatius was, to whoin this letter was 
addressed. But he is supposed to have retired to Asia when 
the last quarrel was breaking out between Augustus and An- 
tony, that he might not again behold the horrors of a civil war. 
When it was ended, our poet invites him to return to Rome ; 
and gives such excellent maxims as might be useful to a person 
too much inclined to despondency. Sanadon. 

1. Quid . . . Lesbos : ' how does Chios appear to you, and 
famed Lesbos, O Bullatius ? ' 

5. Mtalicis una: 'one of the cities ruled by Attalus.' 

7. Desertior . . . vicus ; sc. nunc ; i. e. though now but a de- 
serted village ; it was once a very celebrated city. 

17. lncolumi . . . solstitio : ' to a sound mind Rhodes nnd fair 
Mitylene are about the same, as a great coat in summer.' 

21. Romcc: i. e. when you are at Rome, let Samos, Chioe, 
and Rhodes be praised. 

25. JsTam si . . . aufert .; ' for if reason and prudence only, and 
no situation, however commanding its prospect over the ex- 
panded ocean, can dispel our cares.' 


This epistle is addressed to the same person to whom Horace 
addressed the XXIVth Ode of the Ist Book. He there rallies 
Iccius with some humour on turning soldier, and abandoning his 
literary and philosophical pursuits. He now ridicules his love 
of money, blended with philosophical pursuits. 

7. In medio positorum : ' in the midst of abundance spread 
out before you.' 

12. Miramursi: i. e. can we wonder that the fields and 
crops of Democritus became the prey of flocks, while his mind 
was searching for the hidden causes of things ; when you, 
amidst so corrupt an age, where the love of gain spreads like 
a contagion, withdraw your mind from all low inquiries, and 
employ yourself in the sublime study of nature ? This is pro- 
bably irony, for the poet's amusement. 


It seems our poet had intrpsted several rolls of his writings^ 
volumina, to his friend Vinius Asella, to be carried to Augus- 
tus. But he was anxious that they should be presented at a 
proper time, when he might be unemployed by more weighty 
concerns ; and that they should not, through too much zeal on 
the part of his friend, be urged upon the emperour at an un- 
seasonable time or place. 

2. Signata : he wished them to be delivered sealed, that they 


might not be the subject of impertinent curiosity to the cour- 

8. Asincc : Horace hnmourously reminds Asella not to stum- 
ble awkwardly with them into Csesar's presence, lest the cour- 
tiers should make a joke of him, and of his sirname, which sig- 
nified a little ass. 

12. Sub ald : ' under your arm.' 

14. Ut . . . lanaz : ' as drunken Pvrrhia carries her bottoms of 
«tolen yarn.' A character in a comedy by Titinnius. 


This epistle is addressed by Horace to his steward in the 
country, showing him the folly of preferring a life in the city 
to one in the country. He says this preference arises from in- 
constancy of inind, and a love of change. 

2. Quem . . . patres : ' which, though you despise it, was for- 
merly possessed by five families, and was wont to send five 
good senators to Varia.' This estate was within the jurisdic- 
tion of Varia, where the most respectable commoners convened 
to consult on public affairs. 

10. Ego : sc. dico. * 

14. Tu mediastinus : ' you when a slave of the lowest rank.* 

28. Disjunctum : ' when unyoked.' 

33. Sed . . . ludum : ' but not to set bounds to indulgence.' 

41. Calo : this means a slave of the lowest order, that is em- 
plpyed in bring-ing- wood and water, and performing other simi- 
lar offices in a family. 


Antonius Musa, physician to Augustus, had recommended 
the cold bath to Horace, who practised cold bathing in Clusiura 
and Gabii. But findins: the winter too severe, he resolved to 
go to some warmer climate and try sea-bathing. For this rea- 
son he writes to his friend Numonius Vala, who had been using 
the baths at Velia and balernum, to give him some account of 
the climate, people, accominodations, &c. The beginning of 
this epistle is very much transposed and confused. We must 
look as far as the twenty-fouith verse before we can get the 
natural arrangement of the thoughts. 

1. Quce sit kiems : before taking in this, it seems necessary 
to bring in the twenty-fourth verse : Par est te scribere, ac 
nos accrcdere tibi. quce sit hiemg Velics ; i. e. you must write to 
me, Vala, what kind of winter you have at Velia, and what the 
climate of ^alernurn ; wliat is the cbaracter of the inhabitants, 
and how the roads are ; for Antonius Musa assures me that the 
waters of Baiae are useless to me. 

3. lllis : i. e. to the people at Baise. 

372 NOTES. 

5. Sank myrleta . . . coniemni : ' that their myrtle groves and 
eulphur baths should be neglected, so long famed for driving 
away maladies settling on the nerves.' 

21. Tractus uter : i. e. vtra regio, Velicene an Sakrni? 

23. Pinguis . . . Phaeax : a fat Phoeacian ; i. e. similis Alci- 
noo, luxurioso regi Phaacum. 

35. Nepotum : ' gluttons.' 

39. Bona r ' their estates.' 


We may suppose that Quinctius had rallied Horace on the 
extent and lnngnifieence of his country-seat, that had charms 
sufficient to detain him so long from Rome. The poet, after 
giving a description of his residenee, falls into some moral re- 
flections which may have a bearing on the character of Quinc- 
tius, and be an oftset to what he had before written to liorace. 

1. Ne perconteris . . . ulmo : ' that you may not have the 
trouble of inquiring, most excellent Quinctius, whether my 
farm supplies its owner with grnin, or enriches him with olives, 
fruits, pasturagc, or vines covering the elms. 5 

4. Loquaciter : * afc-full length.' 

14. Infirmo . . . alvo : ' and excellent for disorders of tha 
hea:d and the stomach.' 

17. Quod audis : ' what you have the reputation of heing.' 

19. Sed vereor . . . beatum r ' but I fear thatyou rely more on 
the judgment of others about yourself, than you rio on your 
own'; and that you think a man may be happy without being 
wise and good.' 

41. ConsuUa patrum : 'the decrees of the senate.' 

49. Renuit negat atque Sabellvs : ' that I object to and deny.' 
Horace pleasantiy styles himseif SabelLus, inasmuch as country 
people alluw their slaves to take greater liberty than they have 
in the city. The situation of atque after negai is unusual and 
foiced ; and it has given occasion to various conjectures. 

60. Labra movtt : i. e. after addressing Janus or Apollo with 
a loud voice, he whispers his prayer to Laverna, feanng some 
one else will hear him. Lavema was the protectiess of thieve* 
and imposters. 


Ilorace gives his young friend Pcseva some instructiona re- 
apecting his con«iuct at court ; that he may preserve his integ- 
rity, and pass witli honour and happiness tiiroufjh that scene of 
danger and temptation. iie shovvs that an active life, the Hfe 
of a man determined to deserve and secure the favour and es- 
teem of the great by his own merit, is infinite.y more honour- 
able than a life spent in indolence, without emulation or am- 
bition. He caution9 him against asking fuvours. 


10. Fefellit : sc. lucem publicam ; i. e. latuit in obscuro. 
\l. Jicctdes siccus ad unctum: i. e. you will make your court 
to thc great. 

14. Si sciret . . . notat : 'if he (Diogenes), who censures me, 
knew how to ingratiate himself with kings, he would despise 
his plate of pot-herbs.' 

19. Scurror . . . mihi : ' I play the buffoon for my own inte- 
rest,' i. e. to the great. 

21. Officium facio .- ' I make my court.' 

36. JVon cuivis . . . Corinihum .• this is an old proverb ; mean- 
ing that the rich only could bear the expense of visiting 

44. Plus poscente ferent : ' shall obtain more than one who 

59. Planum : ' a vagrant,' that had before practised imposi- 

62. Quccre peregrinum : ' ask one who does not know you.' 


This epistle contains the advice of Horace to Lollius, a young 
gentleman in whose happiness our poet took much interest, and 
who was yet inexperienced in the wiles and temptations of a 
courtier's life. He had already written one letter to him to 
guard him against some mistakes that might be fatal to his 

10. Imi derisor lecti : the jesters and buffoons usually took 
the lowest of the three couches at table. 

11. Horret: ' regards,' ' observes.' 

15. Rixatur . . . caprind : this is an old proverb, meaning ' to 
wrangle about trifles.' 

16. Scilicet . . . sordet: i. e. forsooth, may T not be believed 
first ? and may I not speak my mind without restraint ? I 
would disdain life on other conditions. 

24. Dives . . . horret : ' his rich friend, though ten times more 
deep in vice, hates and despises him.' 

27. Plus . . . vult : ' wishes him to be more wise and more 
virtuous than he is himself.' 

36. Thrax: i. e. he will turn gladiator, or he will be hired 
to drive some gardener's horse to market loaded with herbs. 

40. llle : i. e. dives amicus. 

42. Donec . . . lyra : ' until the lyre of Amphion, hated by 
his austere brother, was abandoned.' See Class. Dict. 

56. Sub duce .• sc. Augusto. 

58. Ac, ne . . . abstes .- i. e. that you may not seem to withdraw 
yourself, and stand aloof unjustifiably. 

63. Lacus, Hadria : ' a pond served for the Hadriatic' 
78. Theonino : Theon was a slanderous fellow. 

82. Dulcis . . . amici : ' the possession of a powerful friend 
seems desirable to one who has never made the trial.' 

374 NOTES. 

100. Gelidus Digentia . . . bibit t ' the cool streara Digentia, 
which flows through Mandela.' 


This epistle is a satire on the poets of our author's time, 
who, under pretence that Bacchus was the god of poetry, and 
that the best ancient bards loved wine, imagined they might 
equal their merit by drinking as freely. Horace laughs at 
such ridiculous imitation, and rallies the methodical dulness of 
their compositions. Dacier. 

1. Cratino : Cratinus was excessively fond of wine ; so much 
so, that Aristophanes says, he died of grief at seeing a hogshead 
broken and the wine running out. 

5. Ferl : i. e. plerumque. 

8. Forum . . . severis : ' let the Forum and the prastor's 
court, established by Libo, be the lot of the sober ; but I forbid 
them to attempt poetry ' ; i. e. let serious business be performed 
by the temperate. The prsetor's court was near the puteal. 
This we understand to be the decree of Bacchus. 

15. Rupit larbitam : the poet means to say that Iarbita 
burst with envy and vexation in attempting to rival the wit and 
eloquence of Timagenes the rhetorician. 

18. Cuminum : Dioscorldes says that cumin will make per- 
sons pale who wash in, or drink, a decoction of it. 

23. Parios : called Parian from Paros, the country of Archi- 
lochus, the inventor of iambic verse. 

30. Socerum : sc. ut Archilochus Lycamben oblevit. 

31. Sponsce •• see Epode VI. 13. note. 

36. Premat extra limen : ' abuses them abroad.' 
40. Pulpita : this refers to the stage, on which teachers 
(grammaticcB tribus) caused their pupils to recite the poems of 
such writers as they were pleased with, or wished to bring into 
notice. Horace says he did not court their favour, and they 
resented it by slighting his writings. 

43. Jiit : sc. aliquis e tribu grammaticd. 

44. Fidis enim .- ' for you suppose.' 

47. Displicet . . . posco : ' I do not like the place of contest, I 
ask for a truce.' Horace pretends very modestly to ask for 
time to correct his verses, before they were brought before the 
public on the stage. 


When about to publish a volume of his poetry, Horace pre- 
fixes this little address to his book, in which he warns it of the 
ill treatment it must expect on going out into the world. He 
pleasantly adds some peculiarities of his own character. 

1. Vertumnum : the booksellers' shops vvere situated around 


the statues of Vertumnus and Janus ; hence he says, * you seem 
to have your eye on Vertumnus and Janus.' 

2. Sosiorum: the Sosii were two brothers, the most cele- 
brated bookbinders and booksellers of their time. — Pumice : the 
parchment was smoothed ' with pumice-stone.' 

8. Plenos . . . amator: ' when weary of reading you, though 
so partial an admirer.' 

9. Qubd si . . . cetas t ' but if I am not blinded by my indig- 
nation at your folly, you will please at Rome while you are a 

13. Uticam : when a work had run out at Rome, the booksel- 
lers sent it offinto the provinces. — llerdam .- this was in Spain : 
Utlca was in Africa. 

23. Urbis: ofRome. 

24. Solibus aptum : ' fond of basking in the sun.' 



Augustus had complained that Horace had not addressed any 
of his satires or epistles to him. In this beautiful and finished 
epistle the poet makes ample amends for his former remissness. 
In the first part of it he examines the comparison between the 
ancients and the moderns, which has been matter of dispute in 
all ages. He next shows the folly of that excessive love of an- 
tiquity, which regarded the time of any performance rather 
than its merits. In the third place he treats of the theatre, 
and of the difficulty of succeeding there. And finally he would 
remind princes how important it is for them to encourage a 
spirit of emulation for epic poetry, by which their own achieve- 
ments may be celebrated. 

10. Qui : Hercules slew the hydra of Lerna. 

13. Artes : for artifices ; one eminent in any department de- 
presses, by his fame, those who are inferiour to him. 

23. Sicfautor veterum .- the idea is, so extravagantly do the 
people admire the works of antiquity, that they would say, the 
Muses themselves uttered, on mount Alba, the laws of the 
Twelve Tables, the treaty with the Gabii, &c. These were 
among the first productions of the Romans, and certainly not 
to be considered as models in composition. 

28. Si, quia . . . loquamur .- ' if, because the most ancient 

376 NOTES. 

works of the Greeks are the best, vve are to weigh Roman 
writers in the same balance, it is in vain to say any thing far- 

31. JVil: i. e. we might as well say that there is nothing 
hard within an olive, or on the outside of a nut. 

35. Scire .... annus r ' I desire to know what number of 
years may establish a value to writings.' 

38. Excludat . . .Jinis : 'the established number of years (to 
constitute antiquity) removes all doubt.' This is the answer to 
Horace's question, and the beginning of a dialogue full of 

45. Utor permisso : 'I avail myself of your concession.' 

48. Qui . .fastos : ' who has recourse to the calendar.' 

56. Actius alti : ' Actius has the reputation of a sublime po- 

72. Et exactis . . . distantia : l and littLe removed from perfec- 

86. Saliare JVumce carmen : ' Numa's hymn for the Salii.' 
When Numa instituted the order of Salii, he composed a 
form of prayer or praise for them. 

103. Reclusd mane . . . nummos : ' the house being open at 
daybreak, to wait and-explain the Iaws to clients, and to en- 
quire out the best securities for money.' 

115. Didicit : sc. medicince artem. 

123. Pane secundo t ' brown bread,' of a secondary quality. 

125. Si das hoc : ' if you allow this.' 

132. Puella : referring to the virgins, who sung the Carmen 
Saculare with a choir of boys. 

178. Exanimat lentus spectator : ' a listless spectator de- 

185. Si discordet eques : ' if the knights disagree with them ' ; 
i. e. if they oppose their freaks at the theatre. 

187. Verum . . .jam : ' but even for the knights now.' 

189. Quatuor . . . horas ■ ' the curtain falls for four hours or 
more.' At the commencement of the play the Romans let fall 
the curtain to expose the stage, instead of raisirg it up, as we 
do. The play was interrupted in this case, and the stage kept 
open to view for the exhibition of some show, for several 
hours. Horace complains of this abuse. 

-193. Ebur : i. e. cut out in figures of ivory. 

199. Scriptores . . . surdo : 'he would think the writers of the 
comedy employed in telling a story to a deaf ass.' 

209. Laudare maligne : ' condemn by faint praise.' 

210. llle . . . poeta i ' that poet appears to me able to walk 
upon a tight rope ' ; i. e. able to do any thing. 

230. JEdituos : ' heralds,' to proclaim or record. 

269. ln vicum vendentem : ' into the street where they sell.' 



Julius Florus, to whom this epistle is addressed, was, at the 
time it was written, absent with Tiberius Nero. Horaee gives 
his reasons for not having complied with the roquest of Florus 
that he would send him some lyric poems. He tells him that 
he wished to devote himself to the study of philosophy. And 
throughout the epistle he intersperses many excellent precepts 
for the regulation of the conduct, and for securing a good 
and happy life. He commences with a lively and amusing 
account of a slave-dealer, as an example of the verbosity and 
knavery of that class of men. 

14. Semel hic cessavit : ' he was once in fault ; and hid him- 
self behind the stairs for fear of the whip, as was natural 
enough.' Doering prefers this construction to pendentis in 
scalis, the usual one. The seller uses the word cessavit for 
aufugit ; to soften the crime of running away, which was con- 
sidered so important a defect in the character of a slave, that 
the sale was made void by law, if this was not mentioned to the 

17. Pcence securus : ' fearless of any punishment,' for the 
fraud he committed ; as the law could not reach him, after he 
had mentioned the fact that the slave had run away. 

23. Quid . . . attentas : * what then have I gained by my con- 
cession, if nevertheless, you impeach the laws protecting me.' — 
Mecum facientia .- i. e. rae adjuvantia. Jaeck. 

28. Vehemens lupus : sc. ut ; ' like a raging wolf.' 

48. JYon responsura lacertis 1 ' unable to cope with the arms,' 
or forces, of Augustus Cassar. 

52. Sed quod . . . versus : i. e. but now possessing every thing 
that I wish, what doses of hellebore could cure my madness, 
if I did not think it better to sleep quietly than to attempt 
writing poetry again ? 

60. Bioneis sermonibus t i. e. witli such keen satire as Bion of 
Borysthenes is said to have written. 

81. lngcnium : ' a man of genius.' 

87. Frater . . . ille : the poet passes suddenly to another top- 
ic ; that of the mutual commendation and praise of certain 
poets. He says there were at Rome two friends, the one a 
rhetorician, and the other a lawyer, who agreed to extol each 
other. The lawyer made the rhetoriciah a second Gracchus ; 
and he in turn called him another Mucius. Mucius was a cele- 
brated writer upon the civil law. Frater seems to be used for 

98. Lento . . . duello : ' like gladiators in a slow, harmless 
contest till evening twilight.' Samnites is the name of a class 
of gladiators. 

119. Adsciscet . . . usus : ' he will introduce such words as 
use, the father of language, has produced.' 

378 NOTES. 

128. Quam sapere, et ringi : ' than to be wise, and always on 
the rack.' 

134. Et signo . . . lagencs : ' and did not fly into a passion at 
finding the bottle unsealed.' 

166. Quid refert . . . olim : ' for where is the difference, whe- 
ther you live on money recently spent, or spent some time ago ? ' 

J92. Qubd . . . invenerit : ' because he shall find nothing more 
than was orirginally given to me ' ; i. e. because I have not in- 
creased my estate.' 

204. Extremi . . . priores : l if behind the first, yet before the 


These remarks upon the art of poetry were probably de- 
eigned as the third epistle of the second book, and addressed 
to Lucius Piso and his two sons. Horace did not pretend to 
give a complete treatise upon the art of poetry ; but to throw 
out such hints upon the leading topics of the subject, as the na- 
ture of an epistle would allow. He has therefore observed no 
particular method or order in discussing the subject ; nor been 
at the trouble of making any preamble. He begins at once 
with the most essential, necessary, and important precept, which 
is unity and simplicity of design. 

1. Humano . . . rrtembris : ' should a painter undertake to 
join a mare's neck to a human head, and, uniting limbs 
from various animals, to cover the whole with partycoloured 

5. Spectatum : ' to view it ' ; a supine. 

15. Purpureus . . . pannus .« ' here and there a purple patch 
is sewed on, which makes a great show.' 

18. Flumen Rhenum : the poets often decline substantives as 
if they were adjectives ; as Rhenus, -a, -um ; so Ovid has Caput 
Augustum, Quirinam urbem, and Horace Metaurum Jlumen, 
Romulam gentem. 

20. Quid hoc . . . pingitur : i. e. how will this satisfy the 
man who hires you to paint him shipwrecked, and floating 
hopeless on the broken planks ofthe vessel? 

21. Amphora . . . exit : i. e. a bad poet opens his poem with 
something great and magnificent, but amuses himself with 
trifles ; as a bad potter begins a large and beautiful vase, but 
produces only a worthless pitcher. San. 

32. JEmelium . . . imus : ' the meanest artist in the iEmilian 
square.' This place was called afler iEmilius Lepldus, who 
formerly had a school for gladiators tbere. In later times Po- 
lycletus, the statuary, had his rooms there. 


34. lnfelix . . . nesciet : ' but he will be unsuccessful in com- 
pleting the statue, because he carmot give just proportions to 
the whole.' 

35. Hunc ego . . . capillo : ' if I were about to attempt a work 
of art, I should no more wish to imitate such a one, than to ap- 
pear in public, remarkable for fine black hair and eyes, but 
disfigured by a defective nose.' 

42. Fenus. 'beauty.' 

45. In verbis . . . auctor : these two verses have very properly 
exchanged places, of late years. According to the judgment 
of Dr. "Bentley they should stand as they do here. The con- 
struction is, Auctor promissi carminis, etiam in serendis verbis 
tenuis (subtilis) cautusque, amet hoc, et spernat hoc ; i. e. delicate 
and careful in selecting words, must adopt this, and reject that. 

47. Dixeris egregie . . . novum : ' you will gain great praise, 
if by a skilful union you render new, what was knownbefore ' ; 
i. e. make a new word out of two old ones. 

50. Fingere . . . continget : ' it will be allowable to coin words 
not known to the ancient Cethegi.' — Cinctutis : this means,. 
' girded ready for action,' as the aneient Romans were. The 
Cethegi are used for .people of their time. 

59. Signatum pmsente notd : ' impressed with the current 
stamp ' ; comparing words to coin, which bore the stamp of the 
reigning prince. 

•65. Regis opus : ' the work of a king ' ; i. e. the making of 
a harbour to protect the fleets. 

66. Urbes alit : being drained, ' it supplies the neighbouring 

69. Vivax: 'lasting,' 'permanent.' 

91. Cazna Thyesta : i. e. a tragedy. See Class. Dict. 

120, Reponis : ' represent,' or describe. 

136. Ut scriptor cyclicus : ' like that trifling, vain poet of olcl 

178. Semper . . . aptis : ' we must always have regard to» 
what is connected with, and suited to the age, of the parties.' 

189. Neve minor : i. e. neither less than five acts. 

196. Ule : i. e. chorus ; the chorus is to supply all the 
places mentioned in this and the five following verses. 

220. Hircum : this was the prize. 

237. Et audax . . . talentum: ' and the impudent Pythias, who- 
spunged old Simo out of his money.' — Pythias was a maid ser- 
vant in a play of Lucilius. — Emuncto .- ' cunningly overreached.. , 

254. Non ita pridem : ' nor is it long ago.' Spondees were 
admitted in the odd places ; but an iambus was retained in the 

294. Prcesectum . . . unguem .- i. e. and which its author has 
not corrected ten times. This is a figure borrowed from the 
polishers of marble, who tried its smoothness by passing their 
nails over it. 

295. lngenium . . . Democritus i ' because Democritus con- 

330 N0TES - 

sidered genius superiour to art, and excludes every man in his 
senses from Helicon.' 

301. O ego . . . horam : ' foolish fellow that I was ! if I had 
not by physic cured myself of the spleen in the spring.' 

314. Conscripti : ' a senator.' 

320. Nullius veneris : ' without grace or beauty.' 

324. Pmter . . . avaris •. * desiring nothing but fame.' 

340. Lamice : the Romans pretended that there was a fright- 
ful sorceress of this name who devoured children. Horace, 
no doubt, alludes to some poet who had introduced in a play 
a child that had been devoured by this Lamia, and taken out 
of her alive. — Pransce ; 'who had eatenit'; taken actively. 

345. Hic . . . Sosiis : ' such a book brings gain to the Sosii ' : 
they were bookbinders and booksellers. See Epist. I. XX. 2. 

354. Ut scriptor . . . caret : ' as an amanuensis, who constant- 
ly commits the same blunder, though cautioned against it, de- 
serves no pardon.' 

357. Choirilus : a miserable versifier. 

372. Mediocribus . . . columna : ' neither gods, men, nor the 
booksellers' shops, allow of mediocrity in poetry.' Columnce are 
the pillars of the piazzas, under which the booksellers had their 

383. Liber . . . nummorum : 'Iam free, well-born, and have 
a knight's estate ' ; i. e. quadringenta vnllia ceris. 

387°. Metii : Metius was one of the judges appointed to ex- 
amine poetry, and the claims of authors. See Sat. I. X. 38. 

388. Etpatris : ' and of your father ' ; i. e. Piso the elder. 

414. Pythia: sc. carmina. 

417. Occupet extremum scabies : ' a plague take the hindraost ' ; 
a kind of adage. 

437. Sub vulpe latentes : ' concealed under the guise ot a 
fox ' ; alluding to the fable of the fox and the crow. 

470. Utrum . . . incestus : ' whether he has profaned his father's 
ashes, or sacrilegiously removed the bounds of some conse- 
crated place.' 

THE E> T 1). 


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